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Official U. S. position in 1914

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Title: Official U. S. position in 1914

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Official U. S. position in 1914
  • Officially the U.S. was neutral
  • The U. S. does not become officially involved in
    World War I until 1917.
  • Most Americans saw no reason for the U.S. to
    become involved and lose lives of its young men
    in a European war.

British Blockade
  • Britain used its very powerful navy to blockade
    the German coast and prevent weapons military
    supplies from getting through.
  • Blockade included food and extended to the ports
    of neutral countries
  • By 1917, Germany was experiencing famine
    Estimated 750,000 Germans starved to death
    because of the British blockade

  • Unterseeboot (under water boat)
  • Any British or Allied ship found in waters around
    Britain would be sunk without warning to
    passengers or crew
  • Lusitania May 7, 1915 off coast of Ireland,
    1,198 dead including 128 Americans
  • Turns public opinion against Germany

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Germanys Empty Promises
  • Sinks the Arabic, another British ship, killing 2
  • Germany keeps promising to not sink passenger
  • Sussex, French passenger liner, March 1916, 80
    dead including some Americans
  • Sussex Pledge Germany says it will stop if the
    U.S. gets Britain to lift the blockade against
    food fertilizer

Zimmerman Note
  • A telegram from the German foreign minister to
    the German ambassador in Mexico
  • Intercepted by the British
  • Promises that if Mexico allies with Germany,
    Germany would help Mexico recover territory lost
    in the Mexican-American War
  • Texas, New Mexico, Arizona

Final Straw
  • Germany announced unrestricted submarine warfare
    will sink any ship at will
  • Germany thought it would take the Americans
    awhile to be ready to fight and that the U.S. was
    already in the war unofficially because of
    helping the Allies with money and materials

Woodrow Wilson
  • Elected in 1912 Very intellectual
  • Running for re-election in 1916
  • Wilsons campaign slogan He Kept Us Out of War.
  • Very close election That night most thought
    Wilson had lost
  • After the election, Wilson starts working on a
    peaceful solution to the stalemate going on in
  • U.S. enters war April 1917

The Mad Brute
Preparing for War
  • Bernard Baruch War Industries Board helped
    standardize products and increase efficiency so
    factories could produce more
  • People had gasless Sundays and lightless
    nights to conserve fuel needed for the troops

Feeding the Soldiers
  • Herbert Hoover Food Administration
  • Gospel of the Clean Plate
  • Meatless, wheatless, sweetless days
  • Victory gardens
  • Income to wheat farmers rose by 30
  • Tripled the amount of food available to be sent
    to U.S. and Allied soldiers

  • George Creel Committee on Public Information
  • 75,000 men to speak about the war Why We are
    Fighting The Meaning of America
  • Artists create posters, cartoons, paintings and
  • 75 million pamphlets distributed by the Boy

The Committee of Public Information (George Creel)
  • Americas Propaganda Minister?
  • Anti-Germanism.
  • Selling American Culture.

Financing the War
Financing the War
  • William Gibbs McAdoo
  • U.S. spent 35.5 billion
  • 1/3rd through taxes income tax, excise taxes on
    tobacco, liquor, luxury goods
  • Public borrowing Liberty Bonds sold at
    rallies, in factories, in schools

Anti-German Feelings
  • Many Americans with German names lost their jobs
  • Orchestras refused to play music by German
    composers like Bach, Beethoven, or Mozart
  • Schools stopped teaching German language
  • Librarians removed books by German authors
  • German Americans were even attacked and sometimes
    killed by mobs.

Anti-German Feelings
  • Hamburger became Salisbury steak
  • Sauerkraut became liberty cabbage
  • Frankfurter became hot dog
  • Dachshunds became liberty pups

U. S. Food Administration
American Expeditionary Force
  • Called Doughboys various explanations of this
  • Led by General John J. Pershing
  • Believed in aggressive combat and felt 3 years of
    trench warfare had to end

The Draft
  • Selective Service Act 24 million men registered
    almost 3 million were drafted
  • About 2 million reached Europe and about 3/4ths
    of those saw combat
  • Most had not attended high school and 1 in 5 was
    foreign born
  • 15-25 illiterate based on IQ testing

1917 Selective Service Act
  • 400,000 African-Americansserved in segregated
  • 15,000 Native-Americans served as scouts,
    messengers, and snipers in non-segregated units.

Racism and the Military
  • Segregation
  • General Black Jack Pershing
  • Treatment in France unrest when returning home

African-American Soldiers
  • Segregated units and excluded from Navy and
  • Most assigned to non-combat duties
  • Commanded by white officers
  • Were some exceptions 369th Infantry saw
    continuous duty on the front lines and two of
    their men received the Croix de Guerre medal from
    France (its highest military honor)

  • Army Corps of Nurses denied army rank, pay and
    benefits though
  • 13,000 served in non-combat positions in the Navy
    and Marines as nurses, secretaries, and telephone
    operators with full military rank

Sargent York
  • October 8, 1918 an ordinary soldier, who
    originally claimed conscientious objector status,
    armed only with a rifle and a revolver, York
    killed 25 Germans and with 6 other soldiers
    captured 132 prisoners.
  • Earned him the promotion to Sargent and celebrity
    in the United States.

Conscientious Objectors
  • Object to fighting or violence for religious
    reasons Quakers other religious groups
  • ACLU American Civil Liberties Union forms to
    assist with their claims.

Council of National Defense
  • War Industries Board Bernard Baruch
  • Food Administration Herbert Hoover
  • Railroad Administration William McAdoo
  • National War Labor Board W. H.Taft
    Frank P. Walsh

Results of This New Organization of the Economy?
  1. Unemployment virtually disappeared.
  2. Expansion of big government.
  3. Excessive govt. regulations in eco.
  4. Some gross mismanagement --gt overlapping
  5. Close cooperation between public and private
  6. Unprecedented opportunities for disadvantaged

Women In the War
  • Moved into jobs previously held by men railroad
    workers, dockworkers, bricklayers, coal miners,
  • Also traditional roles of nurses, clerks,
  • Volunteers Red Cross, selling liberty bonds,
    planting victory gardens
  • 1920 Women earn the right to vote with the
    passage of the 19th Amendment

The Red Cross - Greatest Mother in the World
  • 18th Amendment
  • Volstead Act
  • J. Edgar Hoover
  • Elliott Ness G-men
  • Save wheat for food in the war effort

  • Gas damaged lungs and led to better treatments
    for asthma early chemotherapy
  • Amputations led to better prosthetics
  • Blood transfusions are finally successful
  • Sulfur drugs before antibiotics the only real
    drug that killed bacteria
  • Shell Shock psychiatric treatments

Espionage Sedition Acts
  • Could be fined up to 10,000 and sentenced to 20
    years in jail for interfering with the war effort
    or saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive
    about the government or the war effort
  • Violates free speech
  • Over 2,000 prosecutions
  • Newspapers or magazines that criticized the war
    lost their mailing privileges

Eugene Debs
  • Socialist labor leader
  • 10 year prison sentence for speaking against the
    war and the draft

Emma Goldman
  • Anarchist promoted workers rights and womens
  • 2 year prison sentence 10,000 fine for
    organizing the No Conscription League
  • She was deported after serving her prison sentence

Big Bill Hayward
  • Leader of the Industrial Workers of the World
  • Accused of sabotaging the war effort because
    they urged workers to strike for better
    conditions and higher pay.
  • He skipped bail and fled to Russia

Loyalty Leagues
  • Neighborhood groups
  • Neighbors were encouraged to let the police know
    if there was any suspicious behavior by their
    neighbors showing they might be anti-war or
  • Teachers had to swear a loyalty oath to keep
    their jobs

Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
Espionage Act 1917 - forbade actions that
obstructed recruitment or efforts
to promote insubordination in the
military. - ordered the Postmaster General
to remove Leftist materials from the
mail. - fines of up to 10,000 and/or
up to 20 years in prison.
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
Sedition Act 1918 - it was a crime to speak
against the purchase of war bonds or
willfully utter, print, write or publish any
disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive
language about this form of US Govt., the US
Constitution, or the US armed forces or to
willfully urge, incite, or advocate any
curtailment of production of things
necessary or essential to the prosecution of
the warwith intent of such curtailment to
cripple or hinder, the US in the prosecution
of the war.
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
Schenck v. US 1919 - in ordinary times the
mailing of the leaflets would have been
protected by the 1st Amendment. - BUT,
every act of speech must be judged according
to the circumstances in which it was spoken.
-The most stringent protection of free
speech would not protect a man in falsely
shouting fire in a theater and causing a
panic. Chief Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes -
If an act of speech posed a clear and
present danger, then Congress had the power
to restrain such speech.
Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
Abrams v. US 1919 - majority ruling --gt
cited Holmes Clear and present danger
doctrine. - Holmes Brandeis dissented
The best test of truth is the power of
the thought to get itself accepted in
the competition of the market, denying
that a silly leaflet published by an
unknown man constituted such a
The Great Migration Racial Tensions
  • Rise of the Ku Klux Klan
  • Lynching some soldiers in uniform, some set on
    fire while alive
  • Riots
  • Chicago beach incident

Opportunities for African-Americans in WW1
  • Great Migration. 1916 1919 ? 70,000
  • War industries work.
  • Enlistment in segregated units.

Rescuing a Negro During the Race Riots in
Chicago, 1919
Labor Strife
  • After the war
  • Trying to hold on to and move forward from gains
    made during the war

Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
  • Post-war labor unrest
  • Coal Miners Strike of 1919.
  • Steel Strike of 1919.
  • Boston Police Strike of 1919.

Coal Miners Strike - 1919
Keeping Warm Los Angeles Times
Boston Police Strike - 1919
He gives aid comfort to the enemies of
society Chicago Tribune
Boston Police Strike - 1919
Striking Back New York Evening World
If Capital Labor Dont Pull Together
Chicago Tribune
Consequences of Labor Unrest
While We Rock the Boat Washington Times
Make the World Safe for Democracy
  • Wilson and many Americans believed the war would
    pave the way for a future order of peace and
  • The War to End All Wars

  • November 11, 1918 at 11 a.m.
  • 11/11 at 11
  • Veterans Day
  • 1914-1918

Toll of the War
  • 22 million dead half were civilians
  • 10 million refugees
  • 338 Billion
  • U.S. 48,000 in battle
  • 62,000 of disease

Wilsons Plan for Peace
  • 14 Points
  • No secret treaties among nations
  • Freedom of the seas for all
  • Lower tariffs more free trade
  • Arms reduction fewer weapons ships
  • Colonies should consider the interests of the
    colonial peoples, not just the imperialist nation
  • League of Nations a forum for nations to
    discuss and mediate their differences without
    going to war

Big Four
Britain David Lloyd George France Georges
Clemenceau Italy Vittorio Orlando U.S.
Woodrow Wilson
  • They negotiate the Treaty of Versailles without
    input from other countries. All but Wilson want
    to punish the Central Powers and Wilson gives up
    on all his points except the League of Nations

Treaty of Versailles
  • New Nations Poland, Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia,
    Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Syria, Iraq,
  • Germany could not have an army
  • Germany had to give Alsace-Lorraine back to
  • Germany had to pay 33 billion to the Allies

  • War-guilt clause Germany had to take sole
    responsibility for the war
  • Germany had to dismantle its military
  • Germany lost all its colonies in the Pacific
  • Germany could not pay the huge reparations bill
  • Soviet Union not part of the treaty although
    they fought with the Allies for 3 years
  • Determined to regain territory lost
  • Southeast Asia Vietnamese want independence

Opposition in U.S. to Treaty
  • Henry Cabot Lodge led the opposition in the
  • Thought that joining the League of Nations would
    commit the U.S. to go along with any economic or
    military action

Wilsons Appeal
  • President Wilson set out on a tour of the U.S. to
    get citizens to pressure the Senate to ratify the
  • 34 speeches planned for 3 weeks

Final Fate
  • Treaty is not passed by U.S. Senate
  • Separate treaty is signed in 1921 with Germany
  • U.S. never joins League of Nations
  • Woodrow Wilson leaves office in 1921 and dies in

  • Civil War breaks out as Tsar Nicholas is
  • Democratic and Communist supporters fight one
    another for control of Russia
  • Treaty of Brest-Litovsk Ends Russias war with
  • Woodrow Wilson sends supplies and aid to the
    white army
  • Lenin gains control

Russian Royal Family
  • After the fall of the Soviet Union the bodies
    were found in a pit
  • They had been shot and covered in acid and then
    burned to disguise their identities
  • DNA was used to verify who they were

Government Excess Threats to the Civil
Liberties of Americans
The Red Scare
  • 1919 - 3rd. Internationalgoal --gt promote
    worldwide communism
  • Attorney General, A. Mitchell Palmer (The Case
    Against the Reds)
  • Palmer Raids - 1920

Red Scare Palmer Raids
A. Mitchell Palmers Home Bombed, 1920
Red Scare Palmer Raids
Police Arrest Suspected Reds in Chicago, 1920
  • 1918 30 million dead worldwide - about 500,000
    Americans died
  • Mostly in prime of life not elderly or very
    young like most flu
  • Could be fine in morning and dead by nightfall
  • Shortages of coffins
  • Dont know where it came from or why it stopped
    in 1919
  • If it had kept going another 10 months at the
    pace it was, it would have wiped out the entire
    human population

Legacy of the War
  • U.S. becomes a world power
  • Social change for women African-Americans
  • Women get right to vote
  • More women in workforce
  • African-Americans move North
  • African-Americans demand more equality after
    being treated with respect in France
  • Intensified anti-immigrant and anti-radical

Legacy of the War
  • Massive destruction and loss of life in Europe
  • Political instability and violence in Europe
  • Russia becomes a communist country The Union of
    Soviet Socialist States - USSR
  • Fascist governments gain power in Spain, Italy

Election of 1920
  • Wilson cannot run
  • Democrats James Cox
  • Republican Party compromise candidate is Warren
  • Socialist Eugene V. Debs - runs from prison
    and gets 3.4 of the vote (1900-1920)

The 1920 Election
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