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Co -Teaching and Inclusionary Models Leading to Successful Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)


Everyone Benefits. Allows students to experience and imitate the cooperative and collaborative skills that teachers demonstrate during co-teaching – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Co -Teaching and Inclusionary Models Leading to Successful Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)

Co -Teaching and Inclusionary Models Leading to
Successful Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
  • 405-521-4881

Free Appropriate Public Education
  • FAPE is defined as the provision of regular or
    special education and related aids and services
    that are designed to meet individual needs of
    handicapped persons as well as the needs of
    non-handicapped persons are met and based on
    adherence to procedural safeguards outlined in
    the law. 34 CFR 300.101

Free Appropriate Public Education
  • FREE Are provided at public expense
  • APPROPRIATE Are provided in conformity with an
    appropriately developed individualized education
    program, or IEP
  • PUBLIC Are provided under public supervision and
    direction and
  • EDUCATION Include an appropriate preschool,
    elementary, and secondary education that meets
    the education standards, regulations, and
    administrative policies and procedures issued by
    the State Department of Education.

Least Restrictive Environment
  • To the maximum extent appropriate, children with
    disabilities, including children in public or
    private institutions or other care facilities,
    are educated with children who are not disabled,
    and special classes, separate schooling, or other
    removal of children with disabilities from the
    regular educational environment occurs only when
    the nature or severity of the disability of a
    child is such that education in regular classes
    with the use of supplementary aids and services
    cannot be achieved satisfactorily. 34 C.F.R.

Least Restrictive Environment
  • LRE decisions are made individually for each
  • The LRE is the appropriate balance of settings
    and services to meet the students individual
  • The district should have an array of services and
    a continuum of educational setting options
    available to meet the individual LRE needs of
    each student.

Continuum of Placement
What is Inclusion?
  • Halvorsen Neary (2001) inclusive education,
    according to its most basic definition, means
    that students with disabilities are supported in
    chronologically age-appropriate general education
    classes in their home schools and receive the
    specialized instruction delineated by their
    individualized education programs (IEP's) within
    the context of the core curriculum and general
    class activities
  • Halvorsen, A.T. Neary, T. (2001). Building
    inclusive schools Tools and strategies for
    success. Needham Heights, MA Allyn Bacon.

Everyone Benefits
  • Allows students to experience and imitate the
    cooperative and collaborative skills that
    teachers demonstrate during co-teaching
  • Provides greater opportunity to capitalize on the
    unique, diverse, and specialized knowledge,
    skills and instructional approaches as the
  • Co-teachers often find that they can structure
    their classes effectively using research proven
    strategies required of the NCLB Act
  • Allows for inventing solutions that traditional
    school structures have failed to conceptualize on
  • The model is viewed as a way to become more
    empowered and improve teaching skills

Including Samuelhttp//
Inclusion Classroom Suggestions for the Senses
What it might look like..
  • Print rich room
  • Cooperative learning groups
  • Hands on activities and centers
  • All students actively engaged
  • Use of technology
  • Room arranged for easy accessibility.
  • Room where adaptive equipment is utilized

What it might sound like..
  • Dual teacher instruction
  • Students communicating and helping each other
  • Team work
  • Assistive technology
  • Soothing music

The general feeling of the room.
  • Mutual respect
  • A safe place to take chances and explore
  • Caring, friendly environment
  • Family like atmosphere

Arne Duncanhttp//
  • All children learn differently teach to
    different learning styles
  • Howard Gardners Theory of Multiple Intelligences
  • Be consistent
  • Encourage students to take chances and step out
    of their comfort zone
  • Treat each child as you would want to be treated
  • Foster a nurturing environment of mutual caring,
    respect and peace
  • Accommodate and modify for maximum success for
    ALL students

The Co -Teach Model as defined by the Council for
Exceptional Children
  • Co-teaching is a service delivery option.
    Students with IEPs receive some or all of their
    specialized instruction and related services in
    the context of the general education classroom.

  • Both professionals participate fully, although
    differently, in the instructional process.
    General educators maintain primary responsibility
    for the content of the instruction special
    educators hold primary responsibility for
    facilitating the learning process.
  • Instruction employs evidence-based practices and
    accountable differentiation.

  • The students are heterogeneously grouped as a
    class, and both teachers work with all students.
  • Various combinations of students and group sizes
    are used.
  • Each students educational potential is
  • Co-teachers are firmly committed to our
    students, not yours and mine.

  • It is NOT a pullout special education program
    that has been relocated to the corner of a
    general education classroom.
  • It is NOT a general education classroom with one
    real teacher and one who serves as the help
    or an extra set of hands.

  • Two or more professionals with equivalent
    licensure are
  • co-teachers
  • One general educator
  • One special educator or specialist
  • Paraprofessionals are NOT considered a co-teacher

Types of Co Teaching http//
  • Supportive Co-teaching One member of the team
    takes the lead role and the other member rotates
    among students to provide support.
  • Parallel Co-teaching - Both teachers instruct
    different heterogeneous groups of students.

  • Complementary Co-teaching A member of the
    co-teaching team does something to supplement or
    complement the instruction provided by the other
    member of the team (e.g., models note taking on a
    transparency, paraphrases the other co-teachers
  • Team Teaching - The members of the team co-teach
    along side one another and share responsibility
    for planning, teaching, and assessing the
    progress of all students in the class.

Planning Time
  • Shared daily or weekly mutual time
  • Macro period high quality meetings to plan 2-3
    weeks at a time
  • Comp time after hours
  • Use of substitute teachers
  • Collaboration working as a staff to build common
  • Schedules example may be common specials

  • Special Education teacher is responsible for
    collaborating about teaching responsibilities,
    completing significant adaptations and/or
    accommodations to the assignments for student
    success and discussing student expectations and
    desired outcomes
  • General Education teacher comes prepared with
    themes, projects, student expectations and ideas
    about division of duties and co-teaching

To Be More Specific
  • General Education
  • Begins with instruction then assess
  • Learning strategist
  • Content knowledge
  • Curriculum alignment
  • Content development
  • Special Education
  • Begin with assessment than instruction
  • Learning strategist
  • Has the techniques to motivate the exceptional
  • Curriculum adaptation for diverse learners
  • Knowledge of disabilities

Accommodations vs. Modifications
  • Accommodations Changes in materials or
    procedures that enable students to meaningfully
    access instruction and assessment. Assessment
    accommodations do not change the construct that
    is being measured.
  • Accommodations mediate the effects of a
    students disability and do not reduce learning
  • Modifications Changes in materials or
    procedures that enable students to access
    instruction and assessment. Assessment
    modifications do change the construct that is
    being measured.
  • Modifications create challenges for assessment

  • This is NOT a part of the IDEA, but the concept
    is. It is a term used to capture the innumerable
    tools and strategies teachers proactively use to
    ensure that ALL students regardless of their
    unique needs learn the curriculum
  • Friend, M. (2008). Co-Teach! A Handbook for
    Creating and Sustaining Effective Classroom
    Partnerships in Inclusive Schools. Marilyn
    Friend North Carolina

  • What is it?
  • Consistently using a variety of instructional
    approaches to modify content, process, and/or
    products in response to learning readiness and
    interest of academically diverse students
  • Tomlinson, C. (2009). The goals of
    differentiation. In M. Scheerer, Ed. Supporting
    the wholechild Reflections on best practices in
    teaching, learning, and leadership. Alexandria,
    VA ASCD, pp3-11.
  • Why is it important?
  • Regardless of ability level, the majority of
    students are spending more and more time within a
    general education setting. With this trend comes
    a vast level of student interests, readiness and
    learning styles and therefore teachers need to
    accommodate their curriculum to meet the needs of
    ALL students.

Did he show differentiation? http//
Importance and Achievement Through
  • Differentiation matches student performance and
    what they need to learn scaffolding, challenge
    levels, autonomy, optimal learning opportunities.
  • Every child can learn, sometimes we need to be
    creative with the curriculum and presentation to
    reach the variety of learning styles and academic
    levels within our class setting.
  • Differentiation can increase
  • Academics outcomes
  • Student confidence
  • Intrinsic motivation

Strategies to Differentiate
  • Tiered assignments
  • Learning centers
  • Interactive journals and learning logs
  • Graphic organizers
  • Flexible grouping
  • Use pre-assessment tools to establish baseline
  • Establish connection between assessment

Developing a Co -Teaching Program(The
  • 1) Establish the program and goals
  • 2) Plan for Implementation
  • 3) Prepare for the Implementation
  • 4) Actual Implementation
  • 5) Maintain

Establish the Program and Goals
  • Clarify intent Why are we doing this? What will
    it look like and who will this affect?
  • Establish a planning structure Identify the team
    members and their responsibilities
  • Assess Account for needs to be addressed and set
    goals and expectations for the team and the

Plan for Implementation
  • Describe ideal outcome What is the ultimate
  • Specify components Subject areas, curriculum,
    planning time, professional development
  • Match context and resources Balance between what
    is ideal and what can be done and supported now
  • Establish Timelines Start small and build
    timelines that are reasonable and attainable

Preparing for Implementation
  • Awareness Discuss students needs, expectations
    for both teachers and students, types of support
  • Select co-teachers Effective teams need to have
    mutual respect for each other personally and
  • Preparation of personnel Professional
    Development opportunities
  • Program effectiveness An instrument of
    evaluation to measure checks and balances of
    whether intended goals are being reached and if
    not, what needs to be done to make this happen

Implementation Period
  • Continue with professional development
  • Share information with all staff so the program
    can grow
  • Keep calm and carry on. This is a learning
    experience so be sure to keep communicating,
    accommodating and modifying
  • Evaluate How are you doing? What can we do
    better? What can we do more of? Less of?

Successful Co-Teaching
Potential Roadblocks to Successful Co-Teaching
  • Ages or grade levels of the student
  • Content being taught
  • Instructional strategies
  • Teachers knowledge and skills as professional
  • Teachers commitment to co-teaching and
    chemistry as a partnership
  • Amount of shared teaching time each day
  • Length of time the partnership has existed
  • How students are scheduled into classes
  • Extent of administrative support

Difficulties with Co Teaching
Determination is the Key
  • Teamwork between the teachers, administrators
    and parents
  • Willingness to move beyond your comfort zone
    and try new methods of instruction and delivery
  • Requires creativity, determination and

Secondary Examplehttp//
Some Resources
  • http//
  • Co-Teach by Marilyn Friend (2007)
  • Leading for Inclusion by Jones, Fauske Carr
  • Creating Successful Inclusion Programs, Henley

Additional Resources
  • Friend, M. (2008). Co-Teach! A Handbook for
    Creating and Sustaining Effective Classroom
    Partnerships in Inclusive Schools. Marilyn
    Friend North Carolina
  • Gardner, H. (1983). Frames of Mind. Basic Books
    New York, New Yok.
  • Tomlinson, C. (2009). The goals of
    differentiation. Supporting the whole child
    Reflections on best practices in teaching,
    learning, and leadership. Alexandria, VA ASCD,
  • Thousand, J., Villa, R., Nevin, A. (2007).
    ?Differentiated Instruction A Multimedia Kit for
    Differentiated Instruction. California Corwin
    Press (800) 818- 7423
  • Thousand, J., Villa, R., Nevin, A. (2007).
    ?Differentiated Instruction Collaborative
    Planning Teaching for Universally Designed
    ?Lessons. California Corwin Press (800) 818-
  • Villa R., Thousand. J., (Eds). (2005). Creating
    an Inclusive School. ?Alexandria, VA Association
    for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (800)
    933- 2723.

  • Villa, R. Thousand, J., Nevin, A. (2008). A
    Guide to Co-Teaching Practical Tips for
    Facilitating Student Learning (2nd. Ed.).
    Thousand Oaks, California Corwin Pres. (800)
    818- 7243
  • Villa, R. Thousand, J., Nevin, A. (2008).
    Co-Teaching A Multimedia Kit For Professional
    Development.? Thousand Oaks, California Corwin
    Pres. (800) 818- 7243
  • Villa, R., Thousand, J., Nevin, A. (2008).
    Co-Teaching at a Glance. A laminated Tri-Fold
    Reference Guide. Port Chester, NY National
    Professional Resources. (800) 453- 746
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