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Imperialism and Revolutionary Upheavals

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Imperialism and Revolutionary Upheavals 19th century, weakened Qing Dynasty victimized by imperialist nations Carved China into spheres of influence – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Imperialism and Revolutionary Upheavals


1
Imperialism and Revolutionary Upheavals
  • 19th century, weakened Qing Dynasty victimized by
    imperialist nations
  • Carved China into spheres of influence
  • 2 major revolutions 1911 and 1949
  • revolutionary era dominated by 3 themes
  • nationalism re-establish China as an
    independent, sovereign nation
  • new political community competition between
    Nationalist Party Chiang Kai-shek Kuomintang
    and The CCP Mao
  • socioeconomic development followed Soviet model
    until split in 1928, CCP driven underground

2
  • failed revolution Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925)
  • multiple military coup attempts
  • 1905, KMT established
  • 10/10/11 rebellion in Wuhan spread peacefully
    throughout the country, establishment of PRC
  • central government nominally under control of
    KMT, but country run by warlords
  • 1919 Treaty of Versailles German concessions
    transferred to other Allied powers, not to China
  • May Fourth Movement
  • student run
  • politicized but disorganized

3
  • 1921 formation of CCP
  • headed by Chen Duxiu, composed of intellectuals,
    quickly dominated by Moscow
  • KMT also sought approval of Soviets
  • KMT and CCP briefly merged united front
  • growing conflict erupted in violence in Shanghai,
    1927
  • massacre of thousands of CCP members by
    Nationalist troops

4
  • Mao revolution could only be based on mass
    mobilization
  • Chinas population overwhelmingly rural
  • KMT controlled most cities
  • only path was guerilla war from the countryside,
    not spontaneous uprising in cities
  • it would take years to organize a peasant
    revolution
  • Autumn Harvest Uprising Mao launched attacks
    on Changsa
  • KMT campaign to exterminate the communist
    bandits

5
  • The Long March
  • for almost a year, CCP fought daily against KMT
    or local warlords
  • costly but lasting success for CCP
  • party used time to organize
  • built relationships with peasants
  • January, 1936 Mao elected Chairman of CCP

6
  • The Mass Line
  • Mao and CCP rejected
  • urban proletariat
  • vanguard of the revolution
  • all correct leadership is from the masses, to
    the masses
  • turned Marxism into a philosophy that could
    appeal to millions of peasants in Asia, Africa,
    and Latin America

7
  • resistance to Japanese imperialist aggression
  • invasion of Manchuria, 1931
  • control of northern China by 1935
  • Chiang Kai-shek retreated to the south, while CCP
    fought the invaders
  • resistance expanded its base of support
  • message nationalism, anti-imperialism, social
    justice

8
  • initial superiority of KMT forces eventually
    overcome by CCP
  • CCP army regained control of Manchuria, moved
    south, forced KMT to flee to Taiwan
  • 1949 creation of Peoples Republic of China
  • Mao Chinas weakness due to oppression and
    exploitation by
  • foreign imperialism
  • reactionary domestic government
  • China has stood up.

9
Factionalism
  • PRC 30 years to establish stability and
    continuity
  • interim conflict between radicals and moderates
  • struggle for ideological dominance involved
  • attacks on party and state institutions
  • personalization of power
  • eventual predominance of moderates put China on a
    lasting path to reform

10
The Peoples Republic of China
  • 2 phases
  • (1) The Soviet Model (1949-1957)
  • land redistribution
  • civil reform
  • 5-year plans
  • (2) The Great Leap Forward (1958-1966)
  • radical egalitarianism
  • economic development
  • mass mobilization
  • political unanimity
  • decentralization

11
  • world communist movement
  • North Korean conflict Chinese had no choice but
    to support fellow communists in North Korea
  • relied on Soviet military aid to repel UN forces

12
  • Sino-Soviet Split
  • divergence from Soviet model and philosophy
  • CCP depended on cult of personality
  • Mao criticized SUs movement away from Marxist
    goals
  • SU eventually withdrew its advisers and cut off
    economic and military aid
  • split gave CCP autonomy to develop in its own way

13
  • factionalism Maoists vs. Marxists
  • campaigns organized efforts to mobilize the
    masses to attain various goals
  • Hundred Flowers Campaign, 1956 encouraged
    expression of ideas
  • success of campaign required immediate end
  • Great Leap Forward opposite direction
  • sought rapid transition to socialism and
    communism
  • required full commitment of all Chinese people
  • red-vs.-expert conflict ideology vs.
    technology
  • a disaster mass starvation

14
  • failure of Great Leap forward undermined Maos
    authority
  • forced from chair of PRC
  • challenge to his authority precipitated the
    Cultural Revolution
  • why?
  • Mao had been the architect of the popular
    revolution
  • CCP becoming increasingly bureaucratized, rigid
    and elite
  • new generation had not experienced the
    revolution- self-satisfied and flabby

15
The Cultural Revolution
  • 1963 with support of the PLA, Mao launched the
    Socialist Education Movement
  • ideology and mobilization once again center stage
  • launched frontal attack on Party leadership and
    bureaucracy
  • Red Guards student groups turned into
    revolutionaries/vigilantes
  • seizures of power throughout the country

16
The Cultural Revolution
  • Maos goal purify the party and the state
  • remove all vestiges of old China (bureaucratic,
    hierarchical)
  • scholars sent to the fields, universities/librarie
    s destroyed
  • Extremely disruptive and regressive
  • Maos death, 1976, left factions
  • the Gang of Four
  • the military
  • the Moderates Zhou Enlai
  • process of fang-shou cycle of tightening up,
    loosening up

17
Modernization, 1978-1997 Deng Xiaoping
  • Four Modernizations
  • industry, agriculture, science, military
  • Have continues at heart of Chinas official
    policy ever since
  • economic liberalization
  • open door trade policy
  • educational reform
  • institutionalization of the Revolution
  • Deng did not support political liberalization

18
Citizens, Society and the State
  • Profound changes in relationship of citizen to
    Chinese state as leadership has changed since Mao
  • For most citizens, communist ideology no longer
    central to their lives
  • CCP now emphasizes nationalism, patriotism, pride
    in Chinese identity

19
cleavages
  • minority populations within China 8 of
    population, 60 of territory
  • general government policy encourage economic
    development, suppress dissent
  • 5 autonomous regions Guangxi, Inner Mongolia,
    Ningxia, Tibet and Xinjiang
  • Tibet failed uprising 1959, continuing tension
  • Xinjiang Uyghur militants seek to create a
    separate Islamic state

20
  • cleavages, cont.
  • linguistic CCP has always tried to make Mandarin
    the official language of government and
    education, but dialects remain embedded in
    Chinese society
  • urban-rural most economic growth has been
    concentrated in cities new meaning to 2
    Chinas
  • talk of new programs to lift the lagging rural
    economy
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