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Chapter 23 Ideologies and Upheavals

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Title: Chapter 23 Ideologies and Upheavals


1
Chapter 23 Ideologies and Upheavals
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Metternich
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Alexander I
6
Name two more major players
  • Great Britain- Castlereagh
  • France Talleyrand

7
What was the Congress supporting
  • Liberalism
  • Legitimacy
  • Conservative Values
  • Nationalism
  • Balance of Power
  • Destruction of France
  • Create more powerful countries on the French
    border

8
Opposing Ideas growing from the French Revolution
  • Liberalism- participation in the government
    individual freedoms
  • speech
  • press
  • assemble
  • freedom from arbitrary arrest
  • petition the govt.
  • religion
  • private enterprise
  • Nationalism Love and belonging to a nation
    state Language and Romanticism
  • Utopian Socialism Utopia Thomas More
  • Marxist Socialism

9
Germany- The Home of Romanticism
  • Herder 1772 Treatise on the Origin of Language
    . Spew out the ugly language of the Seine. Speak
    German O you German.
  • From language comes culture
  • The Sturm un Drang The Storm and Stress
  • The Volksgeist- The peoples spirit

10
Hegel- 1820- Sturm un Drang
  • Thesis VS. Antithesis (contradictions and
    negations) Synthesis
  • From this comes culture or the Volksgeist
  • Form of the Dialectic Method
  • Major influence on Marx

11
Utopian Socialism-Social Engineering
  • Robert Owen Creates Social industrial
    communities
  • Based on the belief that no one is responsible
    for his actions products of our environment
  • Opposition to religion made mankind a
  • a weak imbecile animal, a furious bigot and a
    fanatic.

12
New Harmony Indiana
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Greek Independence- Western Romantic Cause and
Anti-Islamic response. (1820)
14
Lord Byron
15
Byrons Death
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Liberation of Greece
  • Classical Greece was appreciated by western
    powers
  • Greece was Christian and dominated by the Islamic
    Turks
  • A romantic cause Lord Byron

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1815 France Louis XVIII
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Coronation of Charles X La Cruche
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Revolutions of 1830
  • Charles attempts to suppress reform

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  • To The Barricades!

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French army refuses to fire on the citizens
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The Revolution of 1830 in France
  • Louis XVIIIs constitutional monarchy held many
    liberal reforms
  • Upper and lower houses were created
  • Only a small of people could vote
  • Charles X is reactionary against liberalism and
    attempts a coup in July of 1830 led by an upper
    middle class
  • Three days later Charles is forced to flee

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Louis-Philippe The Citizen King The Pear
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Louis Philippe The Citizen King
  • Nothing changes from the original charter.
  • The wealthy noble elite tighten control of the
    government

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A Democratic Republic in France
  • Louis Philippe govt. did little to sponsor
    election reform, and was filled with corruption.
  • To the barricades Feb 22 1848 Parisians revolt.
    Two days later the pear abdicates

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The Revolution of 1848
  • Social ideologies combined with severe economic
    crisis
  • Only most advanced and most backward were not
    involved
  • In the end the revolutions failed

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France -The Forming of the Second Republic
depression and high unemployment
  • Issues Radicals wanted
  • Universal male suffrage
  • Freeing slaves in the colonies
  • Strong element of utopian socialism
  • Government sponsored workshops instead of
    capitalism

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Moderates
  • Wanted temporary relief
  • But
  • National workshops were little more then pick and
    shovel programs
  • Then
  • Hundreds of thousands stream into Paris to try to
    join for jobs

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Socialism grows and many are Afraid A clash of
ideologies
  • Middle class is worried
  • Peasants that own land are worried
  • The middle class and upper class bond over the
    issue of private property
  • The new assembly drops Blanc the main socialist
    leader
  • Socialist uprising is suppressed my the middle
    class national guard
  • While the workshops became more radical
  • The govt. closes the workshops in Paris and gives
    the poor an option to join the army of go to the
    workshops in the provinces

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The Result
  • Violent uprisings
  • To the barricades
  • The June Days 10,000 wounded or dead
  • The revolt was suppressed
  • Louis Napoleon nephew of Napoleon wins a
    landslide election as he promises to defend those
    that own property.

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Napoleon III
  • He becomes emperor
  • Safety over liberty
  • Actually is Very Moderate
  • Rebuilds Paris
  • Wider streets
  • Easier to move army to problem spots

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The Carbonari-
  • Secret organizations
  • Bent on reforms

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Liberal reform in Great Britain
  • Late 18th century 8 of the population could vote
  • French Revolution makes upper-class fear uprising
    and they begin to suppress revolts
  • In Great Britain Corn Laws Suppressed the
    importation of foreign grain
  • Riots begin and freedoms are removed
  • Battle of Peterloo (Waterloo)

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Backlash Leads to Reform
  • Commercial groups wanted same rights as landed
    gentry
  • Tory Govt. moves to accommodate
  • Greater economic liberalism
  • More pay for the poor
  • Civil liberties for Catholics
  • Revise the Corn Laws

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The House of Commons Takes over
  • Reform Bill I 1832
  • Northern manufacturing enterprises gain more
    power as population shifts
  • Increases the voters by about 50
  • The Chartist Movement
  • Universal male suffrage denied but begins the
    emergence of mass politics
  • mass protests worked
  • Ten Hours Act of 1847

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The Great Famine Ireland
  • English landowners took advantage of Irish
    Catholics
  • Despite horrible conditions population climbed
  • The Potato
  • Feed more people
  • Grew easily
  • Allowed many to marry younger

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The Blight 1845-50
  • Mass starvation
  • England is slow to act
  • Tenants that could not pay rent were evicted
  • In the 19th century Ireland was the only country
    in Europe to experience a population decline.
  • Stirred anti-British feelings Home Rule

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The Great famine
  • Irish became dependant upon the potato
  • Population grows
  • Government slow to act. (genocide)
  • Concepts of free trade whatever
  • Corn Act was repealed too late
  • 1.5 mil die
  • 1 mil immigrate
  • 1845 -1911 population declines from 8 mil to 4.4
    mil

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Many Pre-revolutionary Outbreaks
  • Bad harvests
  • 1846-Austria and Switzerland
  • 1847 - Naples

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Timeline
  • Timeline--Revolutions of 1848
  • 1846-1849 Economic depression was spread
    throughout Europe. It was marked by rising food
    prices after a poor harvest and the recession
    that followed the industrial expansionin the
    early 1840s. 22, 1848 One of many banquets to
    protest the government's inflexibility was
    planned, but he government banned it. Crowds
    began to gather in the streets and minor
    skirmishes with police erupted. Workers who could
    have never afforded tickets to the banquet
    constructed barricades. The revolution had begun.
  • February 24, 1848 After the National Guard
    refused to cheer for their king, Louis Phillipe,
    he abdicated to his grandson. The Second Republic
    was declared from the Hotel de Ville. The cabinet
    was confirmed by a crowd outside the hotel.
  • March 3, 1848 Lajos Kossuth called for a
    representative government in front of the
    Hungarian Diet.
  • March 3, 1848 Revolution broke out in the
    Rhineland.
  • March 12, 1848 Revolution broke out in Vienna.
  • March 15, 1848 Revolution broke out in Berlin.
  • March 18, 1848 Revolution broke out in Milan.
    The papal states were given a constitution and
    the Milanese defeated the Austrians.
  • March 22, 1848 Revolution broke out in Venice
    and the Venetian Republic was reestablished. All
    of these revolutions followed the same pattern
    The news of revolution in France would attract
    excited crowds, groups of men (mostly
    journalists, lawyers, and students) met to
    discuss the rumors. The government, in fear of
    revolution, would call out the army, which would
    begin to skirmish with the citizenry. Barricades
    would come up and mob action would ensue. It is
    important to note that these revolutions took
    place in one city and that not all of the
    countries involved declared a republic, only
    their capitals did.
  • March, 1848 600 delegates meet in Frankfurt in a
    preparliamentary assembly and called for a
    universal manhood suffrage electio to form a
    national assembly to govern a unified Germany.
  • May, 1848 830 delegates met in Frankfurt, mostly
    from the small states in the liberal West. Began
    to form a democratic constitution that gave the
    assembly itself executive control over a unified
    Germany.
  • May, 1848 As Hungary began to gain autonmy,
    Austrians began to demand a representative
    government. Metternich resigned and universal
    manhood suffrage was granted.
  • May, 1848 As unwilling parts of the Hungarian
    Republic, the Croats, Czechs, and Rumanians begin
    to demand a similar autonmy as that granted to
    Hungary.
  • May, 1848 Piedmont declared war on Austria with
    a papl blessing and his troops, but Pius IX soon
    pulled out saying he could not fight a Catholic
    Austria. The Piedmontese seemed overwhelmed, but
    had managed to win a battle by the end of May.
  • June 24-26, 1848 after the government dissolved
    the national workshops, the lower class revolted
    and were crushed by republican troops. Over a
    thousand people were killed in three days and
    thousands more were sent to prison or exile. This
    conflict between classes is known as June Days
    and was the evidence that proved to Karl Marx
    that democracy couldn't work.
  • June, 1848 The pan-Slav congress met in Prague
    after the Czechs refused to send representatives
    to the Frankfurt Assembly felling that Slavs
    should not be subject to the will of Germans.
  • July, 1848 Austrians attack Piedmont and
    overwhelmingly defeat it. Troops march into
    Milan.
  • September, 1848 Riots erupt in Frankfurt. The
    Assembly is forced to call for Prussian and
    Austrian aid to resore peace.
  • October, 1848 Austrians use Croatian sentiments
    for autonomy to march into Vienna and beat it
    into submission.

48
1848 Austria Empire
  • Begins as a nationalist movement in Hungary- full
    autonomy
  • Monarchs response is slow and weak
  • Liberals want written constitution
  • Peasants allied with Middle class liberals
  • Students serve as shock troops
  • Aristocrats give in to demands

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Conservatives Recover
  • Conservatives play of fears of nationalist
    movements to gain autonomy
  • Sophia you all gave in to a mess of students.
  • Troops are assembled and crush the revolts
  • Russian troops under Czar Nicky pour into Hungary.

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1848 Prussia
  • Fall of Louis Philippe encourages Prussian
    liberals to assert demands
  • Riots erupt
  • Frederick Wilhelm IV caves in
  • Socialists demands trouble middle-class allies
  • Dispute with Denmark unifies German nationalism
  • King disbands the assembly
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