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Ancient%20Egypt

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... everything that remains of the Egyptians' ancient ... 20 pharaohs but none could put Egypt back ... pyramids to serve as tombs of kings ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient%20Egypt


1
Ancient Egyptian Timeline
Archaic Era 6000 bc
Egypt was a grassland. Nomads traveled in search
of food
Early Dynastic 3200 bc - 2780 bc
King Menes united Upper Lower Egypt.
Established capital at Memphis.
Old Kingdom 2780 bc - 2258bc
Age of Pyramids. First man made mummies

Middle Kingdom 2134 bc - 1786 bc
Rise of the Middle Class trade becomes the
center of the economy.
New Kingdom 1570 bc - 1085 bc
Major trading expeditions. Akhenaten and Queen
Hatshepsut
Ptolemaic Dynasty 304 bc - 30 bc
Alexander the Great conquers Egypt. Cleopatra is
the last Pharaoh
Roman Period 30 bc - 640 ad
Romans take control of Egypt. Egypt never rises
to greatness again.
2
UNIFICATION
Meness Upper Egypt army invades and conquers
Lower Egypt
3
The Old Kingdom
  • Government
  • Egypts first centralized government.
  • Pharaoh appointed powerful local leaders called
    governors
  • Governors collected taxes and served as local
    judges
  • Governors made sure local flood waters and food
    were shared equally
  • Governors reported to the Pharaoh in Memphis.

4
The Old Kingdom
  • Trade was an important part of the economy.
    Egypt received goods from
  • Nubia Gold, ebony, ivory
  • Sinai Copper and turquois
  • Syria Lapis lazuli
  • Byblos Cedar wood

5
The Old Kingdom
  • Egyptians during the Old Kingdom distrusted
    foreigners.
  • They believed the Nile was the center of the
    earth and created just for them by the gods.
  • Everyone living beyond the boundaries of Egypt
    were considered inferior in their eyes.

6
The Old Kingdom
  • Considered an intellectual high point in Egyptian
    civilization.
  • By 2600 BCE, Egypt had mastered basic concepts in
    math, geometry, and Science
  • They were extremely disciplined and
    organized.This enabled them to build the pyramids
    massive stone structures that were so well
    made, some still exist!

7
Pyramids
8
The Great Pyramid
  • Took approximately 23 years to build
  • All pyramids had to have a North-facing entrance,
    to align with the North Star.
  • Built by farmers and other laborers during the
    Inundation (flood season)
  • Laborers used mud-slicked ramps to move the
    stones.

9
The Great Pyramid
10
The Great Pyramids
11
A System of Writing
  • Cuneiform A type of writing invented by the
    Sumerians (now modern Iraq)
  • Hieroglyphs - Egyptian alphabet was made up of
    about 800 picture-symbols.
  • The word HEIROGLYPHICS means sacred writing

12
The Rosetta Stone
  • The Rosetta Stone was the key that unlocked the
    mysteries of Egyptian hieroglyphics.
  • Napoleon's troops discovered it in 1799
  • The inscription is written on the stone three
    times, once in hieroglyphic, once in hieratic,
    and once in Greek.
  • Jean Francois Champollion, a French Egyptologist,
    deciphered the hieroglyphic and hieratic texts by
    comparing them with the known Greek text.
  • From this meager starting point, a generation of
    Egyptologists eventually managed to read most
    everything that remains of the Egyptians' ancient
    writings.

Return
13
The Decline of the Old Kingdom
  • Pepi II ruled for 90 years. When he died, the
    central government fell apart.
  • In the 20 years that followed, there were 20
    pharaohs but none could put Egypt back together
    again. Government officials could not work
    together and returned to primitive times.
  • Nomes became independent but were often at war
    with each other.
  • Famine was the final blow.

14
The Decline of the Old Kingdom
  • Famine - Small harvests due to lack of water.
    Leads to people starving

15
The Decline of the Old Kingdom
  • The period after the fall of the Old Kingdom is
    know as the Dark Ages.
  • It is called this because the light of learning
    had gone out.

16
Anarchy No central government disorder mayhem
The Middle Kingdom 2100BC - 1700BC
  • The anarchy of the Dark Ages made clear to the
    rulers of the Middle Kingdom that it was
    important to have a strong central government,
    with a strong pharaoh, whom nobles respected.

17
The Middle Kingdom 2100BC - 1700BC
  • Order was restored by Mentohotep
  • strong military leader
  • restored unity to Egypt
  • moved the capital to Thebes
  • took control of Nubia
  • Nubian gold brought increased prosperity (economy
    improved)

18
Nubia
  • Accepted Egyptian religion art
  • Used hieroglyphics, but later developed their own
    writing
  • Built pyramids to serve as tombs of kings
    queens, but smaller shaped differently than
    Egyptian pyramids.
  • Eventually won independence from Egypt

19
The Fayum Project
  • An irrigation project that guaranteed water to
    farmers when inundation was low.
  • Silt had built up around the Fayum, a vast lake
    that once was fed by the Nile but had dried up
  • Silt had built up around the Fayum and blocked
    water that used to flow from the Nile. The lake
    became a marshland
  • The new project drained the land and created a
    new lake. It connected to the Nile with a canal.

20
The Middle Kingdom 2100BC - 1700BC
  • Egypt's contact with other parts of the world
    increased, bringing foreign goods and foreign
    ideas to the Egyptian civilization.
  • Egyptian trade increased with Western Asia,
    creating a new wealthy class of "common people" -
    Middle Class
  • Outside groups began moving into Egypt - Hyksos

21
HYKSOS
  • Means foreign invaders in Egyptian. Nomads from
    Palestine who invaded Egypt.
  • The Hyksos utilized superior bronze weapons,
    chariots, and bows to help them take control of
    Egypt.
  • Within 50 years, they had managed to take control
    of the important Egyptian city of Memphis.

22
Pharaoh's army had primitive spears and arrows
and a vegetable cart pulled by a donkey!
23
HYKSOS
  • The Hyksos contributed a number of innovations to
    Egyptian civilization
  • The upright loom
  • The lute, oboe, lyre, tambourine
  • Chariot
  • Potters wheel
  • Technology of melting down copper to produce
    bronze

24
Egyptian Capitals
  • Old Kingdom
  • Memphis
  • Middle Kingdom
  • Thebes
  • New Kingdom
  • Amarna
  • Thebes
  • Today
  • Cairo

RETURN
25
The New Kingdom
  • The defeat of the Hyksos by the pharaoh, Ahmose,
    began the New Kingdom
  • During the New Kingdom, Egypt became an EMPIRE.
  • Egypts economy now included goods from other
    lands.

26
The New Kingdom Weapons
  • Inspired by the Hyksos
  • Shields of bronze
  • Battle axes and chain armor
  • Lighter, more maneuverable chariots

27
The New Kingdom Pharaohs
  • Different than those from the Old and Middle
    Kingdoms
  • No longer serene religious figures
  • They led their squadrons into battle
  • Fought along side their men

28
The New Kingdom Pharaohs
  • Hatshepsut
  • One of Egypts few female pharaohs
  • Expanded trade further than any other pharaoh
  • Her biggest trading expedition was to Egypts
    neighbors in the south PUNT Egypt gained gold,
    exotic animals, spices, frankincense, and myrrh,
    perfumes, ivory, leopard skins, and even live
    apes.
  • Hatshepsuts stepson finally overthrew her and
    tried to erase all mention of her name from all
    records.

29
The New Kingdom Pharaohs
  • Akhenaton
  • Amenhotep IV and his wife, Queen Nefertiti, tried
    to make Egypt worship only one god - Aton
    (monotheistic)
  • Changed his name to Akhenaton "servant to Aton
  • Moved the capital from Thebes to Amarna in the
    north
  • When Akhenaton died, the old religion returned
    and the priests picked a new pharaoh that they
    could control - a boy king

30
The New Kingdom Pharaohs
  • Thutmose I
  • First pharaoh to be buried in the rugged cliffs
    rising above the Nile.

31
The New Kingdom Pharaohs
  • The Boy Pharaoh
  • King Tutankhamen was 9 years old when he was
    chosen to replace Akhenaton
  • The priests of Egypt controlled King Tut
  • Only 19 years old when he died

32
King Tutankhamens Tomb
  • Howard Carter, a British archeologist, discovered
    King Tut's tomb in 1922. The tomb contained
    everything Tut would need in the afterlife.
  • We know about the Egyptian belief in the
    Afterlife mainly through the discoveries made by
    archeologists, like Carter.

33
The New Kingdom
  • After Tut, Egypt began to lose power.
  • Egypt began to fight wars with the surrounding
    people in present-day Israel, Syria, and Turkey
  • Their fiercest enemy was the Hittites
  • Ramses II, a very strong pharaoh, made peace with
    the Hittites for 67 years and returned some
    prosperity to Egypt

34
Hittites
  • Originally from present day Turkey
  • Invaded and warred with Egypt many times during
    the New Kingdom

35
Cleopatra
  • Last member of the Ptolemy Dynasty to rule
  • Supposedly died of a snakebite
  • Was married to Julius Caesar and later, Marc
    Antony
  • The Ptolemy line was Greek her ancestor was a
    general in Alexander the Greats army, and seized
    Egypt after his death.
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