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Social Movements of the 1960


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Title: Social Movements of the 1960

Social Movements of the 1960s
  • USH Unit 6

The Start of the Womens Movement
  • The Feminist Movement began in the late 1800s
  • Concentrated on gaining right to vote
  • Seneca Falls Convention
  • Declaration of Sentiments
  • 19th Amendment ratified in 1920

Reproductive Rights
  • Margaret Sanger opens birth control clinic in
  • Shut down by policethen reopened
  • Birth control information is declared to be not
    obscene in 1936
  • Birth control pills are developed and first
    approved by FDA in 1960

Equal Pay??
  • Stereotypes in the 19th century and early 20th
    century limited women to household jobs or low
    paying jobs
  • By the early 1960s, about half of all women held
    a job
  • President Kennedys Commission on the Status of
    Women is established in 1960
  • But on average, women still made only .63 to
    every 1 men made

Equal Pay Act
  • Congress passes the Equal Pay Act in 1963, making
    it illegal for employers to pay a woman less than
    what a man would receive for the same job
  • Since 1963, when the Equal Pay Act was signed,
    the closing of the wage gap between men and women
    has been at a rate of about half a penny a year.

Impact of the 1964 Civil Rights Act on Womens
  • Many women who had been involved with the Civil
    Rights Movement applied techniques to their own
  • A section of the 1964 Civil Rights Act called
    Title VII contained a section that outlawed
    discrimination on the basis of gender
  • This Act gave feminist groups legal standing
  • Extremely important!

Civil Rights Act- Title VII
  • "No person in the United States shall, on the
    basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,
    be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to
    discrimination under any educational program or
    activity receiving federal financial assistance."

Betty Friedan
  • Women began looking for
  • ways to explore other aspects
  • of their lives
  • Betty Friedans book, The Feminine Mystique,
    influenced many lives
  • The book described the cultural patterns that
    prevented women from achieving their full
  • AKA as the problem that has no name

  • The National Organization of Women
  • Founded in 1966 by Friedan and others
  • Sought pay and job equality
  • Called for more of an balance in child rearing
    and household responsibilities
  • Served as the major vehicle to end sex
    discrimination and promote equality

Ms Magazine
  • Ms. Magazine was first published as a sample
    insert in New York magazine 300,000 copies are
    sold out in 8 days.
  • The first regular issue was published in July
  • The magazine became the major forum for feminist
    voices, and cofounder and editor Gloria Steinem
    is launched as an icon of the modern feminist

The Equal Rights Amendment
  • The 26th Amendment (proposed)
  • Proposed 1972 change to the U.S. Constitution
  • Equality of rights under the law shall not be
    deniedon account of sex.
  • Did not receive needed 38 states proposal died
    in 1982

Roe v Wade
  • Landmark Supreme Court case in 1973
  • Legalized abortion in the U.S.
  • Became a radical cause on both sides

Equal Credit Opportunity Act
  • The Equal Credit Opportunity Act was passed in
  • It prohibits discrimination in consumer credit
    practices on the basis of sex, race, marital
    status, religion, national origin, age, or
    receipt of public assistance.

Opposition to Womens Movement
  • Phyllis Schlafly, a conservative political
    activist led a campaign to block passage of the
  • Feared that the ERA would lead to women in
    combat, coed bathrooms, and the end of
    traditional families
  • Became powerful political force

The Impact of Feminism
  • More women entered college, law school, and
    medical school
  • Women were admitted to military and police
  • Women became more involved in politics
  • Women became more involved in popular music
  • I Am Woman by Helen Reddy

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I Am Woman
  • I am woman, hear me roar
  • In numbers too big to ignore
  • And I know too much
  • To go back an' pretend
  • 'Cause I've heard it all before
  • And I've been down there on the floor
  • No one's ever gonna
  • Keep me down again.

You can bend but never break me'Cause it only
serves to make meMore determined to achieve my
final goalAnd I come back even strongerNot a
novice any longer'Cause you've deepened the
conviction in my soul
  • Oh yes, I am wiseBut it's wisdom born of
    painYes, I've paid the priceBut look how much I
    gainedIf I have toI can do anythingI am strong
    (strong)I am invincible (invincible)I am woman

I am woman watch me growSee me standing toe to
toeAs I spread my lovin' arms across the
landBut I'm still an embryoWith a long, long
way to goUntil I make my brother understand
  • Oh, yes, I am wiseBut it's wisdom born of
    painYes, I've paid the priceBut look how much I
    gainedIf I have toI can face anythingI am
    strong (strong)I am invincible (invincible)I am

  • Oh, I am womanI am invincibleI am strongI am
    womanI am invincibleI am strongI am woman

Oh, yes, I am wiseBut it's wisdom born of
painYes, I've paid the priceBut look how much I
gainedIf I have toI can face anythingI am
strong (strong)I am invincible (invincible)I am
Ethnic Minorities Seek Equality
  • Latinos
  • Asian-Americans
  • Native Americans

  • Latino population was growing quickly
  • Family origins in Latin America
  • Also known as Chicanos in 1960s-1970s
  • Had been seen as outsiders and denied employment,
    education, and housing
  • Large numbers of Latinos and Chicanos began to
    organize themselves into powerful political

Civil Rights for Latinos
  • The Mexican American Civil Rights Movement, one
    of the least studied social movements of the
    1960s, encompassed a broad cross section of
    issuesfrom restoration of land grants, to farm
    workers rights, to enhanced education, to voting
    and political rights.
  • Also known as the Chicano Movement addressed
    negative stereotyping of Mexicans in mass media
    and the American consciousness through the
    creation of works of literary and visual art that
    validated the Mexican-American ethnicity and
  • http//

Important Milestones
  • The Bracero Program, created under a joint
    U.S.-Mexico agreement in 1942, permits Mexican
    nationals to work in U.S. agricultural areas on a
    temporary basis and at wages lower than domestic
  • The Bracero Program is terminated in 1963.
  • In 1968, the U.S. Congress designated "National
    Hispanic Week" in mid-September, to coincide with
    the Independence Day celebrations in Costa Rica,
    El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua on
    September 15, and with Mexico's Independence Day
    on September 16. In 1988, Congress expanded the
    commemoration, appointing the month running from
    Sept. 15 to Oct. 15 as "National Hispanic Month."

Important Court Case
  • 1974 In Lau v. Nichols, the Supreme Court rules
    that, under the Civil Rights Act of 1964, school
    districts are required to provide assistance to
    LEP (limited-English-proficient) students that
    ensure that they receive the same opportunities
    as fluent English students

Cesar Chavez
  • Founder of United Farm Workers (UFW)
  • Was a migrant worker from Arizona his family was
    among the first to strike for equal rights and
    pay in the fields
  • Organized Mexican field hands against powerful
    grape and lettuce farmers

Chavez and Grape Boycott
  • Striking farm workers and supporters begin a
    national boycott of California table grapes
  • In 1968 Cesar Chavez fasts in Delano for 25 days.
  • He is joined by Sen. Robert Kennedy at the end of
    the fast. The UFW campaigns for Robert Kennedy in
    the California primary
  • Resulted in a 1975 California law that required
    collective bargaining for migrant workers

Asian Americans
  • Have faced discrimination since their arrival in
    the U.S.
  • The prejudice reached a peak in the 1940s
    (Internment camps)
  • Most were well-educated by 1960s, yet still
    earned less and found less jobs available in
  • This began to change by 1970s
  • The new state of Hawaii sent several
    Asian-Americans to Congress changing stereotypes

Immigration from Asia
  • The most significant change in immigration from
    Asia occurred when highly restrictive "national
    origins" quotas were lifted in 1965.
  • The new country-specific quotas enabled
    significant immigration from every country in
    Asia, which led to dramatic and ongoing changes
    in the Asian American population in the U.S.

Native Americans
  • By 1871, Native American tribes were not
    recognized as independent powers
  • However Native Americans were not considered US
    citizens, either!
  • After 1924, Native Americans who had been born in
    the U.S. were granted citizenship
  • However, it wasnt until 1948 that all were given
    the right to vote
  • Old stereotypes vanished slowly

Native Americans and Discrimination
  • Native Americans suffer from many of the same
    social and economic problems as other victims of
    long-term bias and discrimination - including,
    for example, disproportionately high rates of
    poverty, infant mortality, unemployment, and low
    high school completion rates.
  • The struggle for equal employment and educational
    opportunity is key to addressing these problems

Discrimination Against Native Americans
  • American Indians faced discrimination similar to
    the segregation that as African Americans
  • In some states you could find three separate
    drinking fountains labeled "whites," "Colored"
    and "Indian."
  • There were also three sections in some movie

The American Indian Movement (AIM)
  • The native civil rights movement began with the
    founding of the American Indian Movement (AIM) in
  • AIM began as a rallying group for the rights of
    Indians living in urban areas, and initiated a
    series of protests and confrontations that
    continued into the 1970s

The American Indian Movement (AIM)
  • Everything is tied to our homeland
  • Indian land claims included
  • Seneca Nation in New York
  • Seminole Nation in Florida
  • Fight for autonomy (self-government) on Indian

Violence in the Movement
  • Members of AIM briefly took over the headquarters
    of the Bureau of Indian Affairs in Washington,
  • They complained that the government had created
    the tribal councils on reservations in 1934 as a
    way of perpetuating paternalistic control over
    Native American development.

Issues of the Movement
  • During the Summer of 1968, two hundred members of
    the Indian community came together to discuss
    various issues and critical developments within
    the Native American community. Amongst them were
  •  Police Brutality
  •  Slum Housing
  •  80 unemployment rate
  • Disgraceful if not shameful practices of the
    Minneapolis public school system and its lack of
    concern regarding Indian education.
  • Racist and discriminatory policies of the
    Hennepin County welfare system toward Native
    American clients.
  • Questionable behavior of federal government in
    its regard to Native policies

The Occupation of Alcatraz in 1969
  • Several Native American groups claimed the former
  • The occupiers held the island for nearly eighteen
    months, from Nov. 20, 1969, until June 11, 1971,
    reclaiming it as Indian land and demanding
    fairness and respect for Indian peoples.
  • The protest failed and federal officials removed
    the protestors in 1970

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The Confrontation at Wounded Knee
  • In 1973, about 200 Sioux, led by members of AIM,
    seized the tiny village of Wounded Knee, South
    Dakota the site of the last great massacre of
    Native Americans by the U.S. cavalry (1890).
  • Among AIMs demands was a review of more than 300
    treaties between the Native Americans and the
    federal government that AIM alleged were broken.
  • Wounded Knee was occupied for 70 days before the
    militants surrendered.
  • Two AIM members were killed and a dozen people
    were hurt including federal marshals
  • AIM leadership were jailed for the protest and

Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • All of the civil rights laws that protect people
    from discrimination because of race or color or
    national origin also protect American Indians
    including the Civil Rights Act of 1964

The Environmental Movement
  • Roots of the Environmental Movement can be traced
    back to the late 1800s, and to the New Deal
  • Early environmentalists included John Muir and
    Teddy Roosevelt
  • Muir was instrumental in persuading TR to
    preserve vast public lands as parks, forests, and
    wildlife preserves

  • There can be nothing in the world more beautiful
    than the Yosemite, the groves of giant sequoias
    and redwoods, the Canyon of the Colorado, the
    Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Three Tetons and
    our people shoud see to it that they are
    preserved for their children and their children's
    children forever, with their majestic beauty all
  • Teddy Roosevelt, Outdoor Pastimes of an American
    Hunter 1905.

Best Sellers List
  • Rachel Carson
  • Author of Silent Spring
  • Condemned the use of chemical
  • pesticides such as DDT which
  • threatened the food chain
  • destroyed many
  • birds and fish including the bald eagle

Important Environmental Actions
  • The creation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission
    (NRC) in 1974
  • Chief goal to ensure that nuclear power faculties
    were operated safely

Earth Day
  • Earth Day was created in April 1970
  • Increased awareness and clean-up day
  • Celebrated on April 22
  • Wear green, walk to school, and plant some
  • http//

Government Action
  • Creation of the Environmental Protection Agency
    (EPA) in 1970
  • http//
  • The first EPA undertakings set standards for
    factory waste, car emissions, and the use of
    pesticides and toxic substances
  • The Clean Air in 1970
  • The Clean Water Act in 1972
  • Problems between businesses and the new laws
    continue today

Consumer Safety ExpertRalph Nader
  • Headed a consumer effort to
  • protect Americans from
  • unsafe products
  • Published, Unsafe at Any
  • Speed The Designed-in Dangers of the American
    Automobile in 1964
  • Later, headed efforts to make baby food,
    insecticides, and the meatpacking industries
    safer ran for president in 2000

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