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BUILDING GLOBAL CITIZENRY THROUGH TEACHING ABOUT POVERTY

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BUILDING GLOBAL CITIZENRY THROUGH TEACHING ABOUT POVERTY Farida C Khan Professor of Economics Co-Director, Center for International Studies – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: BUILDING GLOBAL CITIZENRY THROUGH TEACHING ABOUT POVERTY


1
BUILDING GLOBAL CITIZENRY THROUGH TEACHING ABOUT
POVERTY
  • Farida C Khan
  • Professor of Economics
  • Co-Director, Center for International Studies

2
Poverty Measures
  • 1 a day
  • 2 a day
  • Percentage below poverty line

3
The higher the bar, the greater the proportion of
people in poverty
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4
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Where is poverty to be found?
5
What percent is poor in each nation?
6
If poverty is hunger, how well do nations
provide food for their people?
7
What do we understand by these numbers?
  • Cultural definitions
  • Historical experiences
  • Economic processes
  • Visual understanding?

8
Images
  • Heres what we might see
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v6Nf1j-CtnxM
  • Or this
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vLFgb1BdPBZo

9
How should images be used?
  • To clarify the magnitude of the problems?
  • Might they create misunderstandings about
    societies?
  • To enable students to appreciate their
    circumstances?
  • Might they instill static ideas about certain
    regions that are poor?

10
How should information be provided?
  • Not too abstract?
  • Not too dehumanizing?
  • To generate interest?
  • To maintain respect for humanity?
  • To overcome objectification?

11
POSSIBLE MODELS to IMPART INFORMATION
  • Technical Models
  • Historical Models
  • Cultural Models
  • Mix of the above?

12
Technical Models
  • Source World Bank, UNDP, IMF, NGOs
  • Human Development Index (UN) development
    indicators include income poverty, life
    expectancy, literacy schooling
  • Millennium Development Goals (UN)
  • http//www.endpoverty2015.org/
  • http//www.un.org/millenniumgoals/poverty.shtml

13
Millennium Development Goal 1 ERADICATE EXTREME
POVERTY HUNGER
  • Target 1
  • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
    people whose income is less than 1 a day
  • Conflict leaves many displaced and
    impoverished

14
Millennium Development Goal 1 ERADICATE EXTREME
POVERTY HUNGER
  • Target 2
  • Achieve full and productive employment and decent
    work for all, including women and young people
  • Low-paying jobs leave one in five developing
    country workers mired in poverty
  • Half the worlds workforce toil in unstable,
    insecure jobs

15
Millennium Development Goal 1 ERADICATE EXTREME
POVERTY HUNGER
  • Target 3
  • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of
    people who suffer from hunger
  • Rising food prices threaten limited gains
    in alleviating child malnutrition

16
Breaking the Link Between Poverty and Per Capita
Income
  • Kerala and Sri Lanka
  • Hans Rosling Video
  • http//www.ted.com/index.hp/talks/hans_rosling_rev
    eals_new_insights_on_poverty.html
  • NGOs and delivery of basic services (Grameen Bank
    and micro-credit)

17
Historical Model
  • What has been our thinking about other
    countries?
  • Mercantilism State interest and colonization
  • Liberalism Stationary economies
  • Advent of development economics in 1940s/50s

18
Historical Model
  • W.W Rostow Stages of Growth, R. Nurkse Balanced
    Growth, etc.
  • Suggests that there are underdeveloped/traditional
    and developed societies in a spectrum
  • Traditional societies included slave systems of
    early Greece and Rome peasant societies in
    India, Egypt, China
  • Confluence of development and time

19
Historical Model
  • Dependency and World Systems theorists (60s/70s)
  • Development and colonization causes
    underdevelopment
  • Modern models of growth create system of
    dependence and debt that worsen poverty

20
Historical Model
  • 1980s/90s
  • Neo-liberal policies - increase growth through
    market policies to trickle down
  • Kuznets curve? (growth ? inequality?)
  • State provision of goods and services ?
  • Juxtaposition of images of rich and poor
  • Sense of entitlement ? but actual conditions
    worsened in some places

21
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22
CONTEMPORARY ISSUES
  • Economic crises such as rising prices, reduced
    credit, global recession
  • Climate change and environmental degradation

23
NGOS
  • Micro-credit
  • Advocacy
  • Projects

24
Cultural Model
  • Pre-modern Cultural contingency
  • Cultural differences civilizational differences
  • Policies based on understanding of a unified
    nature - how much do anthropologists inform
    understanding of poverty?

25
Cultural Model
  • Other regions in the world - multiplicities of
    indigenous peoples
  • How have cultures contended with colonization and
    modernity

26
Marshall Sahlins
  • "Hunters and gatherers have by force of
    circumstances an objectively low standard of
    living. but taken as their objective, and given
    their adequate means of production, all the
    people's material wants usually can easily be
    satisfied (a common understanding of
    'affluence'). ... The world's most primitive
    people have few possessions, but they are not
    poor. Poverty is not a certain small amount of
    goods, nor is it just a relation between means
    and ends above all it is a relation between
    people. Poverty is a social status. As such it is
    an invention of (modern) civilization."

27
Cultural Model
  • NATURE HITS BACK?
  • We see the environment as what we use but our
    daily habits, interactions, architecture changes
    the environment.
  • Environmental degradation goes hand in hand with
    the homogenization and unification of cultures
    and the desire to consume in a single manner.

28
TEACHING TIPS
  1. Keep the connection between micro and macro case
    studies should be used for generalizations
  2. Focus on a single region or country or have the
    student do so
  3. Have the student tie this in with his/her
    language class, literature, science
  4. Learning more about a place will generate love
    and ownership
  5. Have the student do a creative projecta video,
    narrative, poem, song encourage action

29
TEACHING TIPS
  1. Suggest that the student should make a pen friend
    in the country
  2. Encourage Study Abroad to destinations other than
    Western Europe
  3. Teach about heroes that fought poverty
  4. Explain global resource scarcity and the
    impossibility of a global American lifestyle
  5. Encourage involvement with a NGO or charity
    organization encourage the act of giving to make
    a difference
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