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Maya, Aztec, Inca

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Title: Maya, Aztec, Inca Author: kmitchell Last modified by: res-student Created Date: 4/14/2010 5:17:02 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Maya, Aztec, Inca


1
Maya, Aztec, Inca
2
Mayan Map
3
Maya
  • 250 BC 900 AD
  • Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, Belize, Guatemala
  • Cities Tikal, Chichen Itza
  • Written language-hieroglyphics
  • Pyramids
  • Farming-raised fields, canals, corn

4
Maya
  • Astronomy
  • Calendar
  • Concept of zero
  • Predicted spring/fall equinoxes
  • Religion-many godssun, rain

5
Aztec map
6
Aztecs
  • 1325-1521 AD
  • Mexico
  • Capital city Tenochtitlan
  • Built on an island
  • Causeways
  • Canals
  • Chinampas
  • Temples and pyramids

7
Aztecs
  • Legend how they found the place to build their
    city
  • Eagle, cactus, snake
  • Religion-many gods
  • Warriors

8
Aztec Calendar
-The Aztecs used a Calendar similar to The
Mayans. It had a 365 day a year Calendar.
-In the mythology of the Aztecs, the first age
of mankind ended with the animals devouring
humans. The second age was finished by wind, the
third by fire, and the fourth by water. The
present fifth epoch is called Nahui-Olin (Sun of
Earthquake), which began in 3113 BC and will end
on December 24, 2011. It will be the last
destruction of human existence on Earth.
9
Aztec Writing
  • The Aztec Language was based on symbols
    representing writing.
  • They would combine symbols to create sentences.

10
Mythology
  • According to an Aztec myth, the white-faced
    Quetzacuatl - their most important god.
  • He is the god of intelligence and the god of
    creation.

11
Inca Map
12
Inca
  • 1438-1533 AD
  • South America
  • 2500 miles of territory
  • Coastal area plus Andes Mountains
  • Cuzco-capital city
  • Machu Piccu-lost city
  • Stone work
  • Pyramids
  • Messengers

13
Inca
  • Farming-terraces
  • No written records-everything by messenger
  • Quipu-record keeping
  • Gold
  • Religion-many gods

14
Machu Picchu was rediscovered in 1911 by explorer
Hiram Bingham. It sits one and a half miles high
on a mountaintop in Peru once inhibited by the
Inca civilization. Bingham thought it must have
been a special religious city because of the
fine stonework, however archaeologists believe it
was some type of vacation resort for Inca nobles.
Over 3,000 steps connect the levels of the city
and farming terraces. It could only be reached
by a log bridge on a sheer cliff. If enemies
threatened the citizens there, they would simply
draw back the bridge.
15
Spanish Conquistadors
  • Aztecs conquered by Cortez in 1521
  • Inca conquered by Pizzaro in 1533
  • Maya-only theories about what happened to them.

16
Tribes Everyday Life Food Religion Social Organization Achievements Fall of the Empire
Maya Hard work Slash Burn Planting Building / Architecture Irrigation Birds, Rabbits, Monkeys, Deer Wild fruits Nuts Vegetables corn, squash, beans, etc. Many different gods 13 layers of heavens above the earth 9 underworlds Sacrifices Worship Dead Lord Nobles Priests Merchants / Artisans Peasants Slaves Legends Architecture Hieroglyphics Ball Game Calendars Astronomy Mathematics Irrigation Raised fields Abandoned their cities and just walked away / left Natural Disaster Disease
Inca Large Empire Roads Terrace farming Hard work Planting Andes Mts., rain forests, coastal deserts Potatoes Corn Tomatoes Avocados Peppers Strawberries Nuts Beans Chocolate Many gods and goddesses God of nature Viracocha Sun god Inti Daily prayers Festivals Sapa Inca descendant of the Sun god wife Coya Nobles Govt Officials Little contact with the Mayans Aztecs Roads Terrace Farming Irrigation Tamed llamas Counting system/quipus Spanish arrived and conquered

17
Tribes Everyday Life Food Religion Social Organization Achievements Fall of the Empire
Aztec Steambath Large households Farming Crafting Trade Maize (corn) Beans Squash Chili Peppers Tomatoes Wild game Gods Goddesses A Patron God for each village Royal Family/Upper class nobles Commoners Serfs Slaves Architecture Calendars Trade / Canals Markets Sculptures Weaving (Spanish) Cortes Conquistadors
18
Religion
Mayans Incas Aztecs
The Mayans worshipped many different gods. Believed their rulers were living gods. The Inca worshipped many gods and goddesses. Worshiped many gods and goddesses.
Believed there were 13 layers of heavens above the earth and 9 underworlds below. The major Incan god was the god of nature, Viracocha, the creator. Another Incan god was Inti the sun god. Gold was his symbol he was the father of Incan rulers. Each village occupation had its own patron god. A different god for each day watched over them.
Ceremonies of gifts and sacrifices, such as valuables, their own blood and human sacrifices. Believed in divining which is studying objects to find magic signs the gods wanted them to know. Had offerings and sacrifices as well. Human sacrifices, men women and sometimes children.
19
Rulers
MAYANS INCAS AZTECS
Lord Cacao-King of Tikal 18 Gopher-Ruler of Copan Pacal Ruler of Palenque Lord Was considered a god-king Responsible for political leadership Lords mostly men, but women had great influence on political decisions Pachacuti (1438-1463) Vision to use warfare to spread Inca culture Promise peace and gifts backed by threats Forced conquered peoples to obey leaders learn the language but could keep native language, leaders gods. Montezuma (1440-1468/9) Expanded the empire from the Atlantic to Pacific coasts to Central America to what is now Guatemala. Montezuma II his grandson became emperor in 1502. He ruled when the empire was at its peak.
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