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Shelf-Life of Pre-packaged Food Products An Industry Perspective

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Shelf-Life of Pre-packaged Food Products An Industry Perspective Dr. Ahmet Anbarci Scientific & Regulatory Affairs Kraft Foods CEEMA Region – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Shelf-Life of Pre-packaged Food Products An Industry Perspective


1
Shelf-Life of Pre-packaged Food Products An
Industry Perspective
  • Dr. Ahmet Anbarci
  • Scientific Regulatory Affairs
  • Kraft Foods CEEMA Region
  • Dubai International Food Safety Conference
  • 24-26 February, 2009

2
Agenda
  • Kraft Foods in short
  • Shelf-life Definition, Dimensions
  • Shelf-life ? Kraft Foods RDQ functions
  • Establishing and Managing Shelf-life
  • Testing, Principles, Parameters
  • Selected Aspects, Examples
  • Discussion

3
Kraft Foods Overview, 2008
4
Kraft Foods Overview, 2008
Worldwide headquarters in Northfield, Illinois,
U.S. Sales in more than 155 Countries Operations
in 70 Countries With approximately 100,000
employees, more than 180 manufacturing and
processing facilities 11 global or geographic
Research and Development Centers around the world
5
One of Best Brand Portfolios in Food Beverage
Industry
9 Brands over 1 billion annual revenue 50
Brands over 100 million 40 Brands over 100
years old
6
Eastern Europe, Middle East Africa Region
Fast Facts Region headquarters Vienna, Austria
  Key markets in the region Bulgaria, Egypt,
Romania, Russia, South Africa, Turkey, Ukraine
and the Gulf Cooperation Council, as well as
other Middle East Africa Markets Some key
region brands Kraft cheeses Tang powdered
beverages Alpen Gold, Karuna, Korona and Milka
chocolates Estrella and Cipso salted snacks
Rasco biscuits Carte Noire, Jacobs, Maxwell
House and Nova Brasilia coffees.
7
  • Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
  • Production Facility Biscuits
  • Employees 138 (23 Saudi)
  • Brands Oreo, Ritz and Belvita

Kraft Foods in GCC
8
Shelf-life, definition, dimensions
  • Shelf-Life is the time between manufacture and
    possible latest consumption, wherein the
    characteristics of a food product are considered
    to remain acceptable with following dimensions
    and aspects
  • products must be safe - self-speaking,
    un-debated, un-compromised HACCP ----------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    ------------------------
  • quality must remain acceptable - consumer
    accepted quality vital to gain consumers and
    maintain their loyalty
  • nutritional value needs to be maintained -
    prime aspect for food maintain claims on
    products
  • commercial stability to be assured -
    package integrity, look key for customers and at
    point of sale

9
Packaged food over shelf-life
10
Shelf-life ? Food Research, Development Quality
(Kraft Foods RDQ)
Kraft Foods RDQ is the owner of shelf-life and
has the responsibility, expertise and the
infrastructure for establishing products
shelf-life.
Category Expertise
Geographic Proximity
Functional Excellence

  • Coffee
  • Refreshment Beverages
  • Grocery
  • Biscuits and Cakes
  • Confectionery
  • Savory Snacks
  • Cheese/Dairy
  • Convenient Meals
  • Quality and Safety
  • Scientific Affairs
  • Regulatory
  • Nutrition
  • Research
  • Chemistry
  • Microbiology
  • Sensory / Consumer Insight
  • Packaging
  • Intellectual Property/ Patents
  • Banbury, UK
  • Tarrytown, NY
  • East Hanover, NJ
  • Munich, Germany
  • Glenview, IL
  • Madison, WI
  • Battle Creek, MI
  • Melbourne, Australia
  • Curitiba, Brazil

11
Our RDQ centre in Munich has the geographic
responsibility for West, Central, East Europe,
Middle East and Africa
  • Global
  • Glenview, IL
  • East Hanover, NJ
  • Tarrytown, NY
  • Banbury, UK
  • Munich, Germany

Geographic / Local Madison, Battle Creek,
Melbourne, Curitiba and 50 other smaller centers
  • Functions in Munich
  • Product Dev
  • Process Dev
  • Packaging
  • Microbiology Food Safety
  • Quality
  • Chemistry
  • Sensory
  • Regulatory
  • Scientific Affairs
  • Nutrition
  • Munich Geographic Scope
  • West, Central, East Europe, Middle East and
    Africa
  • Munich Product Role
  • Cheese/Dairy, Convenient Meals, Refreshment
    Beverages, Grocery, Chocolate Confectionery,
    Savory Snacks, (Quality Safety for Coffee)

12
Same principles around the Globe
Kraft Product Safety Quality Assurance Guiding
Principles
  • Product Safety/Public Health is our uncompromised
    priority.
  • Food Safety is pre competitive.
  • Food Safety is based on sound science and correct
    risk assessment.
  • HACCP and our ISO based QCMS (Quality Chain
    Management System) are central to our business
    process.
  • Kraft applies common Food Safety Quality
    Standards globally.
  • In addition we believe in
  • a systems and process driven approach
  • a strong upstream focus with major supplier
    collaboration
  • covering each and every component in the business
    Value Chain.

13
Quality Chain Management System
Shelf-life evaluation and management is an
essential part of successful food quality
management. Ideally, shelf-life is an integral
part of an overall Quality Management System
through the entire value chain.
  • Kraft Foods worldwide approach to the systematic
    management of product Safety and Quality is
    called the Quality Chain Management System
    (QCMS).
  • QCMS is a complete embodiment of the ISO 9001
    quality system model enhanced to include the
    product Safety and Quality requirements of Kraft
    Foods worldwide food businesses.
  • QCMS defines the requirements throughout the
    process of design, procurement, manufacture,
    distribution and customer/consumer product usage
    and relations.
  • Kraft Foods procedure on shelf-life evaluation
    is a fundamental part of QCMS and has to be
    applied by all relevant employees around the
    world.
  • Objective All Kraft Food businesses shall
    have a process in place for establishing and
    managing the shelf-life of all products. Scope
    Shelf-life evaluation applies globally to all
    KF businesses and categories. Key elements are
    parameters, procedures, storage conditions,
    shelf-life management and modification of
    shelf-life.

14
Food Value Chain
15
Shelf-life, definition, dimensions
  • Shelf-Life is the time between manufacture and
    possible latest consumption, wherein the
    characteristics of a food product are considered
    to remain acceptable with following dimensions
    and aspects
  • products must be safe - self-speaking,
    un-debated, un-compromised HACCP ----------------
    --------------------------------------------------
    -------------------
  • quality must remain acceptable - consumer
    defined quality vital to gain consumers and
    maintain their loyalty
  • nutritional value needs to be maintained -
    prime aspect for food maintain claims on
    products
  • commercial stability to be assured -
    package integrity, look key for customers and at
    point of sale

16
RDQ functions involved
RDQ is responsible for the design and
establishing shelf-life Category Product
Development Groups lead, relevant RDQ functions
as listed below support the process. Other
parties along value chain consulted as required,
e.g. Manufacturing.
  • quality must remain acceptable - Quality
    /Safety - Regulatory - Chemistry -
    Microbiology - Sensory / Consumer Insight -
    Packaging
  • commercial stability to be assured - Quality
    /Safety - Regulatory - Packaging
  • products must be safe - Quality /Safety -
    Chemistry - Microbiology - Toxicology -
    Packaging
  • nutritional value to be maintained -
    Scientific Affairs - Regulatory - Nutrition -
    Chemistry - Packaging

17
Testing
Shelf-life testing is a vital part of new product
development. Existing products are re-evaluated,
if an extension of shelf-life is targeted or any
changes are considered. Re-evaluation may also
be triggered by consumer complaints or quality
issues.
Testing protocols - Sampling - Testing
conditions - Testing period - Schedule,
intervals - Attributes, parameters - Methods -
Record keeping
Close to reality conditions pursued - Full
shelf-life testing and beyond - Representative
samples - Representative storage conditions -
Consumer relevant sensory testing - Consumer
research, if required
18
Testing parameters, questions to be considered
  • Product Safety and Robustness are uncompromised
    and checked and verified for the intended use and
    foreseeable misuse of products.
  • risk of pathogens ?
  • risk of toxins ?
  • allergens ?
  • Shelf-Life beyond safety Many parameters and a
    high number of possible combinations for
    industrially packaged food lead to a wide range
    of possible shelf-lifes.
  • product category, type, nature ?
  • micro-stability, risk of spoilage ?
  • chemical reactions ?
  • physical changes ?
  • organoleptic, sensory, consumer ?
  • packaging integrity and protection ?
  • transport and storage conditions ?
  • consumer behaviour, usage ?

19
Shelf-life Regulated limits?
Considering the complexity inherent to
shelf-life, i.e. many parameters, their
interaction, possible combinations (vs. the time
we have in this forum), only some selected
aspects/examples will follow.
20
Aspects/Examples Basics for micro risks
STATIONARY
LOG
DEATH
LAG
Microbiological Growth
Time of LAG phase determines maximum shelf life
possible. LAG phase can vary depending on other
parameters and can be extended by improved
sanitation, processing, storage conditions,
preservatives, modified atmosphere or some
emerging technology.
21
Aspects/Examples Consumer Relevant Shelf-life
Testing
Key elements
  1. Representative Sampling - Final testing with
    plant products only (pilot products only for
    pre-assessment) - Freezing samples ( freezing
    the time) - If products cannot be frozen,
    multiple lots testing (assess impact of lots
    variability)
  2. Representative Storage Conditions - All along the
    Value Chain (transport, warehouses, consumer
    households) - Close to reality simulation
    (consider varying conditions, best / worst case
    scenarios)
  3. Test plan/methods relevant to product, market,
    potential consumers alienation - Internal sensory
    testing (people without project involvement,
    descriptive) - Quantitative descriptive analysis
    (trained panel) - Consumer acceptance testing
    (consumer liking, judgemental)

22
Shelf-life of food products
  • Internal Sensory Testing
  • At least three of the same participants at each
    tasting, involving people without project
    background.
  • Focus should be descriptive, not judgement. After
    documenting the descriptive differences,
    judgement about the expected seriosity of
    deviations may be necessary.
  • Representative control product needs to be used
    as a reference.
  • Project leaders organize the taste sessions,
    sample storage and ensure right participants at
    each session. Consumer Sensory group provides the
    test procedure and analysis forms.
  • Project leaders own next steps as agreed by team

23
Shelf-life of food products
  • Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA)
  • A tool to test in an objective manner, whether
    sensory changes are perceivable.
  • Generally recommended, when significant changes
    are expected / predicted over shelf-life.
  • In case of changes that are not necessarily
    negative Perceivability and relevance of changes
    need to be tested with consumers, to determine
    effects on consumer acceptability.
  • Key acceptance drivers are known from earlier
    consumer tests can be used to judge the
    differences observed in QDA and the shelf life.

24
Shelf-life, Consumer testing
  • Consumer Acceptance Testing
  • For key products, and for critical cases,
    consumer acceptance testing is recommended.
  • Multiproduct Central Location Test of samples at
    different stages in shelf life, before, at, and
    after end of shelf life at stake.
  • Absolute safety of samples to be ensured via
    thorough micro testing.
  • Test should be run with target consumers in the
    target countries. Participants need to be unaware
    of the test background.

25
Aspects/Examples Cheese and many parameters
Same category, different types, processing,
storage conditions, packaging, gt
Shelf-lifes in a range of few to 18 months.
12 months
18 months
26
Aspects/Examples Packaging materials
Substrate OTR (cc/m2/24hrs) WVTR (g/m2/24hrs) Light Barrier Strength
Foil 0 0 100 Low
Aluminum laminate lt1 lt1 100 Medium
Polyester (PET) 90 40 lt5 Medium
Metallised PET (met-PET) 0.5 lt1 gt95 Medium
PVdC coated PET 6 14 lt5 Medium
Biaxially Oriented Polyprop. 1900 6 lt5 Medium
PVdC Coated BOPP 10 5 lt5 Medium
Metallised BOPP (met-BOPP) 100 1.5 gt95 Medium
Biaxially Oriented Nylon (OPA) 45 260 lt5 Medium
PVdC Coated OPA 6 7 lt5 Medium
Glass Jar 0 0 lt5 High
PP Rigid lt1-200 lt1-100 lt5 High
Tetrapak/Combibloc 0 0 100 Medium
3 Piece Metal Can 0 0 100 High
27
Aspects/Examples Packaging with the right
protection
High protection and other factors help to achieve
a long shelf-life
Processed Cheese in a glass jar with a proven
shelf-life of 12 months.
28
Shelf-life Regulated limits?
Considering the complexity of shelf-life, limits
set for shelf-life of packaged foods would either
be overcomplicated (wide array, needs regular
updating) or a weak compromise, most likely at
category minimum. Risks and disadvantages for all
appear to outweigh any advantages.
  • Consumers and all stakeholders along the value
    chain benefit from safe and high-quality products
    with tested and proven shelf-life. While the
    added safety, quality and value through regulated
    shelf-life limits is open to discussion, some
    risks and disadvantages are certain for
    industrial, packaged food
  • Avoidable costs, economic penalty, if the limits
    set are too conservative, , i.e. at the
    category minimum (lowest common denominator)
  • Risk of low quality products to consumers, if
    the limits set are too broad
  • Risk of missing new aspects, development or
    scientific progress
  • Low incentive, low motivation for industry to
    innovate or apply the new

29
Shelf-life Regulated limits?
Conclusions The food industry should perform
due-diligence to judge, test and establish the
shelf-life for each single product they
manufacture, regardless how strict or wide the
limits set by regulations may be. Food companies
in general have to have their products data and
expertise and to know about the nature, details
and limits of their products. Shelf-life limits
set for packaged food are open to abuse and do
not appear to add value, safety or quality of
especially packaged food. Shelf-life limits may
be an unnecessary hurdle, especially for long
tested products with a good record in country of
origin or in other markets.
30
Shelf-life of food products
Thank you!
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