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Chapter 11 Islamic Civilization

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Chapter 11 Islamic Civilization Great Mosque in Makkah * Insert a map of your country. * Insert a picture of one of the geographic features of your country. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 11 Islamic Civilization


1
Chapter 11 Islamic Civilization
Great Mosque in Makkah
2
Section 1 The Rise of Islam
3
  • Deserts cover most of Arabian peninsula.
  • Vast platform of ancient rocks once continuous
    with north-east Africa. Fissures from the rift
    valley opened up to create the Red Sea Gulf of
    Aden.

4
  • Underground water rises occasionally to the
    surface to create an oasis in the vast desert.
  • Southwest mountain region receives enough rain to
    support plants such as olive trees.

5
  • Bedouins- Arab desert herders who travelled from
    oasis to oasis to find water and food for their
    cattle. (camels, goats, sheep)

Bedouins also regularly attacked traveling
merchants, robbing them of goods.
6
Trade and Towns
  • Many other Arabs lived in villages where they
    farmed, raised animals or were merchants.
    Merchants would transport goods across the desert
    to traders coming from Europe and Asia by
    caravans. As trade grew, more towns developed in
    Arabia. Makkah or Mecca became the richest of
    them all.

7
Islam?
  • Islam is an Arabic word meaning, to surrender.
    For Muslims it means to surrender to the will of
    Allah or God.

the religious faith of Muslims, based on the
words and religious system founded by the prophet
Muhammad and taught by the Koran, the basic
principle of which is absolute submission to a
unique and personal god, Allah.
8
Prophet Muhammad
  • A.D. 570 Muhammad born in Makkah, into a poor
    clan which opposed the wealthier merchant clans.
    Grew up in poverty, (his father died before he
    was born, therefore he could not inherit any
    land) became a servant to and later married a
    wealthy widow at 25.
  • 610, Muhammad hears a voice from heaven telling
    him to recite the words of God. He believed he
    was the 7th and final prophet of God. Whatever he
    said was Gods message to the Arabs, and is
    memorized by his followers. Muslims still
    consider the Quran as the spoken word of God to
    the Arabs, it can not be translated into any
    other language.

9
Muhammads Hijrah to Yathrib
  • Muhammad taught the polytheist Arabians to
    abandon their practice of worshipping many gods
    and only worship, Allah, the Arab god of
    creation. His teachings of redistributing wealth
    among everyone equally did not sit well with
    wealthy merchants. After loosing protection from
    his clan, Muhammad was forced to move to Yathrib,
    renamed Madinah, which means, city of the
    prophet.
  • The people of Madinah welcomed Muhammad as their
    new leader and begin the new Muslim calendar in
    the year A.D. 622 is their year 1. What year is
    it in the Muslim calendar now?

10
  • Up to this time, all of Muhammads revelations
    had been centered around the individuals
    relationship with Allah. When he became a
    political threat to the old Arabic ways, his
    revelations became more politically/military
    minded. He set up an Islamic state, a government
    that uses its political powers to uphold Islam,
    which continues to this day. Followers of Islam
    become known as Muslims.
  • To defend his new govt. Muhammad built an army.
    After capturing Mecca in 630, he made it a holy
    city of Islam.

11
What is the Quran?
  • The one common factor Jews, Christians and
    Muslims have is the belief in one God. All 3 are
    monotheist religions.
  • The Quran is the holy book of Islam. Believed to
    be handed down from God to Gabriel to Muhammad.
    Revelations were written down and memorized as
    Muhammad stated he was experiencing messages from
    God. Islam teaches man had distorted religion,
    therefore Islam is the only true religion. Jewish
    and Christian beliefs were superseded when
    Muhammad received his revelations.

12
  • The Five Pillars of Islam are acts of worship all
    Muslims must fulfill. 1. Belief in one God,
    Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet, 2. Muslims
    must pray 5 times a day, facing Mecca. 3. Muslims
    must give to the poor. 4. Muslims must fast
    during Ramadan (based on the lunar calendar), 5.
    Muslims must make one pilgrimage to Mecca once in
    their life.

13
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14
  • Video Millions Perform Hajj in Mecca

15
Islamic Empires, section 2
  • Following Muhammads death in 632, problems arose
    about succession. Caliphs, which means, successor
    to the Messenger of God, were named to continue
    Muhammads teachings.
  • The Rightly Guided Caliphs were the first four
    caliphs to rule who obeyed Islams teachings.
    Today they make up the Shiites sect of Islam.
  • During the next 120 years Islam spread to include
    all of southwest Asia, northern Africa, Spain and
    some of Italy, Greece and India.

16
  • Another sect of Islam are the Sunni who believe
    anyone can rule, doesnt have to be a blood
    descendent of Muhammad. Ruled during the Umayyad
    caliphs from 661-750.
  • According to the CIA factbook, Iraq has Muslim
    97 (Shi'a 60-65, Sunni 32-37).
  • Iran has Muslim 98 (Shi'a 89, Sunni 9).
  • Shia more radical and militant of the two groups.

17
  • Today, Indonesia includes more Muslims than any
    other nation in the world.
  • 234,693,997 (July 2007 est.)
  • 86 are Muslim
  • 201,836,837 Muslims in Indonesia

18
  • 1300s Arab merchants crossed the Sahara to trade
    with kingdoms in West Africa. The west African
    city of Timbuktu became a leading center of
    Muslim learning.
  • Why do you think Islam attracted so many people,
    so quickly?

19
  • While many Muslims lived in or near cities for
    trading purposes, most Muslims lived in villages
    farming the lands.

20
  • As far back as 750, Sunnis and Shia have grappled
    for political power. The Shia overthrew the Sunni
    Umayyad dynasty b/c the Persian Muslims thought
    the Arab Muslims were favored in jobs and paid
    less taxes and also the question of who had the
    right to rule.
  • Abbasid dynasty built a new capital in Baghdad,
    which helped trade prosper. They devoted their
    energies to scholarship and the arts as well.

21
The Arab Empire Ends
  • Even though the Seljuk Turks ruled the Abbasid
    dynasty politically from 1055, the caliph
    remained its religious leader.
  • 1200s Mongols begin invading from Central Asia.
    1258, conquer and burn Baghdad to the ground.

22
Other Muslim Empires
  • The Arabs built the first Muslim empire.
  • One of the largest and most powerful Muslim
    empires was the Ottoman Empire. Originates in
    present day Turkey in 1299, and continued until
    11/1/1922.
  • 1520-1566-Suleiman I was most famous sultan
    during the Ottoman Empire.
  • Named after Solomon, who Muslims admire as a just
    ruler, he lived up to his name with conquests all
    the way to central Europe. He also combined civil
    laws (property ownership, taxation, price
    regulation) with Islamic law.

23
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24
  • Another Muslim Empire grew during the 1500s in
    India.
  • Moguls were Muslim warriors who came from the
    mountains north of India and conquered
    territories with cannons, guns, elephants and
    horses.
  • Greatest Mogul ruler was Akbar, known for his
    religious tolerance, forbidding forced suttee and
    abolishing slavery.
  • Considered the Suleiman I of his day b/c of his
    acquisition of new territories and reform of law
    code.

25
  • As seen with other empires, when Akbar dies, the
    empire begins to decline. Later rulers are
    spending too much money trying to expand the
    empire, then impose higher taxes on the people.
    Others tried to force Hindus to convert to Islam.
    These policies led to rebellions and parts of the
    empire break away.
  • Eventually, Great Britain takes control of most
    of India.

26
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27
Muslim Ways of Life, section 3
  • Up to the age of exploration, Muslims were the
    worlds leading traders b/c of location.
  • Trade routes over land were from Baghdad and
    China, over seas their ships carried spices,
    cloth, glass and carpets from India and Southeast
    Asia and brought back rubies, gold, ivory and
    slaves. Once the Europeans found new ways to
    bypass the Muslim traders, their economy started
    sliding downward. How does this compare to the
    oil crisis of today?

28
Muslim Cities
  • Muslim cities look very much like cities in
    Europe in that there were houses of worship
    called, mosques, and marketplaces called,
    bazaars.

29
Muslim Social Structure
Look familiar?
30
Muslim Achievements
  • Muslims invented algebra, borrowed the numerals
    0-9 from Hindu scholars in India, later become
    known as Arabic numerals.
  • Perfected the Greek astrolabe for sailors to
    determine their location at sea. Also used to
    measure around the Earth, realized the Earth is
    round.
  • Arab doctors were the 1st to discover how blood
    circulates and how diseases are spread.

31
  • Muslim art does not show images for fear the
    observer would worship the image and not Allah.
  • The minarets around a mosque sound the time for
    Muslims to bow toward Mecca and pray.
  • Taj Mahal in Agra, India is a tomb that was built
    in 1629 for the Mogul rulers wife is made of
    marble and precious stones.

32
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33
  • The End!!!!!
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