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Food Science and Industry

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Title: Food Science and Industry


1
FOOD 1001
Food Science and Industry
2
What is Food Science?
  • Food Science
  • Discipline in which chemistry, biology, physics,
    and engineering are used to study food and the
    food industry
  • Food Technology
  • Application of science and engineering principles
    to the selection, preservation, processing,
    packaging, distribution, and use of safe and
    nutritious food

3
Food Science versus Nutrition
  • Food Science
  • Deals with the manipulation of food and their
    consequences on the final product i.e., food
    components
  • Nutrition
  • Deals with the consequences of the food
    components on the humans who consume them i.e.,
    processes by which the body utilizes food
    components and their relation to human health

4
Food Science is Interdisciplinary
  • Biology
  • Food is derived from living organisms (animals,
    plants)
  • Other organisms (microorganisms) can change food
    in a useful or harmful way
  • Food biotechnology involves molecular biology and
    genetics

5
Food Science is Interdisciplinary
  • Chemistry
  • All things are chemical-based, including food
  • Food chemistry involves
  • Analysis of chemical compounds in food
  • Changes in chemical composition and quality
    following
  • Oxidation
  • Degradation
  • Contamination
  • Processing

6
Food Science is Interdisciplinary
  • Physics
  • Food Scientists use
  • Thermodynamics to study the physical properties
    of food (texture solid, gel or liquid state)
  • Energy fields and spectrums to study colour,
    cooking, irradiation (sterilization)

7
Food Science is Interdisciplinary
  • Engineering
  • Mostly in food processing
  • How engineering principles affect
  • Heat and cold processing
  • Packaging
  • Drying (preservation)

8
Food Industry
  • Few people hunt and gather or raise and grow all
    of their own food
  • The food industry mostly geared toward processing
    of raw food ingredients
  • Developing ways to process, package, handle,
    preserve foods
  • Food industry is basically involved in everything
    between the farm gate to the consumers plate

9
What does a Food Scientist DO?
  • Research
  • Fundamental research (WHAT and WHY?)
  • Whats in this food?
  • Why is this food more acceptable?
  • Why does food color change when cooked?
  • Applied Research (HOW?)
  • How can we improve this food?
  • How can we better preserve our food?
  • How can we change taste and texture of foods?

10
What does a Food Scientist DO?
  • Product Development

Develops processes and equipment to obtain new
products and flavors
Improves processes and equipment to improve
efficiency and quality of existing products
11
What does a Food Scientist DO?
  • Quality Control (QC) and Quality Assurance (QA)
  • Sample and verify the quality of fresh and
    processed foods
  • Monitor the fabrication process and equipment to
    ensure safety and quality of food products
  • Ensure verification and safety of storage units
    (cleanliness, temperature, humidity, removal of
    spoiled food)

12
Who do Food Scientists deal with?
Food Production and Manufacturing
Consumers (they hold the real power!)
Research and Development
Food Scientist
Sales and Marketing (Economics)
Advertising and merchandising (Business)
Environmental Agencies
Regulatory Agencies (Laws and policies)
13
What must a Food Scientist KNOW?
  • Food Microbiology

1. Beneficial microorganisms (The Good)
  • Bacteria yogurt, cheese, sausage
  • Yeast bread, alcoholic beverages
  • Molds Blue cheese, Soya sauce

14
What must a Food Scientist KNOW?
  • Food Microbiology

2. Illness microorganisms (The Bad)
  • Bacteria foodborne illness bacteria, food
    poisoning
  • E.g., Listeria, Salmonella, some E. coli

15
What must a Food Scientist KNOW?
  • Food Microbiology

3. Spoilage microorganisms (The Ugly)
  • Bacteria rotting fruits and vegetables
  • Fungi moldy bread and other foods

16
What must a Food Scientist KNOW?
  • Food chemistry
  • Food composition
  • Food colour
  • Food taste
  • Food texture
  • Food additives
  • Food contaminants and toxins

17
What must a Food Scientist KNOW?
  • Food Engineering and Physics
  • Heat and cold transfer
  • Food materials
  • Food structure
  • Atmosphere technologies (oxygen, carbon dioxide,
    air humidity)
  • Rheology (study of liquids and solids,
    deformation, texture)
  • Manufacturing and Packaging technology

18
What must a Food Scientist KNOW?
  • Sensory evaluation
  • Measuring how people perceive food
  • Odor
  • Flavour
  • Colour
  • Texture
  • Mouthfeel

19
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Case study

Orange juice
20
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Process Engineering
  • Refrigerated and non refrigerated orange juices
    need a long shelf life
  • Process engineering determines how long and at
    what temperature the juice should be treated to
    prevent degradation and proliferation of pathogens

21
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Food Microbiology
  • Orange juice needs to be free of human pathogens
  • Food microbiology will detect and quantify
    foodborne pathogens to validate that heat
    treatment was sufficient to kill pathogens

22
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Product Development
  • Formulation of juices and juice beverages with
    high nutritional properties and different taste
  • Product development will
  • Mix different ratios of juices from different
    oranges (for juice)
  • Add different fresh juice, concentrated juice,
    sugars, acids, and juice flavours
  • (for juice beverages)

23
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Food Chemistry
  • Orange juice contains limonoids
    (naturally-occurring chemical compounds that are
    bitter)
  • Food chemistry analyzes the quantity of limonoids
    to verify if the juice is below consumer
    acceptable limits

24
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Sensory Evaluation
  • Not all orange juices taste the same, look the
    same or feel the same in the mouth!
  • Sensory evaluation can evaluate panelists on
    preferred
  • Juice colour
  • Juice taste
  • Level of orange pulp present in the juice

25
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Food Packaging
  • Packaging can influence shelf life, ease of use
    of the product and even taste of the orange juice

26
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Food Packaging
  • Food packaging can

1. Protect the juice from oxidation from light
2. Help with easy opening and closing of juice
packages
27
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Food Packaging

3. Use technologies that improve sensation of
taste and pleasure when drinking the juice
E.g., the sensory straw
28
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Quality Control (QC) and Quality Assurance (QA)
  • Before sale, juice and juice beverages must meet
    all government and industry specifications as
    well as the companies own guidelines
  • QC and QA will verify
  • Food safety (harmful microorganisms,
  • chemicals, toxins) in the juice
  • Acidity (pH) of the juice
  • Taste
  • Color

29
Example of the scope of Food Science
  • Food Standards (Consumer Safety and Labeling)
  • Orange juice is regulated and identified
    (labeled) following strict rules
  • Food standards ensure that only a product
    containing 100 orange juice is labeled as
    juice
  • Products with less than 100 juice (e.g., added
    sugar or other additives) are labeled as
    beverage, drink or cocktail
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