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Political Upheavals

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Political Upheavals Historical Experiences, Ideas, and their Manifestations in British North America and France, 1763-1800 U. S. and French Revolutions Reflected ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political Upheavals


1
Political Upheavals
  • Historical Experiences, Ideas, and their
    Manifestations in British North America and
    France, 1763-1800

2
U. S. and French Revolutions
  • Reflected Historical experiences that were
    influenced by the Ideology of the Enlightenment
  • Created new politics informed by the
    Enlightenment, experience, practical necessity
  • Spurred independence movements elsewhere,
    including the Spanish Empire in the Western
    Hemisphere
  • Pendulum effecthow much changed?

3
Historical Experiences Ideology in American
Revolution
  • American Revolution grew out of understanding of
    the Glorious Revolution salutary neglect
    and the New Imperial Policy Produced following
    the 7 Years War
  • Enlightenment Ideology suggested that good
    government mediated between Tyranny and Anarchy
  • Tyranny was the greatest possibility and was
    symptomatic of governmental corruption.

4
17th Century Monarchs
  • James I (1603-1625)- tried to collect taxes w/o
    parliamentary consent.
  • Charles I (1625-1649)-religious policies led to
    Civil War had ruled without Parliament from
    1628-1642.
  • Cromwell and Interregnumneed for historical
    legitimacy.
  • Charles II (1660-1685)-found ways to ignore
    Parliament.
  • James II (1685-1688)-His Catholicism and
    despotism spawned Glorious Revolution.

5
Rights of Englishmen
  • That the pretended power of dispensing with laws
    or the execution of laws by regal authority, as
    it hath been assumed and exercised of late, is
    illegal
  • That the commission for erecting the late Court
    of Commissioners for Ecclesiastical Causes, and
    all other commissions and courts of like nature,
    are illegal and pernicious
  • That levying money for or to the use of the Crown
    by pretence of prerogative, without grant of
    Parliament, for longer time, or in other manner
    than the same is or shall be granted, is illegal
  • That the pretended power of suspending the laws
    or the execution of laws by regal authority
    without consent of Parliament is illegal
  • That it is the right of the subjects to petition
    the king, and all commitments and prosecutions
    for such petitioning are illegal
  • That the raising or keeping a standing army
    within the kingdom in time of peace, unless it be
    with consent of Parliament, is against law
  • That the subjects which are Protestants may have
    arms for their defence suitable to their
    conditions and as allowed by law
  • That election of members of Parliament ought to
    be free
  • That the freedom of speech and debates or
    proceedings in Parliament ought not to be
    impeached or questioned in any court or place out
    of Parliament
  • That excessive bail ought not to be required, nor
    excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual
    punishments inflicted
  • That jurors ought to be duly impanelled and
    returned, and jurors which pass upon men in
    trials for high treason ought to be freeholders
  • That all grants and promises of fines and
    forfeitures of particular persons before
    conviction are illegal and void
  • And that for redress of all grievances, and for
    the amending, strengthening and preserving of the
    laws, Parliaments ought to be held frequently.

6
John Locke
  • No Divine Right Monarchy
  • Government must protect Life, Liberty Property
    of Subjects or it can be abolished

7
Experiences and Ideology 1763-1776
  • New Imperial Policy
  • George III English Constitution
  • Trans-Atlantic Misunderstanding

8
Ideology and Experience informed New Government
  • Articles of Confederationinsufficient power to
    central government
  • New Constitution Bill of Rightschecks and
    balances among branches of national government,
    between the states and federal government,
    between citizen and government

9
French Revolution
  • Enlightenment informed critiques of Frances
    absolute monarchy.
  • Structural inequities in the Ancien Regime
  • Example of the U. S. Revolution
  • Financial Crisis

10
A Cycle of Events
  • Louis XVI asked Nobles to pay taxes
  • Self-interested nobles refuse unless Estates
    General gives them permission
  • Estates General meets on May 5, 1789
  • Third Estate insists on a written constitution
  • Paris MobSans Culottesradicalize revolution
  • Nobility surrenders privileges in August

11
Ideological and Structural Movements
  • 1791Constitutional Monarchy (Moderate Phase)
  • 1792Monarchy overthrownFrance is a Republic
    (Radical Phase)
  • 1793-1794Reign of Terror under Robespierre
  • July 27, 1794Thermidorian Reaction
  • 1795The Directory
  • 1799The Consulate
  • 1804Napoleon Declares himself emperor

12
Napoleon (1769-1821)
  • Spread ideals of Revolutionwhich proved to be
    his own undoing
  • Code Napoleon
  • Simplified German State System
  • Violations of balance of power led to series of
    Wars from 1803-1815.

13
Napoleon embodied the ideals and
contradictions of the French Revolution.
14
Simplified German State Systemfrom 300 to 39
15
The Lowendenkmal commemorate the Swiss Guard who
died while defending Louis XVI in August 1792
the saddest and most compassionate piece of rock
on earth- Mark Twain
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