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1960-74 - Turbulent Years

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Three Presidents: - John F. Kennedy 1960-63 (D) - Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-69 (D) - Richard M. Nixon 1969-74 (R) Three Themes: 1. Civil Rights Movements – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1960-74 - Turbulent Years


1
1960-74 - Turbulent Years
Three Presidents - John F. Kennedy 1960-63
(D) - Lyndon B. Johnson 1963-69 (D) - Richard
M. Nixon 1969-74 (R) Three Themes 1. Civil
Rights Movements 2. Domestic Policies 3.
Foreign Policy
2
1950s Beginning of The Civil Rights Movement
  • Why Now?
  • World War II
  • Television Conformity?, Spreading the message
  • Urban Centers and Great Migration
  • Educated, Middle Class Black Leaders
  • Accomplishments of the 1940s Jackie Robinson,
    Armed Forces
  • Goals
  • 1. Desegregate School
  • 2. End Jim Crow Laws
  • 3. Ensure Voting Rights
  • 4. Economic and Social Equality

3
The Civil Rights Movement Desegregating the
Schools
  • Brown v. Board of Education (1954) Linda Brown
    - Thurgood Marshall and NAACP 14th Amendment
  • Doll Test
  • separate educational facilities are inherently
    unequal , ends segregation in public schools
  • Brown II - All deliberate speed
  • BY 1957- 684 out of 3000 school districts
  • Little Rock Nine (1957) Central High School
  • Governor Orval Faubus Arkansas National Guard
  • President Eisenhower and the 101st Airborne
  • University of Mississippi 1962 James
    Meredith, Ross Barnett, and JFK
  • University of Alabama 1963 James Hood and
    Vivian Malone, George Wallace

4
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5
The Civil Rights Movement End Jim Crow Laws
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott
  • December 1, 1955 Rosa Parks
  • Martin Luther King, JR. 381 Days
  • 1956 Supreme Court Decision
  • Civil Disobedience and Nonviolent Protest
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
  • Greensboro Sit-In - 1960
  • Woolworth Lunch Counter
  • SNCC

6
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7
End Jim Crow Laws
1961 - Freedom Rides CORE - National
Guard March in Birmingham 1963 Martin
Luther King, JR. and SCLC - Letter from a
Birmingham Jail - Eugene Bull Connor
8
End Jim Crow Laws
1963 JFK Civil Rights Bill August 1963
March on Washington Martin Luther King, Jr.
I have a dream speech Civil Rights Act
of 1964 end segregation in public facilities
9
Secure Voting Rights
Freedom Summer 1964 Andrew Goodman, Michael
Schwermer and James Cheney 1965 Selma to
Montgomery Marches - 2 marchers killed 1964
24th Amendment Voting Rights Act of 1965
10
Social and Economic Equality
End Discrimination Poverty De Facto
Segregation - Black Power and the Black
Panthers - Nation of Islam and Malcolm X Black
Nationalism - Black Pride and Culture
Economic Nationalism - Violence - 1965 Watts
Riot, 34 killed 50 Cities - 1966 43
Riots, 1967 8 Riots - April 4,1968

MLK Assassinated in
Memphis, TN

60 cities rioted Affirmative Action 1965
11
Other Civil Rights Mvmts
  • Feminist Movement
  • - 1963 Betty Freidan The Feminine Mystique
  • - NOW Greater Opps Equal Pay
  • - Equal Pay Act of 1963 and Title VII
  • - Coeducational Colleges and Universities
  • - Affirmative Action, Ms., Roe v. Wade
  • 2. Hispanics Poverty, Equal Pay, Education
  • - Cesar Chavez United Farm Workers Grape and
    Lettuce Boycott
  • - 1974 Bilingual Education
  • 3. American Indians Termination and Poverty
  • - AIM
  • Alcatraz and Wounded Knee
  • - Indian Civil Rights Act, Land and Tribal
    Rights
  • 4. Gay Liberation Movement Stonewall Riot - 1969

12
Domestic Policy
1960 Election JFK v. Nixon - Role of the
Television Ads and Debate The New Frontier
1. Economy Keynesian Economics and tax cut?
2. Poverty- Education, Health Care, Mass
Transit, Environment? - Minimum Wage SS
Benefits 3. Civil Rights Equal Pay Act,
Supported with executive orders and national
guard troops 4. Funding for NASA - Neil
Armstrong 11/22/63 Assassinated in Dallas,
Warren Commission and Lee Harvey Oswald Problems-
Experience, Mandate?
13
Lyndon Johnson and The Great Society
Experience, JFKs Legacy, Election of 1964
Mandate, Johnson Treatment Tax Cut - 11.5
Billion War on Poverty - Economic Opportunity
Act OEO -950 million to public services -
Elementary Secondary Education Act - Medicare
Medicaid - Food Stamps Head Start -
HUDSection 8National Housing Act - Mass
Transportation Act - Immigration Act of
1965 Civil Rights Act, Voting Rights Act,
Affirmative Action
14
Evaluation of The Great Society
- Reduction in poverty, Increase role and power
of Federal Government, 25 Billion Deficit
15
The Warren Court (1953 1969) Brown v. Board of
Ed of Topeka, Kansas 1954 - Plessy v. Ferguson
(1896) - segregated train cars - 14th
Amendment - equal protection of the law -
separate is constitutional as long as equal -
Linda Brown - NAACP - Thurgood Marshall -
segregated schools - doll test Decision -
separate is inherently unequal - not
permissible in education - Court reversed its
earlier decision
16
Engel v. Vitale - 1962 Nondenominational prayer
in school - Almighty God, we acknowledge our
dependence upon Thee, and we beg Thy blessings
upon us, our parents, our teachers and our
country. Amen. Decision - violated first
amendment rights - establishment clause Mapp v.
Ohio - 1961 4th Amendment Unreasonable
Searches and Seizures Decision exclusionary
rule any evidence obtained in an illegal
search (must have warrant) is inadmissible in
court
17
Gideon v. Wainwright - 1963 - Clarence Gideon
Breaking and Entering - Denied lawyer by
the state of Florida -Decision- Violation
of 6th Amendment rights all states must
provide defendants with a lawyer Miranda v.
Arizona - 1966 - Ernesto Miranda arrested for
kidnapping and rape - Police line up and
confessions - 5th and 6th Amendment
Rights - Decision Violated his 5th and
6th Amendment Rights - Miranda Warning
18
Tinker v. Des Moines - 1969 Black Armbands and
Vietnam War John and Mary Beth Tinker
and suspension by Des Moines public school
system Decision Violation of First
Amendment Rights Students have rights in
Public Schools Overall Warren court expanded
civil rights including voting, religion, search
and seizure, and trial, empowered the federal
government to ensure civil liberties, Judicial
Activism
19
JFK Foreign Policy
  • Flexible Response to Containment
  • - Alliance for Progress, Peace Corps, Weapons
    Programs, Green Berets, NASA
  • Berlin 1961 The Wall
  • Cuba
  • Bay of Pigs 1961, Cuban Exiles and the CIA
  • Cuban Missile Crisis 10/12 U2 Photos, Naval
    Quarantine, 10/24 Agreement
  • 3. Vietnam North Vietnam and Viet Cong
    -Increased to 15000 troops Buddhist protests
    Assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem

20
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21
LBJ The Vietnam War
August 1964 2 US Destroyers Gulf of Tonkin -
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution all measures
necessary to prevent aggression and protect
American troops in Southeast Asia Blank
Check 1965 Pleiku Military Base 8
Americans - Bombing of the North and troops to
100,000 by 1968 500,000 Fighting the War -
The Enemy NVA, Viet Cong and Guerilla Warfare,
Ho Chi Minh Trail - Tactics 1. Supply lines
Bombings, Agent Orange, Napalm, and Chemical
Warfare 2. Find and defeat the enemy
Pacification and Relocation
22
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23
Problems with Vietnam
By 1968 Light at the end of the tunnel? - Are
we winning? 50,000 casualties - Frustration
amongst Soldiers - Student Protests - New Left
SDS and the Weathermen - Counterculture- Folk
Music Woodstock Draft Card Burnings, Peace
Marches (Pentagon) - 26th Amendment
24
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25
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26
January 1968-Tet Offensive 27 US Bases
Johnsons Announcement -March 31, 1968
27
The Election of 1968
American Society in the late 1960s Democratic
Party - - Lyndon B. Johnson - Withdrew -
Robert Kennedy - Assassinated June 1968 - Eugene
McCarthy - Hubert Humphrey - Democratic
National Convention - Chicago 1968 -
Antiwar Demonstrations and Riots Republican Party
had enough? - Richard Nixon - The Silent
Majority - Middle America and Peace with
Honor in Vietnam American Independence Party -
- George Wallace Return to State Power
28
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29
Richard M Nixon
  • The Economy Stagflation
  • Inflation and Recession
  • Deficit Spending and OPEC
  • Yom Kippur War and Embargo
  • First tried to fix inflation - Cut spending,
    raised interest rates, cut supply
  • Later tried to help recession - Raised spending,
    cut interest rates, raised supply
  • Welfare State
  • - Dismantled OEO- Cut funding
  • Civil Rights - Refused to support busing or
    mandatory integration
  • Rachel Carson and Silent Spring - 1970 EPA
    Clean Air and Clean Water Act

30
Nixon Foreign Policy
Vietnam Peace with Honor - Vietnamization
60,000 Troops - 1970 Invasion of
Cambodia, - Pentagon Papers, Lt. William Calley
My Lai Massacre - Kent State- 5/4/70 - 4
Students, Jackson State 2 Students - January
27, 1973 Cease Fire Agreement - Results
58,000, 150 Billion - Fall of Vietnam, Laos,
and Cambodia to Communism - War Powers Act
Détente China 1971 - USSR 1972 Trade
SALT I
31
Watergate
  • June 16, 1972 Democratic National Headquarters
    Watergate break-in
  • Nixon claims it is a Bizarre Incident and is
    reelected in November
  • Washington Post Reporters - CREEP
  • Jan 73Trials James McCords Confession
  • Special Prosecutor Senate Investigation
  • White House Tapes Saturday Night Massacre
  • Vice President Spiro Agnew Resigns
  • US v. Nixon Executive Privilege
  • August 1974 Tapes and Resignation
  • Lessons Learned- Political Apathy
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