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The 1960

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Title: The 1960


1
1950's
1950s
2
Main Essential Question
  • How did political and social developments between
    1945 and 1970 affect American culture and norms?

3
SSUSH 20 The student will analyze the domestic
and international impact of the Cold War on the
United States.
c. Describe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of
Pigs, and the Cuban missile crisis. d. Describe
the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive and growing
opposition to the war.
4
SSUSH21 The student will explain economic growth
and its impact on the United States, 1945-1970.
  • a. Describe the baby boom and the impact as shown
    by Levittown and the Interstate Highway Act.
  • b. Describe the impact television has had on
    American culture, including the presidential
  • debates (Kennedy/Nixon, 1960) and news coverage
    of the Civil Rights movement.
  • c. Analyze the impact of technology on American
    life, including the development of the personal
    computer and the cellular telephone.
  • d. Describe the impact of competition with the
    USSR as evidenced by the launch of Sputnik I and
    President Eisenhowers actions.

5
SSUSH22 The student will identify dimensions of
the Civil Rights Movement, 1945-1970.
  • a. Explain the importance of President Trumans
    order to integrate the U.S. military and the
    federal government.
  • b. Identify Jackie Robinson and the integration
    of baseball.
  • c. Explain Brown v. Board of Education and
    efforts to resist the decision.
  • d. Describe the significance of Martin Luther
    King, Jr.s Letter from a Birmingham Jail and his
    I have a dream speech.
  • e. Describe the causes and consequences of the
    Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights
    Act of 1965.

6
Georgia Performance Standards
  • SSUSH23 The student will describe and assess the
    impact of political developments between 1945 and
    1970.
  • a. Describe the Warren Court and the expansion of
    individual rights as seen in the Miranda
    decision.
  • b. Describe the political impact of the
    assassination of President John F. Kennedy
    include the impact on civil rights legislation.
  • c. Explain Lyndon Johnsons Great Society
    include the establishment of Medicare.
  • d. Describe the social and political turmoil of
    1968 include the assassinations of Martin Luther
    King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy, and the events
    surrounding the Democratic National Convention.
  • SSUSH24 The student will analyze the impact of
    social change movements and organizations of the
    1960s.
  • a. Compare and contrast the Student Non-Violent
    Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Southern
    Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) tactics
    include sit-ins, freedom rides, and changing
    composition.
  • b. Describe the National Organization of Women
    and the origins and goals of the modern womens
    movement.
  • c. Analyze the anti-Vietnam War movement.
  • d. Analyze Cesar Chavez and the United Farm
    Workers movement.
  • e. Explain Rachel Carson and Silent Spring, Earth
    Day, the creation of the EPA, and the modern
    environmentalist movement.
  • f. Describe the rise of the conservative movement
    as seen in the presidential candidacy of Barry
    Goldwater (1964) and the election of Richard M.
    Nixon (1968).

7
  • SSUSH25 The student will describe changes in
    national politics since 1968.
  • a. Describe President Richard M. Nixons
    opening of China, his resignation due to the
    Watergate scandal, changing attitudes toward
    government, and the Presidency of Gerald Ford.

8
Essential Questions
  • What was the American response to the Cuban
    Missile Crisis?
  • What was the impact of the Vietnam War
    politically and socially?
  • How did economic growth after 1950 impact the
    American way of life?
  • What is the significance of Martin Luther King?
  • What changes in American society were caused by
    the Civil Rights movement?
  • How did American life change in the 1960s?
  • How did the Warren Court change America?

9
America after WWII
10
  • Baby Boom- starting in 1946 people have lots of
    babies-common after a war
  • Where will they all live?
  • Places like Levittown- new way of living in Long
    Island NY. Not in the main city of New York.
  • Many 2-3 bedroom homes in close proximity on a ½
    to 1 acre.
  • Called the suburbs and they are here to stay!

11
People making money , buying cars, living
further away from workAnswer? Inter-state
Highway Act-construction of 40,000 miles of
interstate highways over a 10-year period it
was the largest public works project in American
history to that point. America is growing and on
the move!
12
Civil Rights
13
The Almost First Civil Rights March in 1941
  • A. Philip Randolph (international president of
    the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters,
    president of the Negro American Labor Council ,
    and vice president of the AFL-CIO), had planned a
    march on Washington in 1941 to protest
    discrimination
  • The threat of the 1941 march convinced President
    Roosevelt to establish the Committee on Fair
    Employment Practice and bar discriminatory hiring
    in the defense industry
  • Therefore it never happened

14
  • Jack Roosevelt "Jackie" Robinson became the
    first African-American major league baseball
    player of the modern era
  • While not the first African American professional
    baseball player in United States history, his
    Major League debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers
    ended approximately eighty years of baseball
    segregation, also known as the baseball color
    line or color barrier.

1947
15
1948
  • President Truman orders integration of the
    military
  • Among the order's effects was the elimination of
    Montford Point as a segregated Marine boot camp
    (the camp became Camp Lejeune).
  • The last of the all-black units in the United
    States military was abolished in September 1954.

16
End of legal segregation
  • Brown v. Board of Education-1954
  • Supreme Court rules that separate but equal was
    unconstitutional.
  • Schools required to integrate blacks.
  • Chief Justice Earl Warren writes majority opinion.

17
1955
  • Rosa Parks
  • Black woman refuses to sit in the back of the
    public bus.
  • 1956 the Montgomery buses desegregate.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1957
  • Voting rights for blacks secured.

18
1960- The sit-in protest movement begins in
February at a Woolworth's lunch counter in
Greensboro, N.C. and spreads across the nation.
19
Civil Rights Movement
  • Blacks demand the integration of all public
    facilities.
  • February, 1960- Four black students refuse to
    leave a whites only lunch counter in
    Greensboro, NC.
  • Return each day for a sit-in until integrated.
  • Fully integrated in July, 1960.

20
1961- Freedom rides begin from Washington, D.C
Groups of black and white people ride buses
through the South to challenge segregation.
21
1962- Two killed, many injured in riots as James
Meredith is enrolled as the first black at the
University of Mississippi.
22
1963- Police arrest King and other ministers
demonstrating in Birmingham, Ala., then turn fire
hoses and police dogs on the marchers.Medgar
Evers, NAACP leader, is murdered June 12 as he
enters his home in Jackson, Miss250,000 people
attend the March on Washington, D.C. urging
support for pending civil-rights legislation. The
event was highlighted by King's "I have a dream"
speech. Four girls killed Sept. 15 in bombing of
the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church in
Birmingham, Ala.
23
  • 1964-Three civil-rights workers are murdered in
    Mississippi.

24
Two Major Civil Rights Groups
  • SNCC
  • SCLC

25
The struggle and the cost
26
Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Civil Rights leader.
  • Believed in civil disobedience/ peaceful
    demonstrations.
  • 1965- Selma, AL
  • Marches w/ 2000 blacks demanding voting rights.

27
MLKs speeches
  • I have a dream
  • Letter from a Birmingham jail

28
Black Power
  • Frustrated blacks organize and riot in the major
    cities.
  • Demand all-black businesses and all-black
    communities.
  • Malcolm X
  • Muslim minister.
  • Preaches that blacks and whites could only exist
    if they were completely separated.
  • Believed to have been assassinated in 1965 by
    members of the Black Muslim religion

29
March on Washington
  • MLK decides to follow through on Randolphs
    proposed 1941 march
  • August, 1963
  • Over 250,000 men, women, and youth gather in
    Washington, DC.
  • Demand the passage of a Civil Rights Bill.
  • Martin Luther King
  • I have a dream

30
  • 1964
  • The 24th Amendment abolishes the poll
    tax
  • President Johnson signs the Civil
    Rights Act of 1964.
  • 1965
  • Congress passes the Voting Rights Act
  • Asserting that civil rights laws alone are
    not enough to remedy discrimination, President
    Johnson issues Executive Order 11246, which
    enforces affirmative action for the first time.
    It requires government contractors to "take
    affirmative action" toward prospective minority
    employees in all aspects of hiring and
    employment.
  • 1967
  • In Loving v. Virginia, banning interracial
  • marriage is declared unconstitutional by the
    Supreme Court

T H E S O L U T I O N S
31
Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • April 4, 1968
  • Leads a nonviolent demonstration in Memphis, TN.
  • Killed by an assassins bullet outside his hotel
    room.

32
Why do so many of the civil rights actions
succeed?
  • Television!
  • In your living room every night , America can see
    what is happening in the Civil Rights movement
  • Hard to remain uncaring when you can see blood on
    the streets, children hurt and women killed
  • Hard to explain that as a good thing to your
    children

33
Election of 1956
  • Republicans
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower
  • Democrats
  • Adlai Stevenson
  • 1955- Eisenhower suffers heart attack, but
    chooses to run.
  • Eisenhowers popularity allows him a win by a
    landslide.

34
1959
  • Minimum wage raised from .75 cents to 1.00.
  • Labor Union AFL-CIO created.
  • Alaska becomes 49th state.
  • Hawaii becomes 50th state.
  • GNP raises from 265 billion to 510 billion.
  • Total money value of all goods and services.

35
Election of 1960
  • Democrats
  • John F. Kennedy
  • Republicans
  • Richard Nixon
  • Television debates portray Nixon in a negative
    manner.
  • Kennedy promises a New Frontier to get the
    American economy moving.
  • Kennedy wins!
  • Age 43- youngest man ever elected President.
  • First Roman Catholic.
  • Televisions importance is growing

36
The New Frontier
  • Increased govt. spending in space and national
    defense.
  • Minimum wage raised to 1.25/hour.
  • 1.5 billion allotted by Congress to build new
    schools and hospitals.

37
The Space Program (the space race)
  • April, 1961- Soviet Union sends Yuri Gagarin into
    space.
  • First man in space.
  • February, 1962- John Glenn first American to
    orbit the Earth.
  • 1964- NASA created.
  • 5 million new jobs created.

38
Communism in the Americas
  • 1959
  • Fidel Castro leads a rebellion in Cuba.
  • Establishes a Communist dictatorship.
  • Allies with the Soviet Union.

39
The Bay of Pigs
  • Kennedy orders CIA to train anti-Castro Cubans to
    overthrow Castro.
  • April 17, 1961- 1500 rebels are defeated by the
    Cubans.
  • United States fails to aid them.
  • Invasion over in 72 hours.
  • Kennedy takes responsibility.
  • Criticized as making U.S. look like fools to our
    friends, rascals to our enemies, and incompetents
    to the rest.

40
The Berlin Crisis
  • Soviet Union sees Kennedy as weak.
  • Demands the West to recognize the sovereignty of
    Communist E. Germany.
  • Kennedy refuses.
  • August, 1961- Soviets build the Berlin Wall to
    stop E. Germans from fleeing to W. Germany.

41
The Cuban Missile Crisis
  • October 14, 1962- American U-2 spy plane
    photographs missile launch pads in Cuba.
  • October 22, 1962- Kennedy orders naval blockade
    of Cuba.
  • Soviet Union confronted at U.N.
  • October 24, 1962- Soviet ships stop short of the
    blockade.
  • eyeball to eyeball, and the other guy just
    blinked.
  • October 28, 1962- Soviets dismantle the missile
    bases in Cuba.

42
The Assassination of John F. Kennedy
  • November 22, 1963
  • Kennedy goes to Dallas, TX for a campaign trip.
  • 1230 pm- Kennedys open-air motorcade is fired
    upon.
  • Kennedy shot in the head- dies instantly.
  • Lee Harvey Oswald accused of the killing.
  • Warren Commission- investigates the assassination
    and finds no evidence of a conspiracy.

43
Lyndon Johnson
  • Kennedys VP
  • Becomes President after the assassination.
  • Brash, ambitious, and hardworking.
  • Sharp contrast to the wealthy and charismatic
    Kennedy.
  • Focuses administration
  • Tax Cuts
  • Civil Rights
  • Poverty

44
The Election of 1964
  • Democrats
  • Lyndon Johnson
  • Republicans
  • Barry Goldwater
  • Johnson announces new govt. programs to help the
    poor.
  • Johnson wins in a landslide.

45
The Great Society
  • Johnsons federal welfare program.
  • Created
  • Medicare- health insurance for over 65.
  • Reduction of the federal excise tax on
    automobiles.
  • 1.5 billion given to poverty.
  • 7.5 billion given to build new homes for the
    poor.

46
(No Transcript)
47
History of Vietnam
  • 1950s- France gives Vietnam its independence.
  • Split into 2 countries
  • North Vietnam
  • Hanoi- capital
  • Communists lead by Ho Chi Minh.
  • South Vietnam
  • Saigon- capital
  • Republic lead by President Diem.
  • North Vietnamese demand reunited country.
  • Viet Cong invade.

48
American Involvement
  • United States vows to stop the spread of
    Communism.
  • 1957- Eisenhower recognizes as new leader.
  • 1960- Kennedy sends aid to stop Viet Cong.
  • Demand Diem to reform the South.
  • He refuses.
  • No American aid.
  • 1963- Diem assassinated.

49
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
  • August, 1964.
  • In Gulf of Tonkin-American ships attacked by N.
    Vietnam.
  • America secretly aiding S. Vietnam raids.
  • President Johnson orders the bombing of N.
    Vietnam.
  • Asks Congress for authority take action against
    N. Vietnam.
  • No official declaration of war.

50
War in Vietnam
  • February, 1965- American planes bomb N. Vietnam.
  • This continues until March, 1968.
  • March, 1965- Ground troops sent to S. Vietnam to
    aid in fighting the Viet Cong.
  • 1966- 500,000 American troops in S. Vietnam.

51
Tet Offensive
  • February, 1968.
  • Viet Cong launch surprise attacks on S. Vietnam
    during Tet.
  • New Year holiday.
  • Americans stop, but many casualties.
  • Shows America that war was far from over.
  • Increased anti-war demonstrations.
  • Congress question constitutionality of
    Presidents powers to wage war.

52
The Cultural Revolution
  • Youth revolt against the establishment.
  • The Hippies
  • Long hair, blue jeans, and love beads.
  • LSD and marijuana at Haight-Ashbury.
  • Communal Living
  • The Farm
  • It is a time of change and new ideas

53
Rock Music
54
Student Revolts
  • 1964- University of California at Berkeley
  • Students demand rights to protest the war.
  • 1965- Teach-ins begin
  • University students take over administrative
    offices and demand free speech.
  • 1966-67- Students burn draft cards and protest
    the Vietnam War.
  • 1968- Columbia University seized by students.
  • NY police called in.
  • Over 200 students injured.

55
Womens Movement
  • National Organization of Women (NOW) - largest
    feminist organization
  • Promoted the Equal Rights Amendment to the
    Constitution
  • Developed because women felt that they were
    discriminated against in work, with pay,
    education , stereotyping,
  • equality, and
  • culturally
  • No more barefoot and pregnant

56
Cesar Chavez
  • Prominent Latino leader in the 1960s
  • Organized the United Farm Workers movement- a
    labor union for migrant and farm workers
  • They wanted better wages, working conditions, and
    the restriction of deadly pesticides
  • Known for the grape and lettuce boycotts in
    California

57
The Warren Court
  • Earl Warren, Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
    from 1953 to 1969
  • He affected the legal status of racial
    segregation, civil rights, separation of church
    and state, and police arrest procedure (Miranda
    Rights) in the United States
  • In the years that followed, the Warren Court
    became recognized as a high point in the use of
    the judicial power in the effort to effect social
    progress in the U.S

58
Environmental-ist Movement
  • Rachel Carson, a marine biologist, wrote Silent
    Spring in 1962 about the species she saw going
    extinct and why
  • Silent Spring led to a nationwide ban on DDT and
    other pesticides
  • The grassroots environmental movement it inspired
    led to the creation of the Environmental
    Protection Agency and Earth Day

59
Election of 1968
  • Democrats
  • Johnson announces he will not seek a second term.
  • Robert Kennedy
  • Brother and former Attorney General to JFK.
  • Democrat frontrunner
  • Assassinated in California

60
1968 Democratic National Convention
  • Hold convention in Chicago.
  • Gene McCarthy- anti-war
  • Hubert Humphrey- pro-war
  • Thousands of peace activists demonstrate in front
    of the convention hall.
  • Chicago police called out.
  • Violent confrontations witnessed by millions on
    television

61
The rise of the conservative movement
  • Reaction to the violence and turmoil in America
    as seen by millions on TV
  • Concerns with hippie movements agenda of free
    love, drugs, and lack of commitment/responsibility
  • Awareness of the eroding of a former way of life
  • Dissatisfaction with the way soldiers and
    military are being treated
  • We have gone too far to the left

62
Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater credited with
sparking the resurgence of the American
conservative political movement in the 1960s
I have little interest in streamlining
government or in making it more efficient, for I
mean to reduce its size. I do not undertake to
promote welfare, for I propose to extend freedom.
My aim is not to pass laws, but to repeal them.
It is not to inaugurate new programs, but to
cancel old ones that do violence to the
Constitution
63
Election of 1968
  • Democrats
  • Hubert Humphrey
  • Republicans
  • Richard Nixon
  • 3 issues
  • Violence in America
  • Vietnam War
  • Civil Rights
  • Nixon promises an honorable end to the Vietnam
    War.
  • Nixon wins by 260,000 popular votes.
  • Wins 302 electoral votes.

64
1969
  • Woodstock
  • August
  • Three Days of Peace and Music
  • Acts included The Grateful Dead Jimi Hendrix
  • Janis Joplin
  • Crosby Stills and Nash
  • 400,000 youth indulge in 3 days of sex, drugs,
    and rock and roll.
  • 60,000 expected to attend.
  • The_Woodstock_Generation.asf

65
1969-1974
  • 1969- Nixon inaugurated.
  • Calls for the gradual removal of troops from
    Vietnam.
  • 1975- final troops leave.
  • Improves relations with the Soviet Union
  • Opens up trade with China
  • Watergate scandal
  • 1974-Nixon resigned the presidency in the face of
    likely impeachment

66
Gerald Ford
  • Nixon resigns and his Vice-President becomes
    President
  • Pardons Nixon
  • Signs Helsinki Accords that further improve
    relations with Soviet Union

67
1969
  • July 20, 1969
  • Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Ed Aldrin,
    Jr. land on the moon.
  • Thats one small step for man, one giant leap
    for mankind.

68
The end by Miss D
  • The King Has Left the Building
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