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CHAPTER 9 Social Stratification

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CHAPTER 9 Social Stratification Section 1: Systems of Stratification Section 2: The American Class System Section 3: Poverty Objectives: Identify the characteristics ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: CHAPTER 9 Social Stratification


1
CHAPTER 9Social Stratification
  • Section 1 Systems of Stratification
  • Section 2 The American Class System
  • Section 3 Poverty

2
Objectives
Section 1 Systems of Stratification
  • Identify the characteristics of caste systems and
    class systems.
  • Contrast the major theories of social
    stratification.

3
Characteristics of Caste and Class Systems
Section 1 Systems of Stratification
  • social stratification division of society into
    categories, ranks, or classes
  • can be based on either achieved or ascribed
    status
  • can be open or closed
  • social inequality the unequal sharing of scarce
    resources and social rewards

4
Characteristics of Caste and Class Systems
Section 1 Systems of Stratification
  • Caste System
  • Closed and lifelong
  • Immobility and inherited status
  • Based on specific occupations
  • Ascribed status
  • exogamy, endogamy
  • Class System
  • Open and mobile
  • Reward is determined by achieved status
  • Property, prestige, and power are important
    (Weber)
  • bourgeoisie, proletariat

5
Dimensions of Social Stratification
Section 1 Systems of Stratification
  • social class grouping of people with similar
    levels of wealth, power, and prestige
  • wealth made up of assets (value of everything
    one owns) and income (money earned through
    salaries, investments, or capital gains
  • in the U.S. the richest 1 of the population
    controls more than 1/3 of the wealth
  • chart page 208

6
Dimensions of Social Stratification
Section 1 Systems of Stratification
  • power the ability to control the behavior of
    others, with or without their consent
  • based on force, possession of special skills,
    knowledge, social status, personal
    characteristics, custom/tradition
  • prestige respect, honor, recognition, or
    courtesy an individual receives from other
    members of society
  • based on income, occupation , education, family,
    residences, possessions, club memberships
  • chart page 209
  • socioeconomic status SES, rating that combines
    social factors such as educational level,
    occupational prestige, residence, income, used to
    determine an individuals relative position in
    the stratification system

7
Major Theories of Social Stratification
Section 1 Systems of Stratification
  • Functionalist Theorists view stratification as
    a necessary feature of the social structure and
    argue that the more important a role and the more
    skill needed to perform it, the higher the
    reward, without varying rewards may jobs would
    not be filled and society could not function
  • fails to recognize not everyone has equal access
    to resources, ignores the talented in lower
    classes that because of stratification may not be
    able to contribute to society, cannot explain why
    rewards sometimes do not reflect the social value
    of a role

8
Section 1 Systems of Stratification
Major Theories of Social Stratification
  • Conflict Theorists view stratification as a
    result of conflict over scarce resources and
    argue that groups gain power then use that power
    to maintain it, based on Marx
  • fails to recognize that unequal rewards are based
    on differences in talent, skill, and desire

9
Objectives
Section 2 The American Class System
  • Identify the characteristics of the American
    class system.
  • Explain how different motivations and cultural
    values influence the American class system.

10
The American Class System
Section 2 The American Class System
  • open system
  • law forbids discrimination based on ascribed
    characteristics such as race or gender
  • in theory, all have equal access to resources
  • rate of social mobility is not equal for all
    segments of society

11
Determining Social Class
Section 2 The American Class System
  • reputational method individuals are asked to
    rank other community members based on what they
    know of their character and lifestyle
  • subjective method individuals are asked to
    determine their own social rank
  • objective method sociologists define social
    class by income, occupation, and education

12
Social Classes in the United States
Section 2 The American Class System
  • 1 upper class
  • 14 upper-middle class
  • 30 lower-middle class
  • 30 working class
  • 22 working poor
  • 3 underclass
  • major difference in classes is income, lifestyle,
    beliefs
  • chart page 214

13
The American Class System
Section 2 The American Class System
  • Upper Class attend prestigious universities
    owners of large businesses, investors, heirs to
    family fortunes, top business executives 1
    percent of population
  • Upper Middle Class attend college or
    university, business executives, professionals
    14 percent of population
  • Lower Middle Class high school, some college
    lower-level managers skilled craftworkers,
    supervisors 30 percent of population

14
The American Class System
Section 2 The American Class System
  • Working Class high school education factory
    workers, clerical workers, lower level
    salespeople, some craft-workers 30 percent of
    population
  • Working Poor some high school laborers,
    service workers 22 percent of population
  • Underclass some high school undesirable,
    low-paying jobs, unemployed, on welfare 3
    percent of population

15
Social Mobility
Section 2 The American Class System
  • social mobility the movement between or within
    social classes or strata
  • horizontal mobility movement within a social
    class
  • vertical mobility movement between social
    classes, upward or downward
  • intergenerational mobility status differences
    between generations in the same family (parents
    social class vs. their own current class)
  • structural factors that affect upward mobility
    include advances in technology, changes in
    merchandising patterns, and increase in education

16
Motivations and Cultural Values Influence the
American Class System
Section 2 The American Class System
  • Values influence Americans to try to do better
    financially than their parents and to help their
    children do the same
  • Most Americans remain in the same social class as
    their parents

17
Objectives
Section 3 Poverty
  • Identify the groups of Americans that are
    affected by poverty.
  • Describe the steps that have been taken by the
    federal government to lessen the effects of
    poverty.

18
Defining Poverty
Section 3 Poverty
  • More than 31 million people (11 of the
    population) live below the poverty level.
  • poverty a standard of living that is below the
    minimum level considered adequate by society, a
    relative measure
  • poverty level defined by the U.S. Bureau of
    Census, the minimum annual income needed by a
    family to survive

19
Defining Poverty
Section 3 Poverty
  • Poverty Level
  • determined by calculating the cost of providing
    an adequate diet, based on the U.S. Dept. of
    Agricultures minimum nutritional standards
  • this number is then multiplied by three (research
    has indicated that poor people spend 1/3 of their
    income on food)
  • adjusted each year to reflect the cost of living
  • usually stated for a family of 4
  • chart page 221
  • reconsiderations based on changes in spending
    habits since the 1960s

20
Groups Affected By Poverty
Section 3 Poverty
  • Age children are the largest group (37) three
    times more African American and Hispanic children
    are poor than whites
  • Gender women are the largest segment (57)
    female-headed households account for about half
    of all poor families
  • Race and Ethnicity African Americans and
    Hispanics are far more likely than white
    Americans to be poor

21
The Effects of Poverty
Section 3 Poverty
  • Poor and wealthy members of society differ in the
    range of their life chances and behavior
    patterns.
  • life chances the likelihood that individuals
    have of sharing in the opportunities and benefits
    of society
  • health, life expectancy, housing, education
  • the lower the social class, the less opportunity
    to share in the benefit of society
  • life expectancy the average number of years a
    person born in a particular year can expect to
    live
  • inadequate nutrition and less access to medial
    care

22
The Effects of Poverty
Section 3 Poverty
  • patterns of behavior
  • higher divorce rate
  • committing crime
  • people living in poverty are more likely to
    commit crimes that police pursue more
    aggressively
  • victims of crime

23
Government Responses To Poverty
Section 3 Poverty
  • Government attempts to reduce inequality through
    various social-welfare programs using two
    approaches
  • Transfer Payments redistribution of money among
    various segments of society taking a percentage
    of the money collected through taxes and
    funneling it to groups that need public
    assistance (poor, unemployed, elderly, disabled
  • Supplemental Security Income (SSI) provides
    income support for people age 65 and older, the
    blind, and disabled with children
  • Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)
    cash payments to families with children

24
Government Responses To Poverty
Section 3 Poverty
  • Subsidies - transfer goods and services rather
    than cash
  • Food Stamp Program people receive coupons or
    cards that can be used to buy food
  • housing, school lunches
  • Medicaid health insurance program for the poor
  • Medicare government-sponsored health insurance
    program for people 65 and older
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