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Chapter Eight: Islam

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Chapter Eight: Islam Culture and Values, 6th Ed. Cunningham and Reich Muhammad and the Birth of Islam Muhammad born in Mecca (570) Fatima, piety and purity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Eight: Islam


1
Chapter EightIslam
  • Culture and Values, 6th Ed.
  • Cunningham and Reich

2
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3
Muhammad and the Birth of Islam
  • Muhammad born in Mecca (570)
  • Fatima, piety and purity
  • Revelations of God through Gabriel
  • From Mecca to Medina - Hegira (622)
  • Qaaba
  • Islam submission to God

4
Five Pillars of Islam
  • Recitation of the Muslim act of faith
  • Obligation of prayer
  • Charity
  • Fasting during Ramadan
  • Pilgrimage (Haj)

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6
Practices of Islam
  • No pork, alcohol
  • Male circumcision
  • Polygamy acceptable
  • Usury forbidden
  • Observation of feast days
  • Simplicity and asceticism
  • Rapid growth and spread of religion

7
The Quran
  • Central text of Islam
  • Collation of Muhammads oral revelations
  • 114 chapters (sûras)
  • Written in Arabic
  • Cannot be translated
  • Source of unifications for all Muslims
  • Memorization and recitation
  • Quran, Hadith, Sharia

8
Calligraphy
  • Beautiful writing
  • Kufic (characteristic form)
  • Decorative feature of mosques
  • Abstract, geometric designs with text
  • No depictions of divinity
  • Arabesque
  • No narrative scenes

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10
Islamic Architecture
  • Functions of Islamic mosques
  • Community gathering centers
  • Large gathering area
  • Minbar
  • Michrab
  • Fountains

11
Islamic ArchitectureThe Dome of the Rock
  • Caliph Abd al Malik
  • Temple Mount, Jerusalem
  • Octagonal building, golden dome
  • RomanByzantine architecture
  • Lavish mosaics
  • Quranic verses
  • Uncertain original functionality

12
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13
Islamic ArchitectureMosque of Damascus
  • Abd al Walid
  • Lavish interior decoration
  • Marble
  • Byzantine mosaics
  • Caliphs palace

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16
Islamic ArchitectureMosque in Córdoba
  • Muslim capital in Spain
  • Rival of Great Mosque of Damascus
  • Al-Hakam
  • Constantinople artisans, workmen
  • 17 tons of tesserae
  • Survived the Reconquista

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18
  • Image 8.8
  • Maqsura screen of the Córdoba Mosque

19
Islamic ArchitectureThe Alhambra
  • Exterior complex of towers and walls
  • Islamic university?
  • Infusion of interior streams
  • Palace of the Myrtles
  • Public occasions
  • Palace of the Lions
  • Private residence
  • Pinnacle of opulence

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Islamic ArchitectureTaj Mahal
  • Mughal reign 1526-1858
  • Emperor Shah Jahan
  • Tribute to wife, Mumtaz Mahal
  • Dome atop octagonal structure
  • Highly polished white marble
  • Restrained exterior decoration
  • Inspired by Quran

22
  • Image 8.10
  • Taj Mahal

23
Sufism
  • Sunni and Shia traditions
  • Sufism mystical dimension of Islam
  • Sheyks and disciples
  • Retirement in poverty
  • Piety and repentance
  • Sufi tariqas in North Africa, Egypt

24
Sufi Writers
  • Saint Rabia
  • Aphorisms, poems, meditations
  • Focus on the love of God
  • possess nothingexcept Allah
  • Rumi
  • Persian poems (rhyming couplets)
  • Discourses on mystical experiences
  • Recitation and movement (dervishes)

25
The Culture of Islam and the West
  • Abbasid Dynasty
  • Caliph Al-Mamuns House of Wisdom
  • Translations of Greek texts
  • Advances in mathematics, medicine
  • Al-Khwarizmi, Al-Uqlidisi, Al-Hazen, Rhazes,
    Avicenna, Averröes
  • Moses Maimonides, Jewish physicians

26
The Culture of Islam and the West
  • Exchange of goods / ideas
  • Quality swords, silk (damask), coffee
  • Windmills
  • Lexicon contributions
  • Al-Ghazali
  • The Incoherence of the Philosophers
  • Averröes
  • He of the Great Commentary
  • The Incoherence of Incoherence

27
Chapter Eight Discussion Questions
  • In what ways are the Five Pillars of Islam
    similar to the basic tenets of Christianity?
    Explain the similarities and differences between
    the two religions.
  • What role did Islamic culture play in the
    tradition of Western literary (and, thus,
    philosophical) thought? What circumstances
    facilitated this contribution?
  • To what must we attribute the slow movement of
    ideas from their Islamic origins to the Western
    world? Does the Western canon today, in your
    opinion, assign adequate notoriety to those
    non-Western advanced thinkers? What are the
    implications of recognizing the origin of a
    technology? Explain.
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