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Aztec, Maya and Inca Civilizations

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Title: Aztec, Maya and Inca Civilizations


1
The Age of the Democratic Revolutions
2
Origins of the American Revolution
  • Since the founding of Jamestown in 1607, the
    American colonists had been subjects of Great
    Britain.
  • This meant that they were entitled to all the
    rights of Englishmen.

3
Enlightenment and Revolution
  • Religious beliefs, the Glorious Revolution and
    Enlightenment ideals all influenced the American
    Revolution. How?
  • Churches were places where colonists gathered.
    The ideas spread.
  • The Glorious Revolution had demonstrated the
    English subjects could be justified in
    overthrowing a ruler.
  • The Enlightenment discussed natural rights
    taxation without representation.

4
Enlightenment and Revolution Continued
  • To prevent unrest, the British government sent
    more troops to the American colonies.
  • The colonists were forced to pay a duty (tax) on
    tea.
  • The Boston Tea Party
  • British troops vs. the colonists
  • Thomas Paine, published Common Sense, which
    applied Enlightenment ideas to the colonists
    cause of independence.
  • In 1776, the colonists declared their
    independence.

5
Acting as an Amateur Historian
In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas
Jefferson put forth many of the ideas of
Enlightenment thinkers
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that
all men are created equal, that they are endowed
by their Creator with certain Unalienable Rights,
that among these are Life, Liberty and the
pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these
rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
deriving their just powers from the consent of
the governed. That whenever any Form of
Government becomes destructive of these ends, it
is the right of the People to after or abolish
it, and to institute new Government WHICH
ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS DID JEFFERSON USE IN THIS
OPENING PARAGRAPH?
6
Constitutional Convention
  • After winning their independence in 1783, the
    Americans sent representatives to a
    Constitutional Convention.
  • U.S. Constitution was created.
  • Power was shared between the national government
    and state government.
  • Legislative, executive, and judicial branches
    divided the governmental power.
  • Constitution gave each of these branches several
    ways to check each other (Checks and
    Balances)


7
Bill of Rights
  • A Bill of Rights was added to the Constitution to
    include protections of individual rights.

8
The French Revolution
9
Sit back and enjoy
A Revolution in France
10
Causes of the French Revolution
  • French Social Divisions
  • Old Regime Society was divided into 3 classes
    or estates
  • First Estate the clergy
  • Second Estate nobility
  • Third Estate common people and bourgeoisie
    (merchants, professionals, and shopkeepers)
  • The Impact of Enlightenment Ideals
  • The Third Estate resented the special privileges
    of the nobles
  • Financial Crisis
  • Wars with Britain
  • Assisting the Americans during the American
    Revolution

11
What does this political cartoon say about the
Three Estates?
12
Main events of the Revolution
  • Estates General
  • A national assembly in which each of the three
    estates was represented.
  • Third Estate elected twice as many delegates to
    the Estates General.
  • Abbe Sieyes, an Enlightenment thinker, wrote that
    the Third Estate represented the productive and
    useful citizens of France.
  • The Third Estate declared themselves as the
    National Assembly.

13
Storming the Bastille
  • The King sought to break up the National
    Assembly.
  • So, the people seized the prison of Bastille, to
    look for weapons.
  • The king recognized the new National Assembly.

14
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
  • A document issued by the National Assembly.
  • The government rested on the consent of the
    people (Popular Sovereignty) and not the king.
  • France became a constitutional monarchy
  • King shares power with the people.

15
The Revolution takes a radical turn
  • A poor harvest in France caused the people to
    overthrow the monarchy.
  • France became a republic.
  • Committee of Public Safety took over.
  • This began a Reign of Terror
  • Directed by Robespierre
  • Over 40,00 people were murdered during the Reign
    of Terror

16
Comparison of the American and French Revolution
  • Complete the Compare the American and French
    Revolutions chart provided for you.

17
The Rise and Fall of Napoleon
18
Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Born 1769 in the island of Corsica
  • Died 1821
  • Napoleon proved to be one of the most gifted
    generals of all times.
  • He developed new tactics for mass armies in the
    Age of Revolution.

19
The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
  • After the fall of Robespierre, Napoleon seized
    control over France.
  • He introduced reforms in France
  • New legal code
  • Settlement with the Catholic Church
  • Five years later, he crowned himself emperor of
    the French Empire.

20
Napoleons European Empire
21
The Fall of Napoleon
22
The Fall of Napoleon
  • Causes of the Fall of Napoleon
  • Napoleons policy of boycotting British goods
    backfired on France.
  • The economy crashed as a result.
  • The inability to invade England.
  • The unpopularity of French rule throughout
    Europe.

23
Napoleons Russian Campaign
  • Napoleon invaded Russia with 600,000 French
    troops.
  • Russia refused to surrender.
  • The Russians burned Moscow to the ground.
  • The French were forced to surrender.
  • 10,000 returned to Paris.

24
Napoleons Exile
  • After the Russian defeat, Napoleon was sent into
    exile (banished).
  • He escaped and returned to France.
  • Fought in the Battle of Waterloo and lost.

25
The Impact of Napoleon
  • Napoleonic Code
  • Law code that established social equality
  • Introduced ideas of the French Revolution to
    Europe.
  • Growth of Nationalism
  • Belief that each nationality should have its own
    government.

26
Restoring the Old Order
  • Congress of Vienna
  • Purpose To redraw Europes boundaries
  • Balance of Power was established.
  • No one country could become powerful.
  • Create lasting peace

27
Restoring the Old Order continued
  • William Wilberforce
  • Responsible for leading the abolition of slavery
    in England in 1800s.

28
The Independence of Latin America
  • Abuses of the Colonial System
  • Colonists resented Peninsulares political
    power.
  • Also, they resented Spanish economic restrictions.

29
The Independence of Latin America
  • Revolutionary Ideas Spread to Latin America
  • Colonists thought they were entitled to rule
    their own government.

30
Bolivar and the Struggle for Independence
  • Simon Bolivar
  • Known as the Liberator
  • Fought for independence of Venezuela.
  • Decree of War to the Death
  • Threatened those who opposed Bolivars cause.
  • Liberated Venezuela, Ecuador, Colombia, and Peru.
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