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Society and Culture in the 19th Century

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Title: Society and Culture in the 19th Century


1
Society and Culture in the 19th Century
  • From Realism to Progress

2
Industrial Forces
  • Between 1850 and 1870, Continental
    industrialization had come of age
  • Although this period was marred by periods of
    economic depression (1857-58) or recession
    (1866-67), it was an age of considerable economic
    prosperity, especially evident in the growth of
    domestic and foreign markets

3
Industrial Forces
  • Three forces helped drive Continental economic
    expansion
  • Textiles, which experienced an increased
    mechanization from the period 1850-70, still
    lagged behind Britain
  • Railroads Fueled most of European
    industrialization
  • The railroads, in turn, stimulated the growth of
    the coal and iron industries

4
Less Barriers to International Trade
  • Another important factor in Continental
    industrialization was the expansion of markets
    due to the lessening of barriers to international
    trade
  • Important waterways in Europe were opened up by
    the elimination of restrictive tolls
  • The Danube River (1857)
  • The Rhine (1861)
  • Additionally, the negotiation of trade treaties
    in the 1860s reduced or eliminated protective
    tariffs throughout most of western Europe

5
Weak Trade Unions
  • As for the workers, industrialization was not so
    beneficial as prior to 1870, capitalist factory
    workers remained free to hire labor on their own
    terms based upon market forces
  • Attempts at forming Trade Unions
  • Real change in favor of the workers only appeared
    after 1870 with the appearance of socialist
    parties and socialist trade union
  • The guiding light in the creation of these groups
    had already been developed with the writings of
    Karl Marx

6
Marx and Marxism
  • Marxism can be traced to the 1848 publication of
    a short treatise titled The Communist Manifesto
  • Written by two Germans, Karl Marx (1818-1883)
    Friedrich Engels (1820-1895)

7
Life and Experience of Karl Marx
  • Born into a relatively prosperous middle class
    family in Trier, Marx was descended from a long
    line of rabbis, but his father, a lawyer, had
    converted to Protestantism to preserve his job
  • Education and influence of the philosopher Georg
    Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
  • After receiving is PhD in philosophy, Marx had
    hoped to teach at university, but was unable to
    obtain a position because of his professed
    atheism, so he became a journalist
  • His newspaper was soon suppressed because of its
    radical views and Marx soon moved to Paris where
    he met Friedrich Engels

8
The Communist Manifesto
  • In 1847, Marx and Engels joined a small group of
    German socialist revolutionaries known as the
    Communist League
  • Marx Engels, now enthusiastic advocates of the
    radical class working class agreed to draft a
    statement of their ideas for the league
  • The result was The Communist Manifesto
  • Published in German in January 1848, but passed
    unnoticed
  • However, it would become one of the most
    influential political treatises in modern
    European history
  • Ending words

9
Bourgeois and Proletariat
  • Marxs ideas were partly a synthesis of French
    and German thought
  • French Success of a revolution and examples of
    socialism
  • German Idealism and the idea of the dialectic
  • However, Marx believed that material forces
    determined change and not ideas (Hegel)
  • Class struggles drove history
  • Previously it had been between feudalism and the
    emerging middle class (bourgeoisie) gaining the
    upper hand
  • Their ideas now became the dominant view of
    society, but they were not being challenged by
    the proletariat (industrial working class)

10
Classless Society
  • Marx Engels believed that the workers would
    eventually overthrow their bourgeois masters and
    form a dictatorship that would reshape society
    and the means of production
  • The result would be a classless society, and the
    state (the instrument of the bourgeoisie) would
    wither away
  • The Class struggle would finally be over leading
    to a classless society with progress in science,
    technology, and industry and to greater wealth
    for all

11
Later Activities
  • After the revolutions of 1848, Marx retreated to
    London where he spent the rest of his life
  • Writing on political economy Das Kapital
  • However, only one volume was completed because
    Marx became preoccupied with organizing the
    working-class movement
  • The result was the International Working Mens
    Association (1864), which eventually became the
    First International

12
New Age of Science Proliferation of Discoveries
  • Effect of The Scientific Revolution on the
    Western worldview
  • The relationship between the Industrial
    Revolution and Science
  • New Scientific Discoveries
  • Development of Steam Engine leads to the
    discovery of thermodynamics
  • Louis Pasteur and the Germ Theory of Disease
  • Dmitri Mendeleyev and the Periodic Chart
  • Michael Faraday and the phenomenon of
    electromagnetic induction

13
Faith in Science's Benefits
  • The steadily increasing and dramatic material
    gains generated by science and technology led to
    a growth in the faith of sciences benefits
  • Widespread acceptance of the scientific method,
    based upon observation, experiment and logical
    analysis and the only path to objective truth
    reality
  • Decline of Faith and rise of Materialism
  • This is most clearly seen in the development of
    the theory of organic evolution as argued by
    Charles Darwin

14
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
  • Like many of the great scientists of the 19th
    century, Darwin was a scientific amateur
  • Born into an upper middle-class family, he
    studied theology at Cambridge University in
    addition to pursuing an intense interest in
    geology biology
  • In 1831, at age 21 his hobby became his vocation
    when he was appointed as a naturalist abroad a
    Royal Navy scientific expedition abroad the HMS
    Beagle

15
Darwin's Trip on the Beagle
  • The purpose of the Beagle was to study the
    landmasses of South America and the South
    Pacific, with Darwins job to study the structure
    of various plant and animal life
  • Observing animals on islands that were untouched
    by man, he compared them to animals on the
    mainland and came to the conclusion that animals
    evolved over time and in response to their
    environment
  • Upon his return to Britain, Darwin formulated an
    explanation for evolution in the principles of
    Natural Selection, a theory which was presented
    in his famous book, On The Origin of Species by
    Means of Natural Selection

16
Theory of "Natural Selection"
  • The basic idea was that all plants and animals
    had evolved over a long period of time from
    earlier and simpler forms of life (organic
    evolution)
  • Malthus and the struggle for existence
  • This struggle drove evolution as those that were
    naturally selected for survival survived while
    the unfit did not and became instinct
  • Originally, Darwin only applied Natural Selection
    to plant and animal life
  • Only in 1871 with the publication of The Descent
    of Man did Darwin apply the theory of natural
    selection to human beings

17
Consequences of Darwin
  • Darwins theories were considered very
    controversial at first
  • Others were disturbed by the implications of life
    as a struggle for survival - Where was there a
    place for moral values in this new world based
    upon survival of the fittest?
  • For others who believed in rational order in the
    world, Darwins theory seemed to preclude purpose
    and design from the universe
  • As time progressed, however, Darwins theories
    became acceptable, and would soon be applied not
    just nature, but also society with mixed results

18
Revolution in Health CareLouis Pasteur
  • Helped led the breakthrough in medicine with his
    discovery of the germ theory of disease
  • Pasteur was not a doctor, but a scientist who
    approached medical problems in a scientific way
  • His work was soon perceived as practical by many
  • 1863 Wine Industry and pasteurization
  • In 1877, Pasteur turned his attentions to human
    diseases
  • 1885 - Introduction of a preventive vaccination
    against rabies
  • By the 1890s, the principle of vaccination was
    extended to diphtheria, typhoid fever, cholera,
    and plague

19
Revolution in Health CareJoseph Lister
  • Pasteurs work also had an impact upon surgery
  • Surgeons had traditionally set broken bones and
    treated wounds, but one of the major obstacles to
    more successful surgery was the inevitable
    postoperative infection
  • Joseph Lister developed the antiseptic principle
  • Following the work of Pasteur, Lister perceived
    that bacteria might enter a wound and cause
    infection
  • His use of carbolic acid, a newly discovered
    disinfectant, proved remarkably effective in
    eliminating infections during surgery and
    increased the survivability rate of patients

20
Realism in Literature and ArtCharacteristics of
Realism
  • Appears after 1850
  • Belief that the world should be viewed
    realistically
  • Literary Realists were distinguished by their
    deliberate rejection of Romanticism
  • They wanted to deal with ordinary characters from
    real life rather than Romantic heroes in unusual
    settings
  • Rejected poetry in favor of prose and the novel

21
Realistic Novel
  • Gustave Flaubert and Madame Bovary
  • William Thackeray and Vanity Fair
  • Charles Dickens
  • Considered the greatest of the Victorian
    novelists
  • His focus on the lower and middle classes in
    Britains early industrial age became
    extraordinarily successful and his descriptions
    of the urban poor and the brutalization of human
    life were vividly realistic

22
Realism in Art
  • Realism had by 1850, superseded both Romanticism
    and Classicism in art with its major
    characteristics being a desire to depict the
    everyday life of ordinary people, an attempt at
    photographic realism, and an interest in the
    natural environment
  • Gustave Courbet
  • Was the most famous artist of the Realist school
  • In fact, Realism was first coined in 1850 to
    describe one of his paintings
  • Focus
  • Jean-Francois Millet
  • Preoccupied with scenes from rural life,
    especially peasants laboring in the fields,
    although his Realism still contained an element
    of Romantic sentimentality
  • His most famous work was The Gleaners

23
Music Twilight of Romanticism
  • Franz Liszt
  • Great piano virtuoso and has been credited with
    introducing the concept of the modern piano
    recital
  • Richard Wagner
  • Realized the German desire for a truly national
    opera
  • Was not just a composer, but also a propagandist
    and writer in support of his own unique concept
    of music
  • Considered both the culmination of the Romantic
    era and the beginning of the avant-garde
  • Believed opera was the best form of artistic
    expression and transformed it into music drama
  • Most noted for his The Ring of the Nibelung and
    operas dealing with myths and epics

24
The Second Industrial RevolutionSteel for Iron
  • The first major change in industrialization after
    1870 with the emergence of the Second Industrial
    Revolution was the substitution of steel for iron
  • Steel could be easily rolled and shaped for
    multiple uses from railways, ships, and armaments
  • Steel production increased dramatically during
    this period
  • In 1860, 125,000 tons were produced by 1913 it
    was 32 million

25
From Realism to Progress
  • As the mid-point of the 19th century passed,
    European society underwent further changes
  • A Second Industrial Revolution would transform
    Europe, creating the patterns of life that exist
    to this day
  • The belief in science and progress creating a new
    and better world was commonplace throughout a
    Europe that could see no end to its greatness

26
The Second Industrial RevolutionElectricity
  • Electricity was another of the developments that
    drove the Second Industrial Revolution as it
    proved to be a form of energy of great value and
    potential
  • Electricity could be transformed into various
    forms of energy, such as heat, light, and motion
  • Spawned a series of inventions such as the light
    bulb and revolutionized communications
  • Influence upon transportation
  • Affect upon the factory
  • Allowed countries without coal to catch-up with
    industrialization

27
The Second Industrial RevolutionThe Internal
Combustion Engine
  • The third major development of the SDI was the
    development of the internal combustion engine
  • First produced in 1878 and fired by gas and air,
    it proved unsuitable until the development of
    liquid fuels, petroleum and its distilled
    derivatives
  • As a result, naval ships were soon converted from
    coal to oil
  • Moreover, the development of the internal
    combustion engine gave rise to the automobile and
    airplane which would both revolutionize
    transportation in the 20th century

28
The Second Industrial RevolutionNew Markets
  • The increase in industrial production required
    the development of markets for the sale of the
    new manufactured good, but since the foreign
    markets were already saturated, Europeans were
    forced to look at their own domestic markets
  • As Europeans were the richest consumers, these
    domestic markets offered abundant opportunities
    which in turn produced new techniques in business
    and marketing leading to a new consumer ethic
    which would drive the modern economy and lead to
    the emergence of a new Mass Society

29
New Patterns in an Industrial Economy
  • From Depression to Prosperity
  • Although the period after 1870 has been described
    as a period of economic prosperity, recessions
    and economic crises were still a part of economic
    life
  • From 1873 to 1895, Europe experienced a series of
    economic crises, with France and Britain
    experiencing an economic depression in the 1880s
    while Germany and the US were recovering from
    theirs during the 1870s
  • However, after 1895 Europe would experience an
    overall economic boom and a level of economic
    prosperity was achieved, which in light of the
    events that would occur in 1914, Europeans would
    look back upon as la belle époque a golden age
    in European civilization

30
New PatternsGermany Surpasses Britain
  • With German unification in 1870, Germany would
    replace Britain as the industrial leader in
    Europe
  • How did this come about?
  • Germany, as a late entrant to industrialization,
    was able to shift better to the new techniques of
    the SIR, whereas the British were not
  • The British were suspicious to new technologies
    and could not adapt as easily as their German
    counterparts
  • Moreover, the British were not willing to
    encourage formal scientific and technical
    education

31
New PatternsUnion of Science and Technology
  • This is important because after 1870, the
    relationship between science and technology grew
    closer, and this relationship was no more clearly
    understood than in Germany
  • For example, by 1899 German technical schools
    were allowed to award doctorate degrees
  • By 1900, they were graduating nearly three to
    four thousand a year and most of these graduates
    would find employment in the rising industrial
    firms of Germany

32
New PatternsEuropean Economic Zones
  • Although the struggle for economic supremacy
    between Great Britain and Germany was important,
    we should not overlook another polarization that
    was occurring within the European economy
  • By 1900, Europe was divided between an advanced
    industrial zone comprising most of western Europe
    and a mostly backward and little industrialized
    area in southern and eastern Europe
  • These largely agricultural areas provided the raw
    materials and food that drove the more
    industrialized areas of France, Germany, and
    Great Britain and this pattern would remain for
    most of the 20th century

33
Women and New Job Opportunities
  • The Second Industrial Revolution also had an
    immense impact upon the position of women in the
    labor force
  • Throughout the 19th century, there was
    considerable controversy over a womans right to
    work
  • However, more often than not, women had to work
    to supplement the family income and resorted to
    low paying and low skilled jobs in sweatshops

34
Women and New Job Opportunities
  • White Collar Work
  • However, after 1870 new job opportunities for
    women arose
  • The development of larger factories and the
    expansion of government created a large number of
    service, or white collar, jobs and employers
    hired women for these positions because they were
    low-paying and there was a shortage of male
    workers
  • Although the jobs were unexciting, it allowed
    middle class women freedom and working-class
    women the opportunity to escape from the dirty
    work of the lower-class world
  • Prostitution and Lower Class Women
  • Despite these new job opportunities, many
    lower-class women were still forced to resort to
    the oldest profession, prostitution
  • This was especially true of the rural
    working-class girls who flocked to the city
    searching for new job opportunities

35
Organizing the Working ClassSocialist Parties
  • In an attempt to improve their lot, many workers
    formed political parties and trade unions
  • One of the largest and most successful was
    founded in Germany, the German Social Democratic
    Party (SPD)
  • Socialist parties were formed in other countries,
    such as Belgium, France, and Austria-Hungary
  • As they grew in strength, the Socialists decided
    to form the Second International, but differences
    among the various Socialist parties prevented any
    real unity

36
Revisions of Marxist Thought
  • Evolution, Not Revolution
  • Pure Marxism argued that the collapse of
    capitalism was imminent and the need for
    socialist ownership of the means of production
  • This was challenged by Revisionism, which argued
    that Marx was wrong - capitalism was not going to
    fall, the conditions of the workers was improving
    and changed should be achieved through democratic
    means via Socialist parties
  • Divisiveness of Nationalism
  • Although pure Marxism argued that the workers
    have no country, in reality nationalism proved
    too powerful
  • Despite resolutions passed in 1907 1910
    advocating joint action to prevent war, it proved
    hollow as the various Socialist parties followed
    their national interests

37
Emergence of a Mass Society
  • The new patterns of industrial production, mass
    consumption, and working-class organization
    identified with the SIR were only one aspect of
    the new mass society emerging in Europe after
    1870
  • A larger and improved urban environment, new
    patterns of social structure, gender issues, mass
    education, and mass leisure were also important
    features of European society

38
Population Growth and Emigration
  • European population increased from 270 million to
    460 million from 1850 1910 and after 1880 there
    was a decline in the death rate
  • Improved Public Sanitation Medical science
  • An Improved Diet
  • Increased Emigration
  • 1880 (500,000)
  • 1906-1910 (1.3 million)
  • Between 1846 1932 60 million left

39
Transformation of the Urban Environment
  • Growth of Cities
  • One of the most important consequences of
    industrialization and the population explosion
    was the growth in cities
  • Urban population in 1800 40 in GB, 25 in
    France Germany, 10 in Eastern Europe
  • By 1914 urban inhabitants numbered 80 in GB, 45
    in France, 60 in Germany and 30 in Eastern
    Europe
  • Moreover, the size of cities grew in 1800 there
    were 21 cities over 100,000 - by 1900 there were
    147
  • Improving Living Conditions
  • Sanitation
  • Housing
  • Redesigning the Cities

40
Social Structure of Mass Society
  • Elite Wealth and Status
  • Middle Classes Good Conduct
  • Emphasis and concern for propriety and shared
    values of hard work and Christian morality
  • Lower Classes Skilled, Semiskilled, Unskilled

41
The Role of Women
  • Cult of Domesticity
  • Women remained legally inferior, economically
    dependent, and defined by family and household
    roles
  • Marriage was seen as the only noble profession
    for women and this was glorified by the middle
    class in the cult of domesticity
  • Middle Class Family
  • For the middle classes, the family was the
    central institution of their life
  • Men provided the family income while women
    focused on household and child care
  • Working Class Family
  • Although initially hard, by 1890, working-class
    families were following in the wake of the middle
    class as to their family life

42
Education and Leisure in an Age of Mass Society
  • Primary Education for All
  • Government Involvement
  • For a More Efficient Work Force Skilled Labor
  • For a More Intelligent Electorate Patriotism and
    Nationalism
  • Demand for Teachers with most being Females
  • Increase in Literacy allows for the creation of a
    reading public and the rise of mass-circulation
    newspapers such as the Evening News (1881) the
    Daily Mail (1896)
  • Mass Leisure
  • Dance Halls Amusement parks
  • Tourism
  • Sports which provided not just entertainment, but
    also training

43
Political Democracy in Western Europe
  • British Reform
  • Reform Act of 1884
  • Redistribution Act created constituencies with
    equal populations with one representative MPs
    were finally given salaries
  • Frances Third Republic
  • National Assembly versus the Commune
  • Attempts to restore a monarchy failed, and a
    republican form of government was established as
    a compromise - the constitution of 1875,
    originally intended as a stopgap measure, would
    last 65 years
  • However, the Third Republic would remain divided
    as a result of the Commune and from opposition
    from the monarchists, the Catholic Church and the
    Army

44
Persistence of the Old OrderBismarcks
Conservatism
  • Despite unification, divisions still remained
  • The ruling elite, authoritarians and
    militaristic, tried to preserve their power
    against the growth of democracy, especially from
    the socialists
  • The Kulturkampf
  • Attacks against the Socialists
  • In 1878, Bismarck has the SPD banned, but also
    tries to woo the workers by enacting social
    welfare legislation (sickness, disability,
    accident benefits old age pensions)
  • Bismarcks measures fail to stop the growth of
    socialism and before he can enact more repressive
    measures he is dismissed by the new Kaiser,
    William II, who is eager to pursue his own
    policies

45
Persistence of the Old Order
  • Austrias Imperial Decrees
  • Austria is given a constitution, but Franz Joseph
    largely ignores it and rules through decree
  • Furthermore, Austria is still troubled by the
    problem of the minorities and this would only
    increase as the century progressed
  • Absolutism in Russia
  • Lastly, in Russia the government made no
    concessions to liberal or democratic reforms
  • The assassination of Alexander II in 1881
    convinced his son Alexander III that reform was a
    mistake and repressive measures were the common
    response
  • Upon Alexanders death, his weak and unprepared
    son Nicholas II adopted his fathers conviction
    that the absolute power of the Tsar must be
    maintained
  • However, the face of Russia was changing and
    Nicholass approach was no longer realistic and
    would have dire consequences for his dynasty
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