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1960 s and 1970 s Civil Rights and War Protests – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: 1960

1960s and 1970s
  • Civil Rights
  • and
  • War Protests

Interest in Criminal Justice
  1. The Civil Rights Movement
  2. The Vietnam War
  3. Rising crime rate
  4. The publics awareness of crime

Civil Rights and War Protest
  • Protest against Racism
  • Violence against protesters of racial
  • Martin Luther Kings Civil Disobedience
  • Rosa Parks
  • Protest against Vietnam War
  • Americans viewed fear of crime as the most
    serious problem in the country

Civil Rights and War Protest
  • Civil Liberties suspended safety
  • World War II 120,000 Americans of Japanese decent
    were forced to detention centers
  • Enemy Combatants from the Middle East?

Civil Rights and War Protest
  • Abraham Lincoln choose to suspend the right to
    trial during the civil war

Civil Rights and War Protest
  • Political protests against U.S. involvement in
  • Police defended the status quo
  • Police were not the answer to the problem
  • The polices ability to maintain social order was
    questioned during this time

Presidents Commission on Law Enforcement and
Administration of Justice
  • Most people had lost confidence in the police to
    maintain law order
  • People stayed in their homes at night and kept
    dogs on premises
  • Children took karate and people armed themselves

War on Crime
  • Expanded criminal justice education
  • Restored public confidence in criminal justice
  • Decreased crime rate

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Street Act 1968
  • Created the Law Enforcement Assistance
    Administration (LEAA)
  • Attempted to counter restrictions placed on law
    enforcement by the U.S. Supreme Court
  • It was created to restore public confidence in
    the criminal justice system

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Street Act 1968
  • Confessions could be admitted in federal trials
    even if the accused had not been advised of their
    legal rights
  • Local and state law enforcement agencies could
    tap telephones for brief periods without a court

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Street Act 1968
  • Law Enforcement Educational Program
  • (LEEP)
  • Goal was to promote education in criminal justice

Death Row
  • The US has the most foreign nationals on death
  • Most issues with foreign nationals on death row
    centers around civil rights

  • The Fourteenth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution
    is particularly important because it protects
    civil rights
  • The Fourth Amendment protects against
    unreasonable searches and seizures.
  • The Sixth Amendment guarantees the right to a
    speedy trial.

First Federal law enforcement agencies
  • The first two federal law enforcement agencies in
    the United States were the Office of Postal
    Inspector and the U.S. Marshal's Service

  • The constitution of the United States of American
    reflected a distrust of a strong centralized
    government because Americans were trying to
    establish a balance between civil rights and
    governmental power.

Criminal Justice and Criminology
  • Early criminal justice programs were said to
    focus primarily on practical application.
  • The relationship between social justice and
    criminal justice is not always clear cut
  • Social injustice is a powerful tool for
    terrorists because they focus on the
    powerlessness of citizens of legitimate

Crisis in the Criminal Justice System
  • 1960s and 1970s domestic strife
  • Twenty first century foreign attack
  • 9/11 lead to
  • Greater police powers
  • Expanded powers of search and seizures
  • Millions perhaps billions of dollars being added
    to Criminal Justice agencies
  • People questioning the effectiveness of the U.S
    criminal justice system

What is Terrorism?
  • Defining terrorism has been difficult, because
    domestic and international terrorists use acts of
    violence to promote political or social change,
    and political ideology is judged relative to
    ones political beliefs and desires. Different
    countries and different government agencies
    within the United States do not define terrorism
    the same way

Domestic Terrorism
  • Acts of terrorism committed by the citizens of
    the country being terrorized
  • Acts of violence committed by militias and
    extremists groups or individuals
  • Violence against abortion clinics and personnel
  • Ecoterrorism violent destruction of the
    environment or natural resources on which we

Domestic Terrorism groups
  • ELF Earth Liberation Front
  • FBI labeled one of the countrys greatest
    domestic terrorist threats
  • They have cause millions of dollars in damage to
  • ALF - Animal Liberation Front
  • Focus on liberation of animals used in
    scientific experiments

Domestic Terrorism groups
  • Ku Klux Klan
  • rallies, cross-burnings, hate crimes and major
    criminal activity
  • Skinheads
  • anti-racist skins call themselves "sharps
  • Racist skins are often called "bonehead
  • Racist skinheads have been responsible for an
    increasing number of hate crimes in this country,
    including vicious murders

Domestic Terrorism groups
  • John Birch Society - Racial Segregation
  • Has a website
  • Order of Thule Racial Segregation
  • Posse Comitatus
  • The Constitutional Party
  • FBI estimates about 184 milita/extremist groups
    in the US

The New Challenge WTC 9/11
  • War on Terrorism
  • New Cabinet position - Office of Homeland
  • Coordinate antiterrorism activities between
    federal law enforcement and intelligence agencies

Domestic Terrorism goals
  • Destroy legitimate governments
  • Change a behavior
  • Example blow up an abortion clinic to stop
  • To challenge the criminal justice system in the
    ability to respond to them
  • THEY HAVE NOT. The criminal justice system
    responses to them well

Eric Rudolph
International Terrorism
  • Acts of terror committed by citizens of another

Achieve goals through response of the government
to their acts
  • They count on overreaction of the government and
    the media
  • It is difficult for the government to target
    those responsible for terrorism
  • US has relied on the FBI to respond to terrorism

International Terrorism
  • How the US responds to Terrorism is important
  • To restore public confidence in the criminal
    justice system
  • The role US might play in the globalization of
    law enforcement
  • The perception of US response to potential and
    terrorist attacks.

International Terrorist Groups
  • Al-Qaida
  • Al-Qaida was established by Usama Bin Ladin in
    1988 with Arabs who fought in Afghanistan against
    the Soviet Union. Helped finance, recruit,
    transport, and train Sunni Islamic extremists for
    the Afghan resistance. Goal is to unite Muslims
    to fight the United States as a means of
    defeating Israel, overthrowing regimes it deems
    "non-Is-lamic," and expelling Westerners and
    non-Muslims from Muslim countries. Eventual goal
    would be establishment of a pan-Islamic caliphate
    throughout the world. Issued statement in
    February 1998 under the banner of "The World
    Islamic Front for Jihad Against the Jews and
    Crusaders" saying it was the duty of all Muslims
    to kill US citizens, civilian and military, and
    their allies everywhere. Merged with al-Jihad
    (Egyptian Islamic Jihad) in June 2001, renaming
    itself "Qaidat al-Jihad." Merged with Abu Musab
    al-Zarqawis organization in Iraq in late 2004,
    with al-Zarqawis group changing its name to
    "Qaidat al-Jihad fi Bilad al-Rafidayn"
    (al-Qaida in the Land of the Two Rivers).

International Terrorist Groups
  • Hizballah
  • AKA - Party of God ,Islamic Jihad,Islamic Jihad
    for the Liberation of Palestine
  • Formed in 1982 in response to the Israeli
    invasion of Lebanon, this Lebanon-based radical
    Shia group takes its ideological inspiration from
    the Iranian revolution and the teachings of the
    late Ayatollah Khomeini. The Majlis al-Shura, or
    Consultative Council, is the groups highest
    governing body and is led by Secretary General
    Hasan Nasrallah. Hizballah is dedicated to
    liberating Jerusalem and eliminating Israel, and
    has formally advocated ultimate establishment of
    Islamic rule in Lebanon. Nonetheless, Hizballah
    has actively participated in Lebanons political
    system since 1992. Hizballah is closely allied
    with, and often directed by, Iran but has the
    capability and willingness to act independently.
    Though Hizballah does not share the Syrian
    regimes secular orientation, the group has been
    a strong ally in helping Syria advance its
    political objectives in the region

International Terrorist Groups
  • Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA)
  • Euskal Herria (Basque Country) is divided
    politically between the French and Spanish
    states. It is composed of seven provinces three
    under French administration, Iparraldea or
    Northern Basque Country, and four under Spanish
    administration, Hegoaldea or Southern Basque
    Country. In 1901 the founder of the Basque
    Nationalist Party, Sabino Arana, coined the term,
    Euzkadi(also spelled Euskadi) to describe a
    hypothetical Basque confederated state comprised
    of the seven Basque provinces. Basque Fatherland
    and Liberty a.k.a Euzkadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) was
    founded in 1959 with the aim of creating an
    independent homeland in Spain's Basque region. It
    has a muted commitment to Marxism.

War on terrorism
  • Includes both Domestic and International
  • It does consider the civil rights / civil
    liberties of American citizens

  • The Response to terrorism and the efforts to stop
  • Legislation during the 1970s and 1980s sharply
    restricted law enforcements authority to gather
    and maintain intelligence files

Local Law Enforcement
  • Usually unequipped to respond adequately to
    terrorist attacks or mount counter terrorism
  • Only a few have response units for after a
    terrorist attacks
  • Houston has gone through training

Bill of Rights
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Supreme Court cases
  • Powell v. Alabama (1932)The Court ruled that
    indigent members of society (in this case, the
    Scottsboro Boys), when charged with a capital
    crime, must be given competent counsel at the
    expense of the public.
  • Betts v. Brady (1942)The Court refused to grant
    the right to an attorney to all indicted or
    accused individuals they believed the courts
    must hear each non-capital situation and decide
    on a case-by-case basis.
  • Bartkus v. Illinois (1959)The Court ruled that
    prosecutions in state and federal courts for the
    same act are not violations of due process and
    double jeopardy protections persons may be tried
    twice for the same crimes, once in federal court
    and once in state court.

Supreme Court cases
  • Mapp v. Ohio (1961)All evidence obtained by
    searches and seizures in violation of the
    Constitution is inadmissible in court this is
    the exclusionary rule.
  • Robinson v. California (1962)A California law
    imprisoning those with illness of drug
    addiction was a cruel and unusual punishment in
    violation of the Eighth Amendment. The law
    punished people because of their status of
    addiction and was not aimed at the purchase,
    sale, or possession of illegal drugs.
  • Gideon v. Wainwright (1963)The Supreme Court
    overturned Betts v. Brady and required that any
    indigent person accused of a felony must be given
    an attorney at the publics expense.
  • Escobedo v. Illinois (1964)The Court extended
    the exclusionary rule to include any
    confessions obtained by unconstitutional means.
    Once questioning reaches past a stage of general
    inquiry, the suspect has the right to have an
    attorney present.
  • Miranda v. Arizona (1966)Since the police had
    not informed Mr. Miranda of his constitutional
    right to keep silent, his rights were violated
    and conviction was set aside.

  • Terry v. Ohio (1968)The Court found that a stop
    and frisk is a search and seizure under the
    Fourth Amendment and, under certain
    circumstances, is a reasonable crime prevention
    practice. Seized evidence may be admissible.
  • Furman v. Georgia (1972)The imposition and
    carrying out of the death penalty was held to
    constitute cruel and unusual punishment in
    violation of the Eighth and Fourteenth Amendments
    because it was done in an arbitrary,
    discriminatory, and capricious manner.
  • Gregg v. Georgia (1976)Georgias law imposing
    the death penalty under very specific
    circumstances and guidelines is held
    constitutional. The death penalty does not
    invariably violate the Constitution. The
    judicious and careful use of the penalty was
    justified in that it met contemporary standards
    of society, served a deterrent or retributive
    purpose, and was not arbitrarily applied.
  • Ingraham v. Wright (1977)Corporal punishment in
    schools is not prohibited under the Eighth
    Amendment as cruel and unusual.
  • Nix v. Williams (1984)The Court found that if
    police learn of evidence by unconstitutional
    means, they may still introduce it at trial if
    they can prove that they would have found the
    evidence anyway through constitutional means.
    There is an inevitable discovery exception to
    the Exclusionary Rule.
  • New Jersey v. T.L.O. (1985)The Fourth Amendment
    ban on unreasonable searches applies to those
    conducted by public school officials as well as
    by law enforcement personnel however, the Court
    used a less strict standard of reasonable
    suspicion to conclude that the search of a
    students purse by public school officials did
    not violate the Fourth and Fourteenth Amendments.

  • Vernonia v. Acton (1995)Students must submit to
    random drug testing in order to participate in
    interscholastic athletics the policy is
    reasonable and hence constitutional. Students
    in a school environment have a lesser
    expectation of privacy than members of the
    population generally. The reasonableness was
    determined by balancing the intrusion against
    the promotion of legitimate government
  • privacy for a symbols sake. The Fourth Amendment
    shields society against that state action.
  • Knowles v. Iowa (1998)Police searches of
    vehicles on routine traffic stops are an
    unreasonable search and seizure.
  • Wyoming v. Houghton (1999)Police may search the
    belongings of all passengers in a car when
    lawfully seeking evidence against the driver.
  • Bond v. United States (2000)The Fourth Amendment
    is violated when officials squeeze a carry-on bag
    in a bus overhead compartment and discover
    illicit drugs.
  • Dickerson v. United States (2000)The Supreme
    Court ruled that Congress could not pass a law
    that would contradict a Supreme Court ruling.
    They cited Marbury v. Madison (1803) as the
    source of their power. Judicial Review gave the
    Court the final say on an acts
    constitutionality. Justices writing in dissent
    called the ruling the Pyramid of judicial

  • Indianapolis v. James (2001)The Court
    invalidated the citys roadblock program because
    it was indistinguishable from the general
    interest of crime control and did not fit into
    the established exceptions to individualized
  • Kyllo v. United States (2001)Warrantless use of
    thermal-imaging devices to monitor heat emissions
    from a private residence violates the Fourth
    Amendment protection against unreasonable
  • Ferguson v. City of Charleston (200l)Public
    hospital testing of pregnant women for cocaine
    use and reporting the results to police officials
    is an unconstitutional search in violation of the
    Fourth Amendment.
  • Board of Education of Pottawatomie County v.
    Earls (2002)School district requirements of drug
    tests for all students participating in any
    extra-curricular activities were upheld by the
    Court. The testing is a reasonable means of
    furthering the School Districts important
    interest in preventing and deterring drug use
    among its schoolchildren.
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