Chapter 15 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 15 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

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Chapter 15 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION Section 1: The Age of Invention Section 2: The Rise of Big Business Section 3: Labor Strives to Organize – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 15 THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION


1
Chapter 15THE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  • Section 1 The Age of Invention
  • Section 2 The Rise of Big Business
  • Section 3 Labor Strives to Organize

2
Objectives
Section 1 The Age of Invention
  • How did the development of steel and oil refining
    affect U.S. industry?
  • What innovations were made in transportation?
  • How did innovations in communications technology
    change business practices and daily life in the
    United States?
  • How did Thomas Edisons research laboratory
    change American life?

3
Oil refining
Section 1 The Age of Invention
  • resulted in the production of kerosene for fuel
    and light
  • allowed the manufacturing of other petroleum
    products
  • helped machinery operate

4
Steel refining
Section 1 The Age of Invention
  • provided a strong, cheap source of building
    material
  • allowed expansion of the railroad industry
  • allowed construction of more complex machines and
    taller buildings

5
Transportation innovations
Section 1 The Age of Invention
  • Railroads promoted western settlement, urban
    growth, and economic prosperity.
  • Automobiles became a substantial industry.
  • Airplanes introduced new possibilities.

6
Communications innovations
Section 1 The Age of Invention
  • The telegraph allowed businesses to place
    long-distance orders quickly.
  • The telephone helped both businesses and
    individuals to be in contact.
  • The typewriter allowed the quick production of
    legible documents.

7
Thomas Edisons research laboratory
Section 1 The Age of Invention
  • the light bulb
  • the phonograph
  • early motion-picture camera

8
Objectives
Section 2 The Rise of Big Business
  • What arguments did business leaders and social
    critics make about the role of government in
    business?
  • How did business strategies change during the
    Second Industrial Revolution?
  • How did entrepreneurs take advantage of changes
    in business organization?
  • How did new methods of marketing products change
    American life?

9
Concerning governments role in business
Section 2 The Rise of Big Business
  • Business leaders
  • Individuals should be self-reliant.
  • Businesses prosper most without government
    interference.
  • Government interference reduces self-reliance.
  • Social critics
  • Factory life and poor working conditions harms
    workers.
  • All citizens should own all means of production.
  • Government assistance would prevent the best
    businesses from rising to the top.

10
New business strategies
Section 2 The Rise of Big Business
  • incorporation
  • vertical integration
  • horizontal integration
  • technological innovation

11
Entrepreneurs take advantage
Section 2 The Rise of Big Business
  • Carnegie created corporations and used vertical
    integration to dominate the steel industry.
  • Rockefeller created corporations and used
    horizontal integration to dominate the oil
    industry.
  • Vanderbilt bought and consolidated many railroad
    lines.
  • Westinghouse and Pullman introduced and
    controlled new railroad technologies.

12
New marketing methods
Section 2 The Rise of Big Business
  • use of brand names and special packaging
  • advertising
  • department stores
  • catalogs
  • chain stores

13
Objectives
Section 3 Labor Strives to Organize
  • Why did some Americans want trusts to be banned,
    and how did the government respond?
  • What types of working conditions did laborers
    face in the new age of rapid industrialization?
  • How did the Knights of Labor attempt to address
    the needs of many workers?
  • How did businesses react to strikes in the late
    1800s, and how did this affect unions?

14
The banning of trusts
Section 3 Labor Strives to Organize
  • desired because of belief that without
    competition, large monopolies would have do
    reason to maintain quality or keep prices low
  • not accomplished despite passage of the Sherman
    Antitrust Act

15
Working conditions
Section 3 Labor Strives to Organize
  • low pay
  • long hours
  • unsafe environments
  • possibility of racial discrimination

16
The Knights of Labor
Section 3 Labor Strives to Organize
  • included both skilled and unskilled workers
  • included women and, later, African Americans
  • organized strikes, marches, and demonstrations
  • educated and organized workers

17
Strikes in the late 1800s
Section 3 Labor Strives to Organize
  • Businesses responded with blacklists, yellow-dog
    contracts, lockouts, and violence.
  • Business tactics hurt many unions and caused
    skilled workers to break away from unskilled ones.
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