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Chapter 10 - Muslim Civilization Focus: Who was Muhammad and how did his teachings lead to the rise of Islam?

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Title: Chapter 10 - Muslim Civilization Focus: Who was Muhammad and how did his teachings lead to the rise of Islam?


1
Chapter 10 - Muslim Civilization Focus Who was
Muhammad and how did his teachings lead to the
rise of Islam?
2
Chapter 10- Muslim Civilization
  • 10.1 - The Rise of Islam
  • 10.2 - Building a Muslim Empire
  • 10.3 - Muslim Civilization Golden Age
  • 10.4 - Indias Muslim Empires
  • 10.5 - The Ottoman and Safavid Empires

3
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Focus What messages, or teachings, did Muhammad
    spread through Islam?

4
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Followers of Islam are called Muslim
  • Their holy text is the Quran
  • Chief Prophet Muhammad

5
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Islam begins Muhammad was born in the oasis town
    of Mecca.
  • Mecca
  • Was a bustling market
  • Pilgrimage center
  • No weapons in the city
  • Was home to many pagan gods (statues)

6
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Muhammad (570 AD)
  • led a modest life early on
  • He was an honest business man
  • Married at 25 (Khadija)
  • Devoted father and husband
  • Was troubled by the moral ills of society

7
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • According to Islamic belief, when Muhammad
    was 40 years old he heard the voice of an angel
    (Gabriel) . Muhammad was uneasy, but became the
    messenger of god.

8
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Muhammad's Teachings
  • Werent widely accepted at first
  • As they gained strength, angered Meccas
    merchants
  • Neglect of idols would disrupt trade

9
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Muhammads Journey (Hijra)
  • Muhammad left Mecca and entered the city of
    Medina.
  • Acceptance grows
  • Thousands of Arabs adopt Islam
  • With his followers he returned to Mecca to free
    the Kaaba, the temple he believed should be
    dedicated to one true God, of idols.
  • Rededicated the Kaaba to Allah (God), making it
    the most holy place of Islam.

10
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • The Quran
  • Sacred text of Islam
  • States people are responsible for their actions
  • Muslims believe that God (Allah) has sent other
    prophets Jesus, Abraham, Moses but Muhammad is
    the last and greatest of all.

11
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Duties (expectations) of Islam
  • Islamic people follow
  • The Five Pillars of Islam
  • Lay out the expectations of Muslims

12
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Pillar One Shahada
  • Declaration of faith
  • There is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the
    messenger of Allah.

13
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Pillar Two Salah
  • Daily Prayer
  • Pray 5 times a day
  • Wash
  • Face Mecca
  • Some pray in Mosques - house of worship
  • But not required

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10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Pillar Three Zakat
  • Alms for the Poor
  • Give charity

16
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Pillar Four Ramadan
  • Fasting
  • Dont eat from sun up to sun down
  • Applies to other parts of life too, not just
    eating
  • For the month of Ramadan (varies by year)

17
10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Pillar Five
  • Making a Pilgrimage (Hajj)
  • Must make the journey at least once
  • Pray at the Kaaba
  • Over 2 million people a year

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10.1- Rise of Islam
  • Jihad- struggle in Gods service
  • To Muslims Islam is both a religion and a way of
    life
  • Their laws are based on the teaching of Islam-
    Sharia
  • Islam and the Quran extended rights of women
  • however they must dress modestly
  • Varies by location

25
10. 2 Building a Muslim Empire
  • Focus How did Muhammads successors extend
    Muslim rule and spread Islam?

26
10. 2 Building a Muslim Empire
  • After Muhammad died-
  • he named no successor
  • Islam needed another strong leader
  • Abu Bakr - becomes the first caliph successor
  • Reunites the Muslims
  • Leads military campaigns to unite other Arabs in
    Islam

27
10. 2 Building a Muslim Empire
  • Conquering area including
  • Damascus
  • Jerusalem
  • The Persian Empire
  • Byzantine Egypt
  • The Muslim Empire rapidly spread

28
10. 2 Building a Muslim Empire
29
10. 2 Building a Muslim Empire
  • Death of Muhammad
  • created a split (schism) in the Empire
  • Sunni versus Shiite Muslims
  • disagreed over who should be caliph (successor)
  • SUNNI- majority of Muslims believed successors
  • should be pious males
  • SHIITE- believed the caliph must be a direct
  • descendent of Muhammad

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10. 2 Building a Muslim Empire
  • Sufis - Muslim Mystic
  • Meditation, fasting, rituals

32
10. 2 Building a Muslim Empire
  • Muslim Empire grew from 661 - 750
  • Several Ruling Families (clans)
  • Umayyad (Spain)
  • Decline criticized for lifestyle

33
10. 2 Building a Muslim Empire
  • Abbasid moved capital to Baghdad (750-1258)
  • Reasons for success
  • Weakness of Byzantines and Persians
  • Aggressive and bold fighting
  • Strong unity under Islam

34
Muslim Empire- c. 750
SPAIN- Umayyad
BAGHDAD- Abbasids
MED SEA
AFRICA
ARABIA
35
10. 2 Building a Muslim Empire
  • As the Empire expanded
  • Conquered people were treated fairly
  • Many conquered joined the Islamic faith
  • Non-Muslims taxed
  • Equality
  • The capital was moved to Baghdad (Damascus)
  • Paradise on Earth
  • Beautiful city
  • Market, Gardens, Domes
  • Minarets- slender towers

36
Baghdad
Baghdad
37
10.2 - The Muslim Empire Falls
  • Starting in 850 the Muslim Empire began to fade
  • Independent dynasties caliph loses power
  • Invasions

38
10.2 - The Muslim Empire Falls
  • Seljuk Turks migrated to the Middle East (900s)
  • Seljuk Turk Rulers (Sultan) - controlled Baghdad
    (1055)
  • Conflicts prevent Christians from traveling to
    Jerusalem
  • Cause the Crusades (1095) Christians v. Muslims

39
10.2 - The Muslim Empire Falls
  • Mongols led by Genghis Khan move into Middle East
    (1216)
  • Eventually burn and loot Baghdad

40
10.2 - The Muslim Empire Falls
  • The culture still flourished in Spain
  • Until 1492 (Inquisition)

41
10.3 - Muslim Golden Age Focus What achievements
did Muslims make in economics, art, literature,
and science?
  • Muslim Golden Age
  • a time of prosperity
  • 750-850 100 years
  • During the Muslim Golden Age
  • Economy Advanced
  • Social Structure Advanced
  • Art, Literature, and Architecture Thrive
  • Muslim Knowledge Expanded

42
Muslim rulers unite many diverse cultures
  • Arabs
  • Persians
  • Egyptians
  • Africans
  • Europeans

43
10.3 - Economy Advanced
  • Merchants were near the top of society (Muhammad
    was a merchant)
  • Built a massive trade route camels, silk roads,
    ships
  • Asia
  • Africa
  • Europe

44
10.3 - Economy Advanced
  • Muslims pioneered new business practices
  • Partnerships
  • Credit
  • Formed banks
  • Checks

45
10.3 - Social Structure Improves
  • Social Mobility changing of social class
  • Improve their position through achievements
  • Religious
  • Scholarly
  • Military

46
Muslim Empire Included
  • Greeks
  • Romans
  • Persians
  • Indians

47
Art, Literature, Architecture
  • Muslim art displayed many different cultures
  • Religious - did not portray humans (Quran - no
    idols)
  • Poetry (oral) was used to tell stories

48
Muslim Architecture
  • Mosque and Minarets decorated the skyline
  • Calligraphy decorated buildings (beautiful
    handwriting)

49
10.4 Indias Muslim Empires Focus How did Muslim
rule affect Indian government and society?
50
10.4 Indias Muslim Empires
  • Muslims move into Indian Empire around 1000
  • By the late 1100s the Sultan (Muslim Ruler)
  • Defeated Hindu armies and claimed Delhi as his
    capital

51
10.4 Indias Muslim Empires
  • Successors to the empire would rule what was
    known as the Delhi sultanate (lands of the
    sultan)
  • Marked start of Muslim rule in India (1206
    1526)

52
10.4 Indias Muslim Empires
  • Muslim advances lead to a blending of cultures
  • Persian
  • Arab
  • Turks

53
10.4 Indias Muslim Empires
  • Muslims and Hindus clash over
  • Text Quran vs. Many texts
  • God/ Gods Allah vs. Many gods/goddesses
  • Equality vs. Caste Many Hindus converted to
    Islam to due to
  • -equality (before God) in Islam

54
  • Text Quran vs. Many

55
  • God/ Gods Allah vs. Many

56
  • Equality vs. Caste

Equality was appealing to Hindus
57
10.4 Indias Muslim Empires
  • Eventually Delhi sultanate became tolerant of
    Hindus
  • Even kept local Rajahs - Hindu rulers in place
  • Accepted Hindus as monotheistic (Brahman)

58
10.4 Indias Muslim Empires
  • Mughal Empire Rises
  • Mughal Persian for Mongol
  • Replace Delhi Sultanate (1526 - 1857)

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10.4 Indias Muslim Empires
  • By 1707 The Mughal Empire had conquered most of
    the Indian Subcontinent
  • Led to the rise of Akbar the Great ?

61
10.4 Indias Muslim Empires
  • Akbar the Great was the chief builder of the
    Mughal Empire
  • Created a strong central government
  • Tolerant of Hindus (married one)
  • Promoted Religious harmony

62
10.4 Indias Muslim Empires
  • Akbars Grandson Shah Jahan was also influential
  • While ruling the empire his wife Mumtaz Mahal
    would die
  • She gave birth to 14 children and was only 39
  • He loved her dearly so he built a monument (tomb)
    in her honor

63
10.4 Indias Muslim Empires
  • The Taj Mahal
  • Took 22,000 workers 20 years
  • Greatest monument of Mughal Empire

64
10.5 The Ottoman Safavid Empires Focus What
were the main characteristics of the Ottoman and
Safavid empires?
  • The Ottomans
  • Migrated into Asia Minor (Turkey)
  • Turkish-speaking nomads from Central Asia
  • Took Constantinople (Istanbul)
  • 1453 becomes Ottoman Capital
  • Used new war tech
  • the cannon

65
10.5 - The Ottoman and Safavid Empires
  • Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 1566)
  • Great leader of the Ottoman Empire
  • Extended Ottoman Empire into Middle East
  • Known as the lawgiver
  • Laws based on the Sharia, supplemented by royal
    edicts
  • Held absolute power
  • Used a vizier, huge bureaucracy, and powerful
    military

66
Ottoman Empire Hungary to Arabia Mesopotamia,
and across North Africa
67
10.5 - Ottoman and Safavid Empires
  • Janizaries elite forces of the Ottoman army
  • Usually born to Christian families but converted
    to Islam
  • Ottoman Culture
  • Organized social classes
  • Top Men of the sword (soldiers)
  • Muslim
  • Men of the pen (scientists, lawyers, judges,
    poets)
  • Muslim
  • Men of negotiation (merchants, artisans)
  • Lowest Men of husbandry (farmers herders
    produce food)

68
10.5 - Ottoman and Safavid Empires
  • Decline
  • Suleiman the Magnificent dies in 1566
  • 1700s - European commerce and new war tech are
    superior
  • Russia other Europeans take over landholdings
  • North Africa breaks away from Ottoman control

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10.5 The Safavid Empire
  • Ruled in most of Modern day Iran
  • Between
  • Ottomans - West
  • Mughal India - East
  • Shah (king) Abbas the Great
  • Centralized govt
  • Capital is Isfahan
  • Strengthened the economy
  • Safavid Empire decline
  • Death of Shah Abbas
  • Ottoman armies

71
10.5 Safavid Empire
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