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Title: AP European History Review


1
AP European History Review
  • Renaissance French Revolution

2
Late Middle Ages
3
Black Death and Social Crisis
  • Famine and Population
  • Little Ice Age
  • Drop in temp and change in weather patterns
  • Resulted in crop failures and famine
  • Killed approx. 10 of European Population
  • Famine led to chronic malnutrition
  • People were more susceptible to disease

4
  • The Black Death
  • Bubonic plague
  • Spread by rats carrying infected fleas
  • Pneumonic plague
  • Deadlier version which spread to the lungs
  • Spread of the Plague
  • The plague originated in Asia
  • Mongol troops came in contact with
    European trade routes
  • Flea infested rats came back to Italian
    port cities on merchant ships (1347)
  • European Population declined by 25-50 between
    1347 and 1351

5
  • Life and Death Reactions to the Plague
  • Surrounded with death, some people began living
    for the moment
  • Others thought the plague was punishment from God
    or the work of the Devil
  • Flagellants whipped themselves to win
    forgiveness from and angry God
  • Blamed Jews for the spread of the disease
  • Pogroms organized Jewish massacres

6
  • Noble Landlords and Peasants
  • The Plague caused a severe labor shortage
  • Led to a rise in wages (basic supply and demand)
  • Population declined and so did demand for
    agriculture drop in prices for agriculture
  • Standard of living for nobles decreased while
    peasants increased
  • English Parliament passed Statute of Laborers
    (1351)
  • Attempted to limit wages to pre-plague levels
  • Wage restrictions and government taxes angered
    the peasants

7
  • To what extent were climate and disease key
    factors in producing economic and social changes
    in the Late Middle Ages?

8
Political Instability
  • Lord-serf relationship changed to wage earners
  • Lord-vassal relationship changed from military
    service (think of knights)
  • Paid scutage (money payments)
  • Allowed monarchy to hire professional soldiers
  • Created factions amongst nobles

9
  • Heirs to the French, English and German thrones
    were not clear descendents
  • To gain support for their coronation, they had to
    offer favors, land and money to noble factions
    for their support
  • Paying for mercenary soldiers left the monarchies
    strapped for cash
  • To generate money, they had to tax which required
    the approval of parliament in most cases.
  • This opened the door for parliament to gain more
    power and prestige

10
Decline of the Church
  • King Phillip IV of France tried to tax the French
    clergy
  • Pope Boniface VIII said a secular ruler had no
    right to tax the clergy without the popes
    consent
  • Unam Sanctam (1302) papal bull
  • Statement of supremacy of the church over the
    state
  • Pope Boniface VIII also excommunicated Phillip IV
  • Phillip IV sent troops and captured Pope Boniface
  • Italian nobles rescued the pope but he died
    shortly after
  • King Phillip IV of France influenced the college
    of cardinals
  • Elected Clement V as pope
  • Clement V moved papal residence from Vatican City
    to Avignon

11
Papacy at Avignon
  • Remained there for 72 years
  • Created a specialized bureaucracy to obtain new
    revenue for the church
  • Elected 134 new cardinals, 113 were French
  • Avignon papacy became a symbol of church
    corruption

12
The Great Schism
  • Catherine of Siena (a mystic) seemed to have
    convinced Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome
  • He died soon after his return
  • Italians pressured French cardinals to elect an
    Italian pope Pope Urban VI
  • French cardinals got home
  • Elected Clement VII as pope
  • Pope Clement VII returned to Avignon
  • Great Schism 1378-1417
  • Period with two popes
  • Two popes split Europe along alliances
  • England and her allies Rome Pope Urban VI
  • France and her allies - Avignon Pope Clement VII
  • Both factions increased taxation and corruption
    to raise revenue

13
  • What were the main causes of the Great Schism?
    What were the major results of this great
    political and religious conflict?

14
Vernacular Literature
  • Latin was the language of the clergy and educated
    nobility
  • Vernacular refers to the common regional language
  • Dante - Divine Comedy
  • Story of the souls progression to salvation
  • 3 act poem hell, purgatory, and heaven

15
  • What was the significance of artists writing in
    the vernacular language?

16
Renaissance
17
Meaning and Characteristics of the Italian
Renaissance
  • Renaissance Rebirth
  • Rebirth of antiquity Greco-Roman civilization
  • Jacob Burkhardt
  • Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860)
  • Portrayed Italy as the birthplace of the modern
    world
  • Urban Society
  • City-states dominated political, economic,
    social life
  • Age of Recovery
  • Effects of Black Death, political disorder,
    economic recession
  • Emphasis on individual ability
  • New social ideal of a well rounded or universal
    person
  • Wealthy upper class, not a mass movement

18
Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
  • Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 1527)
  • The Prince (1513)
  • Realistic examination political rule
  • Acquisition, maintenance and expansion of
    political power
  • Prince should act on behalf of the state, not his
    conscience
  • Cesare Borgia
  • Pope Alexander VI son
  • Perfect model for the The Prince

19
  • How did Machiavelli deal with the issue of
    political power?

20
The Italian States in the Renaissance
  • Five Major Powers
  • Milan
  • Francesco Sforza takes control
  • Viscontis and Sforzas created a centralized state
    and collected large tax revenues
  • Venice
  • Ruled by an oligarchy of merchant aristocrats
  • Maritime power which looked to expand to mainland
    to secure food sources
  • Florence
  • Cosimo Medici (1434-1464) (made money in banking)
  • Lorenzo the Magnificent (1469-1492)
  • Republican form of Gov, but controlled by Medici
    family
  • The Papal States
  • Weakened by the Great Schism
  • Looked to regain control over Urbino, Bologna,
    Ferrara
  • Kingdom of Naples
  • Controlled by monarchy and a population of poor
    peasants
  • Did not experience the Renaissance like the rest
    of Italy

21
  • What was the relation between art and politics in
    Renaissance Italy?

22
Italian Renaissance Humanism
  • Classical Revival (Greco-Roman classics)
  • Individualism and Secularism were two
    characteristics of the Renaissance
  • Renaissance was a movement of the elite, not the
    masses
  • Petrarch (1304 1374)
  • Characterized the Middle Ages as dark
  • Promoted studying the classics
  • Humanism in Fifteenth-Century Italy
  • Study of Ancient Greek and Roman writers
  • Leonardo Bruni (1370 1444)
  • New Cicero
  • Renaissance Ideal duty of an intellectual to be
    active
  • for ones state
  • Civic Humanism fusion of political action and
    literary creation
  • Lorenzo Valla (1407 1457)
  • Wrote Elegances of the Latin Language
  • Wanted to restore Latin as proper language over
    the vernacular
  • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463 1494),
    Oration on the Dignity of Man Human Potential
    (people could be whatever they chose or willed)

23
Education, History, and the Impact of Printing
  • Education in the Renaissance
  • Liberal Studies history, moral philosophy,
    eloquence (rhetoric), letters (grammar and
    logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy, music,
    physical education (martial arts)
  • Purpose was to create individuals who followed a
    path of virtue and wisdom could influence
    others to do the same
  • Education of women
  • Few women got an education
  • Ones who did got an education focusing on
    religion and morals
  • Aim of education was to create a complete citizen
  • Humanism and History
  • Periodization of history (ancient world, dark
    ages, present time)
  • Secularization took religious events out of
    history
  • Guicciardini (1483 1540), History of Italy,
    History of Florence
  • Examined evidence supporting historical events

24
The Impact of Printing
  • Johannes Gutenberg
  • Movable type (1445 1450)
  • Gutenbergs Bible (1455 or 1456)
  • The spread of printing
  • By 1500, more than 1000 printers in Europe
  • Became one of Europes largest industries
  • Printing of books encouraged development of
    research
  • More laymen (regular people) became literate

25
  • How did the printing press change European
    society?

26
Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Primary goal of artists was imitation of nature
  • Masaccio (1401 1428)
  • Took up where Giotto left off
  • Frescoes are regarded as first masterpieces of
    the Early Renaissance
  • Perspective and Organization (use of math in art)
  • Movement and Anatomical Structure (study of the
    human form)
  • Paolo Uccelo (1397 1475)
  • The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian
  • Sandro Botticelli (1445 1510)
  • Primavera
  • Donato di Donatello (1386 1466)
  • David
  • First free standing nude bronze sculpture since
    antiquity
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 1446)
  • The Cathedral of Florernce finished the dome
  • Church of San Lorenzo

27
The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452 1519)
  • Last Supper
  • Showed personality and relationship to Jesus
    through the apostles reaction one of you will
    betray me
  • Raphael (1483 1520)
  • Known for his madonnas
  • School of Athens imaginary gathering of ancient
    philosophers
  • Michelangelo (1475 1564)
  • The Sistine Chapel
  • Told the story of the fall of man
  • David marble sculpture

28
The Northern Artistic Renaissance
  • Northern Renaissance artists
  • Less mastery of perspective
  • Emphasis on illuminated manuscripts wooden
    panel painting
  • Did not portray the human body like Italian
    counterparts
  • Jan van Eyck (c. 1380 1441)
  • Most influential Northern Renaissance artist
  • Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
  • Albrecht Dürer (1471 1528)
  • Adoration of the Magi

29
Reformation
30
Prelude to Reformation
  • Christian or Northern Renaissance Humanism
  • Christian Humanists
  • Northern Renaissance Goal-reform of Christianity
  • Focus on sources of Christianity
  • Holy Scriptures writings of Church fathers
  • Found early religion simpler
  • Desiderius Erasmus (1466 1536)
  • Handbook of the Christian Knight (1503)-showed
    his preoccupation with religion
  • The Philosophy of Christ-stressed inner piety
    over external religion such as sacraments,
    pilgrimages, fasts, veneration of saints, and
    relics
  • The Praise of Folly (1511) criticism of the
    church
  • Wanted reform from within the church
  • Understand the philosophy of Jesus
  • Enlightened education in early Christianity
  • Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched
  • Erasmus would eventually disapprove of Luther and
    the Protestant reformers
  • Erasmus wanted to reform the church from within
    rather than split it up

31
  • What was Christian humanism and how did it help
    prepare the way for the Protestant Reformation?
  • Did Erasmus works pave the way for Luthers
    break with Rome and Catholicism?

32
Thomas More (1478-1535)
  • Well educated worked for English government as
    Lord Chancellor
  • Friends with English humanists including Erasmus
  • Wrote Utopia (1516)
  • Greek for Nowhere, set in an imaginary island
    near the new world
  • Based on communal ownership rather than private
    property
  • Citizens enjoyed abundant leisure time
  • More saw corruption first hand serving King Henry
    VIII
  • Opposed Henry VIIIs divorce and break with the
    Catholic church
  • Thomas More was executed in 1535

33
Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation
  • Corruption in the clergy
  • Pluralism high church officials took over more
    than one church office, which led to duties being
    ignored
  • Widespread desire for meaningful religious
    expression
  • The masses wanted to insure their salvation
  • Church used relics and indulgences to generate
    money and reduce a persons time in purgatory
  • Modern Devotion popular mystical movement
  • Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ
  • Downplayed religious dogma stressed the
    teachings of Jesus

34
The Early Luther
  • Early Life
  • Education in law
  • Joins Augustinian Hermits (becomes a monk)
  • Struggled with assurances of salvation
  • Catholic Doctrine stressed faith and good work
    for salvation
  • Justification by faith the Bible became pillars
    of the Protestant Reformation
  • The Indulgence Controversy
  • Jubilee indulgence (1517)
  • Raised money to finish St. Peters Basilica
  • As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the
    soul from purgatory springs
  • Ninety-Five Theses
  • Luthers indictment of church corruption
  • Pope Leo X did nothing
  • translated into German and thousands of copies
    were printed

35
Luther Contd
  • The Quickening Rebellion
  • 1519 Leipzig Debate
  • Johann Eck forced Luther to deny the authority of
    popes and councils
  • 1520 Luther moves toward break with Rome
  • Wrote three pamphlets
  • Address to the Nobility of the German Nation
  • Called for German princes to overthrow the papacy
    in Germany
  • The Babylonian Captivity of the Church
  • Attacked the sacramental system
  • Called for clergy to be able to marry
  • On the Freedom of a Christian Man
  • Salvation through faith alone rather than good
    works

36
1521 Diet of Worms
  • 1521 Diet of Worms - Luther refuses to recant
  • Holy Roman Emperor Charles the V passes Edict of
    Worms
  • Excommunicates Luther
  • His works are burned
  • Luther becomes an outlaw within the Holy Roman
    Empire

37
Church and State
  • Doctrinal Issues
  • Justification by faith
  • Luther downplayed good works as a passage to
    salvation
  • Transubstantiation
  • Luther denied the practice of the bread and wine
    consumed turning to the blood and body of Jesus
  • Authority of Scripture
  • The word of God in the Bible was sufficient
    authority in religious affairs
  • Priesthood of all believers
  • All Christians who followed the word of God were
    their own priests
  • State Churches New Religious Services
  • Luther replaced the mass with Bible readings and
    songs

38
  • What was Luthers fundamental problem with the
    Catholic Church?

39
Germany and the Reformation Religion and Politics
  • Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1519 1556)
  • Faced four major problems
  • French, papacy, Turks and Germanys internal
    situation
  • Problems allowed Luthers movement to grow and
    organize
  • Francis I of France (1515 1547)
  • Chief concern during the reign of Charles V
  • Habsburg Valois Wars (1521 1544) (wars
    between France Spain)
  • Pope Clement VII (1523 1534) sides with Francis
    I
  • Charles V sacked Rome, took over Italy (1527)
  • Allowed time for the development of Lutheranism
    in Germany
  • Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 1566) (Turks)
  • Killed King Louis of Hungary and moved into
    Vienna
  • Turks were pushed back in 1529
  • Charles V decided to deal with Luther

40
  • Germanys fragmented political power had made
    German states independent
  • Diet of Augsburg (1530)
  • Charles V demands that Lutherans return to the
    Catholic Church
  • Schmalkaldic League alliance of German princes
    (8 princes 11 imperial cities join)
  • New threats from the French and the Turks forced
    Charles to compromise with the Lutherans

41
Schmalkaldic War
  • First Phase 1546-1547
  • Luther died in 1546
  • Charles invades German states and defeats the
    Lutherans at the Battle of Muhlberg
  • Second Phase
  • German Princes allied with new French king Henry
    II
  • Although he was Catholic, he hated Charles more
    than the Lutherans
  • Charles V was forced to offer a truce
  • Charles abdicated (stepped down) as Holy Roman
    Emperor
  • Peace of Augsburg (1555)
  • Division of Christianity acknowledged
  • Lutheranism granted equal rights with Catholicism
  • German rulers could chose the religion of their
    subjects

42
The Spread of the Protestant Reformation
  • Lutheranism in Scandinavia
  • Disintegration of Denmark, Norway, Sweden union
  • Development of Lutheran national churches
  • By 1540, Scandinavia was a Lutheran stronghold
  • The Zwinglian Reformation
  • Swiss Confederation
  • Loose association of 13 self-governing states
    called cantons
  • Ulrich Zwingli (1484 1531)
  • Strongly influenced by Christian Humanism
  • Unrest in Zurich
  • Zwinglis preaching vs. Catholic ideals in town
    hall debate
  • Seeks alliance with German reformers
  • For protection against imperial and conservative
    opposition
  • Marburg Colloquy attempt to unite Swiss
    German reformers
  • Stalled over interpretation of Lords Supper
    (Communion)
  • Zwingli believed it was symbolic
  • Luther believed it was literal
  • No alliance was formed
  • Swiss Civil War (Swiss Protestants vs. Catholic
    Cantons)

43
The Reformation in England
  • Henry VIII (1509 1547)
  • Catherine of Aragón (First Wife)
  • Henry seeks to dissolve marriage
  • Charles the V was Catherines nephew, delayed
    process
  • Anne Boleyn (Second Wife)
  • Elizabeth I
  • Act of Supremacy (1534)
  • King was the head of the Church of England
  • Formal break with the church of Rome
  • Seized church land and sold it

44
  • How did the English Reformation differ from the
    reformation in other countries?

45
John Calvin and the Development of Calvinism
  • John Calvin (1509 1564)
  • Humanist education
  • Influenced by Luther
  • Institutes of Christian Religion (1536)
  • Synthesis of Protestant thought
  • Predestination
  • Some people were destined to be saved (the elect)
    and others were destined to be damned (the
    reprobate)
  • Calvinism militant form of Protestantism
  • Two Sacraments
  • Baptism sign of remission of sin
  • The Lords Supper believed in presence of Jesus
    in the sacrament
  • Geneva
  • Consistory a special body for enforcing moral
    discipline

46
  • How was Calvinism similar and different to
    Lutheranism?

47
The Catholic Reformation
  • Old and New
  • Emergence of new female mysticism
  • Regeneration of religious orders
  • Did good works and preached the Gospel (combating
    spread of Protestantism)
  • Creation of new religious orders
  • New orders founded orphanages, hospitals, schools
    and other acts of charity
  • The Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
  • Ignatius of Loyola (1491 1556)
  • The Spiritual Exercises training manual for
    spiritual development
  • Jesuits recognized as a religious order (1540)
  • Absolute obedience to the papacy
  • Structured like the military
  • Three major objectives of Jesuits
  • Education crucial to combating Protestantism
  • Propagation of Catholic faith among non-Catholics
    (missionary work)
  • Fight Protestantism restored Catholicism to
    parts of Germany, Poland and Eastern Europe

48
A Revived Papacy
  • Pope Paul III (1534 1549)
  • Reform Commission (1535 1537)
  • Blamed the churchs problems on corrupt policies
    of popes and cardinals
  • Recognized Jesuits summoned the Council of
    Trent
  • Roman Inquisition (1542)
  • No compromises with Protestantism
  • Pope Paul IV (1555 1559) (Cardinal Caraffa)
  • 1st true pope of the Counter Reformation
  • Index of Forbidden Books banned books
  • Any Protestant others

49
The Council of Trent
  • Met intermittently from 1545 1563 (3 sessions)
  • Divisions between moderates and conservatives
    (conservatives won)
  • Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings
  • Scripture and Tradition
  • Reaffirmed as equal authorities
  • Only the church could interpret Scripture
  • Faith and Good Works were declared necessary for
    salvation
  • 7 Sacraments, transubstantiation and clerical
    celibacy were all upheld
  • Purgatory indulgences were affirmed
  • (no more hawking indulgences)
  • Most important was the creation of theological
    seminaries for training priests

50
  • What were the contributions of the papacy,
    Council of Trent, and the Jesuits to the revival
    of Catholicism?

51
Politics and the Wars of Religion in the
Sixteenth Century
  • The French Wars of Religion (1562 1598)
  • Huguenots
  • 10 of pop but 40 50 of French nobility
  • The ultra-Catholics
  • Led by the Guise family
  • Favored strict opposition to the Huguenots
  • Revolts against the monarchy
  • Nobility and townships became more loyal to
    religion than monarchy
  • The Politiques put government before religion
  • Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre (August 24,
    1572)
  • Killed 3 thousand Huguenots in three days in
    Paris
  • Huguenots rebuild backfires against Valois
    dynasty
  • Henry IV of Navarre (1589 1610)
  • Converts to Catholicism
  • Edict of Nantes (1598) acknowledges Catholicism
    as official religion of France but guaranteed
    Huguenots certain rights to hold office and
    practice religion

52
The England of Elizabeth
  • Queen Elizabeth I (1558 1603)
  • Act of Supremacy (1559) restored Protestantism to
    England and made Elizabeth the supreme ruler
  • Elizabeth tried to make religion acceptable to
    Catholics
  • Puritans wanted to eliminate all traces of
    Catholicism from Anglican church
  • Foreign Policy tried to avoid alliances and
    wars
  • Encouraged English seamen to raid foreign ships
  • Secretly sent aid to French Huguenots Dutch
    Calvinists to weaken France Spain
  • Avoided alliances that would bring England into
    war
  • Conflict with Spain
  • Philip II grew tired of Englands involvement in
    the Netherlands
  • The Spanish Armada (1588)
  • Set sail to invade England
  • Armada was routed

53
Exploration
54
Means
  • Centralization of political authority
  • Monarchies had the resources authority to
    finance these expenditures
  • Maps
  • Ptolemys Geography (printed editions 1477)
  • Written in 2nd Century A.D.
  • Depicted a round earth, 3 continents, two oceans
  • Circumference of Earth was dramatically
    undersized
  • Columbus and other explorers thought they could
    easily circumnavigate the globe
  • Ships and Sailing
  • Previous sailors used the Pole Star for
    navigation
  • But it was useless south of the equator
  • Naval technology
  • Axial rudder, lateen sails, compass, astrolabe
  • Knowledge of wind patterns

55
The Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire
  • Prince Henry the Navigator (1394 1460)
  • Founded a school for navigators
  • During his reign, Portuguese sailors explored the
    west coast of Africa
  • The Portuguese in India
  • Bartholomeu Dias (c. 1450 1500)
  • Rounded Cape of Good Hope
  • Vasco da Gama (c. 1460 1524)
  • Reaches India by rounding Cape of Good Hope
  • Returned with spices such as ginger and cinnamon
  • Alfonso dAlbuquerque (1462 1515)
  • Commercial Military bases (Goa)

56
  • In Search of Spices
  • Portuguese expansion
  • Set up trading posts in India China,
    established spice trade
  • Used military and naval advantage to seize
    control of spice trade from Muslim traders
  • Reasons for Portuguese success
  • Guns Seamanship

57
  • Why were the Portuguese so well positioned for
    overseas exploration?

58
Voyages to the New World
  • Christopher Columbus (1451 1506)
  • Knowledgeable Europeans knew the Earth was round
    but it was smaller than it actually is
  • Tried to reach Asia by sailing west
  • Reached the Bahamas (Oct. 12, 1492)
  • Additional voyages (1493, 1498, and 1502)
  • Carried with him a copy of Marco Polos Travels
  • Additional Discoveries
  • John Cabot explored New England coastline
    (Henry VII)
  • Pedro Cabral (Portuguese) discovered South
    American coastline
  • Amerigo Vespucci accompanied several voyages
  • wrote letters describing new world
  • Name America come from his name

59
Treaty of Tordesillas
  • 1494 divided up the newly discovered world
    between the Spanish and the Portuguese
  • Dividing line gave all of the New World to Spain
    except Brazil.
  • The Portuguese got Brazil and everything east

60
The Spanish Empire in the New World
  • Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica
  • The Maya (300 A.D.-800 A.D.)
  • The Aztecs (1200 A.D.-1500s A.D.)
  • The Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire
  • Hernan Cortés (1485 1547)
  • Marched to Tenochtitlan making alliances
  • Moctezuma (Montezuma)
  • Initially thought Cortes was a God
  • Aztec Empire overthrown
  • Small pox and allies

61
  • Administration of the Spanish Empire
  • Encomienda system of tribute and labor for
    Spaniards
  • Made the Indians basically slaves to the Spanish
  • Dominican friars began to voice their concern
    over the harsh treatment of the Indians
  • Bartolome de Las Casas was the most vocal
    opponent of the encomienda system
  • Viceroys Kings chief military civil officer
  • The Church mass conversions

62
Africa The Slave Trade
  • New Rivals
  • European powers began establishing forts in
    Africa to dominate the trade in gold
  • The Dutch Republic began to take over the spice
    trade from Portugal
  • Origins of the Slave Trade
  • Sugar cane and slavery
  • Indian population was decimated by disease
  • African climate and soil werent suited to grow
    sugar cane
  • Growth of the Slave Trade
  • Up to 10,000,000 African slaves taken to the
    Americas between the Sixteenth and Nineteenth
    Centuries
  • The Middle Passage (trip across the Atlantic)
    high death rate during transit
  • 300 to 450 slaves per ship (loose pack or tight
    pack)
  • Trip took a little over 3 months
  • Approx. 10 of slaves died on voyage
  • Prisoners of war (Slave trade increased wars
    between African tribes)
  • Triangle Trade Europe to Africa to Americas,
    then back to Europe
  • Europeans traded goods for slaves, sold the
    slaves, kept some profit, bought more goods and
    started the cycle over again

63
  • What social and economic forces drove the Slave
    Trade?

64
Mercantilism
  • Mercantilism is a set of economic principles that
    came to dominate economic practices in the 17th
    century
  • Belief that the total volume of trade
    unchangeable
  • Economic activity war through peaceful means
  • One nation could expand its trade at the expense
    of another nation
  • Importance of bullion (gold silver) and
    favorable balance of trade
  • Export valuable goods to New World
  • Import Bullion to European states
  • State Intervention in the economy was desirable
    for the sake of the national good.

65
  • What economic changes occurred in Europe as a
    result of Mercantilism and Capitalism?

66
The Columbian Exchange
  • Reciprocal importation and exportation (exchange)
    of plants and animals between the New World and
    Europe
  • Europe exported Wheat, grapevines, olive trees,
    horses, cattle, pigs, goats, and sheep to the New
    World
  • Europe imported tomatoes, peanuts, peppers,
    beans, squash, sweet potatoes, and manioc from
    the New World

67
European States
68
  • The Witchcraft Craze
  • Witchcraft existed for centuries as a traditional
    village culture
  • Medieval church connected witchcraft to the
    devil, making it an act of heresy
  • Establishment of the Inquisition in the 13th
    century, increased prosecutions and executions
  • Accusations against witches
  • Allegiance to the devil
  • Attended sabbats
  • Use of evil incantations or potions

69
  • Reasons for witchcraft prosecutions
  • Religious uncertainty (areas of strife between
    Protestants Catholics)
  • Social conditions old single women cut off from
    charity by the new emphasis on capitalism over
    communal interests became the scapegoats when
    problems arose
  • Women as primary victims
  • Most theologians, lawyers, philosophers
    believed women were inferior to men more
    susceptible to witchcraft
  • Begins to subside by mid-seventeenth century
  • Fewer judges were willing to prosecute accused
    witches
  • A more educated populous questioned the old view
    of a world haunted by spirits

70
  • What does the witchcraft craze tell us about
    European society and the place of women in that
    society in the sixteenth and seventeenth
    centuries?

71
The Thirty Years War (1618 1648)
  • Background
  • Religious conflict (militant Catholicism
    militant Calvinism)
  • Secular, dynastic-nationalist considerations were
    more important
  • Tensions in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Most of the fighting took place in Germany, but
    it was a Europe wide struggle
  • Conflict for European leadership
  • Between Bourbon dynasty of France vs.
  • Habsburg dynasty of Spain Holy Roman
    Empire
  • Posturing for war (think alliance system)
  • Frederick IV of Palatinate (Calvinist) formed the
    Protestant Union
  • Duke Maximilian of Bavaria (Catholic) formed the
    Catholic League of German States
  • Germany divided into two armed alliances along
    religious lines
  • Holy Roman Emperors looked to relatives in Spain
    to help consolidate their authority in the German
    States
  • German princes looked to Spains enemy France for
    support

72
The Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)
  • Bohemian estates accepted Habsburg Archduke
    Ferdinand as their king
  • Ferdinand set about re-catholicizing Bohemia
  • Protestants rebelled in 1618, deposing Ferdinand
    electing Protestant ruler Frederick V of
    Palatinate (head of Protestant Union)
  • Ferdinand is elected Holy Roman Emperor
    returned with the help of Maximilian of Bavaria
    the Catholic League
  • Imperial forces Spanish retook Bohemia
    captured Palatinate by 1622

73
The Danish Phase (1625 1629)
  • King Christian IV of Denmark intervened on the
    Protestant side
  • Formed alliances with United Provinces England
  • Christian IVs forces were defeated, ending
    Danish supremacy in the Baltic Sea
  • Emperor Ferdinand II issued the Edict of
    Restitution (1629)
  • Prohibited Calvinist worship
  • Restored property to the Catholic church

74
The Swedish Phase (1630 1635)
  • Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden enters the war
  • Gustavuss army defeated imperial forces moved
    into central Germany
  • Imperial forces defeat the Swedes at the battle
    of Nordlingen, ensuring that southern Germany
    would remain Catholic
  • The emperor tried to use this victory to make
    peace by annulling the Edict of Restitution of
    1629
  • The peace failed because the Swedes wished to
    continue fighting the French Catholics under
    Cardinal Richelieu were about to enter the war on
    the Protestant side

75
The Franco-Swedish Phase (1635 1648)
  • Battle of Rocroi (1643) French defeat Spanish
    troops, ending Spains military greatness
  • French defeat Bavarian Imperialist armies in
    Southern Germany
  • War in Germany ends in 1648 but continues between
    the French Spanish until 1659

76
Outcomes of the 30 year war
  • Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • All German states were free to determine their
    own religion
  • France Sweden gained territory
  • Holy Roman emperor reduced to a figurehead
  • Made clear that religion politics were now
    separate
  • Social and economic effects
  • Decline in German Population
  • Some areas of Germany were devastated, others
    were untouched experienced economic growth
  • Most destructive European war to date

77
Outcomes continued
  • Peace of Pyrenees (1659)
  • Ends the conflict between France Spain
  • Spain becomes a 2nd class power
  • France emerges as the dominant European nation
  • Some historians feel the 30 years (1618-1648)
    should actually be called the 50 years war
    (1609-1659) stretching from the formation of the
    Protestant Union Catholic League to the Peace
    of Pyrenees

78
A Military Revolution?
  • War and Politics in Seventeenth-Century Europe
    made it essential that a ruler had a powerful
    military
  • New Tactics
  • Battalions of infantry armed with pikes became
    superior to cavalry
  • Gustavus Adolphus employed a standing army
    (conscripts) instead of mercenaries
  • Mixed musketeers with pikemen effectively (volley
    of shots followed by a rush)
  • Adolphus used a similar strategy with cavalry
  • New Technologies
  • Firearms, cannons, standing armies, mobile
    tactics
  • The Cost of a Modern Military
  • Heavier taxes making war an economic burden
  • State bureaucracy grew and so did the power of
    state government

79
  • What was the military revolution and what
    effect did it have on warfare in the sixteenth
    and seventeenth centuries?

80
Absolute Monarchy in France
  • Absolutism sovereign power or ultimate
    authority in the state rested in the hands of a
    king who claimed to rule by divine right
  • Foundations of French Absolutism
  • Political Theorist Jean Bodin defined sovereign
    power as authority to
  • Make laws, tax, administer justice, control the
    state determine foreign policy
  • Bishop Jacques Bossuet wrote
  • Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy
    Scripture God established kings so their rule
    was divine

81
Cardinal Richelieu (1624 1642)
  • Cardinal Richelieu (1624 1642)
  • Louis XIIIs chief advisor
  • Initiated policies that strengthened the monarchy
  • Eliminated political military rights of
    Huguenots (French Calvinists) but preserved their
    religious ones
  • Transformed the Huguenots into more reliable
    subjects
  • Eliminated noble threats to the crown
  • Sent out royal officials (intendants) to reform
    strengthen the central government
  • Richelieu ran the crown into debt
  • Mismanagement of funds 30 Years War
    expenditures

82
The Reign of Louis XIV (1643 1715)
  • Louis XIV took control of France at the age of 23
  • Administration of the Government
  • Domination and bribery
  • Dominated the actions of ministers and
    secretaries
  • Stacked the royal council with loyal followers
    from new aristocratic families
  • Issued bribes to control provinces and the people
    who ran them
  • Religious Policy One King, one law, one faith
  • Edict of Fontainebleau (1685)
  • Revoked the Edict of Nantes (1598)
  • Destruction of Huguenot churches closing of
    Protestant schools
  • Over 200k Huguenots left France, weakening the
    economy strengthening Protestant opposition to
    Louis in other countries

83
Palace at Versailles
  • Daily Life at Versailles
  • Purposes of Versailles
  • Intended to overawe subjects impress foreign
    dignitaries
  • Housed royal officials princes
  • Court life and etiquette
  • Set the standard for European monarchies
  • Princes nobles were arranged according to
    seniority
  • Real purpose was to exclude them from power by
    including them in the life of the king at
    Versailles

84
The Wars of Louis XIV
  • The Wars of Louis XIV
  • Professional army 100,000 men in peacetime
    400,000 in wartime
  • Louis XIV waged war to insure French dominance in
    Europe and preserve the Bourbon dynasty
  • Four wars between 1667 1713
  • Invasion of Spanish Netherlands (1667-1668)
  • Triple Alliance (English, Dutch Swedes) forced
    Louis to sue for peace (received a few towns in
    the Spanish Netherlands)
  • Dutch War (1672-1678)
  • Louis invaded the United Provinces leading
    Brandenburg, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire to
    form a coalition to stop him
  • Received Franche-Comte from Spain
  • Annexation of Alsace and Lorraine, occupation of
    Strasbourg (1679) led to new opposition.

85
Louiss Wars
  • War of the League of Augsburg (1689 1697)
  • Spain, The Holy Roman Empire, the United
    Provinces, Sweden, England formed the League of
    Augsburg
  • Caused economic depression and famine in France
  • Treaty of Ryswick ended the war causing Louis to
    give up most of the territory he had previously
    gained

86
Louiss Wars
  • War of the Spanish Succession (1702 1713)
  • Louiss grandson was set to inherit the Spanish
    throne, (Phillip V) scaring neighboring countries
    about a united Spain France
  • Coalition of England, United Provinces, Habsburg
    Austria, the German states opposed France
    Spain
  • Peace of Utrecht (1713)
  • Confirmed Phillip V as ruler of Spain
  • Affirmed thrones would remain separate
  • Coalition gained French Spanish territory
  • England emerges as a strong naval force, gaining
    territory in America from France
  • Louis XIV died 2 years later, leaving France
    broke and surrounded by enemies.

87
  • Define absolutism and determine to what extent
    Frances government in the seventeenth century
    can be labeled an absolute monarchy.

88
Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
  • The German States
  • The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia
  • The Hohenzollern Dynasty
  • Frederick William the Great Elector (1640 1688)
  • Army (standing army of 40K men)
  • General War Commissariat to levy taxes
  • Evolved into an agency for civil government
  • Reinforced serfdom through concessions to the
    nobles
  • Used Mercantilist Policies
  • High tariffs, subsidies, monopolies
  • Frederick III (1688 1713)
  • Aided Holy Roman Empire in the War of Spanish
    Succession
  • In return, he was granted the title King of
    Prussia (1701)

89
The Reign of Peter the Great (1689 1725)
  • Visits the West (1697 1698)
  • Seeks to modernize Russia
  • Mostly technical
  • Reorganizes armed forces
  • Modernized military standing army of 210,000
  • Created a navy
  • Reorganizes central government
  • Divides Russia into provinces
  • Seeks control of the Russian Church
  • Introduces Western Customs
  • No spitting on floor or scratching oneself at
    dinner
  • Cutting off beards and coats

90
The Reign of Peter the Great
  • Positive Impact of Reforms on Women
  • Upper class women were encouraged to mingle with
    men
  • Women could choose who they wanted to marry
  • Open a window to the West
  • A port easily accessible to Europe
  • Attacks Sweden
  • Battle of Narva (1700)
  • 8,000 Swedes defeat 40,000 Russians
  • Great Northern War (1701 1721)
  • Battle of Poltava (1709)
  • Russian army defeats Swedish army
  • Peace of Nystadt (1721)
  • Russia gains control of Estonia, Livonia and
    Karelia
  • St. Petersburg
  • Window to the West (port in the Baltic Sea)
  • New Russian capital

91
England Constitutional Monarchy
  • James I (1603 1625) and the House of Stuart
  • Took over after Elizabeths death
  • Claimed he ruled by Divine Right of Kings
  • Parliament and the power of the purse
  • Religious policies
  • The Puritans controlled most of the lower House
    of Commons
  • Charles I (1625 1649)
  • Petition of Right
  • Prevented any taxation without Parliaments
    consent
  • Personal Rule (1629 1640) Parliament does
    not meet
  • Charles I tries to collect taxes without
    Parliament
  • Forced to call Parliament to raise tax money to
    fight Scottish rebellion
  • Religious policy angers Puritans
  • Charles I married a Catholic (Louis XIIIs sister
    Henrietta)
  • Charles I calls Parliament and the members make
    changes to limit royal authority
  • Charles I arrests radical members of Parliament
    and Parliament rebels starting the English Civil
    War

92
Civil War (1642 1648)
  • Oliver Cromwell
  • New Model Army effective against Royalists
  • Extreme Puritans who believed they were fighting
    for God
  • 1st phase
  • Charles I is captured after 1st Phase of Civil
    War (1646)
  • Charles I escaped and got the Scotts to help
    invade England
  • Charles I is captured, tried, executed (Jan.
    30, 1649)
  • Parliament abolishes the monarchy
  • Cromwell dissolves Parliament (April 1653)
  • Cromwell divides country into 11 regions ruled by
    military
  • Cromwell dies (1658)
  • Army reestablishes the monarchy, Charles II

93
Restoration a Glorious Revolution
  • Charles II (1660 1685)
  • Reestablished Anglican church
  • Parliament suspected he was Catholic because his
    brother James was
  • Charles II passed Declaration of Indulgence
    (1672)
  • Suspended laws passed by Parliament against
    Catholics and Puritans
  • Parliament passed Test Act (1673) Only
    Anglicans could hold military and civil offices
  • James II (1685 1688)
  • Devout Catholic
  • Issued new Declaration of Indulgence (1687)
  • Protestant daughters Mary and Anne
  • Catholic son born in 1688
  • Parliament invites Mary and her husband, William
    of Orange, to invade England
  • James II, wife and son flee to France

94
  • Mary and William of Orange offered throne (1689)
  • Bill of Rights
  • Affirmed Parliaments right to make laws tax
  • laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy
  • The Toleration Act of 1689
  • Granted Puritans right to free public worship
  • Ironically the Toleration Act still didnt
    tolerate Catholics

95
Responses to the Revolution
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588 1679)
  • Leviathan (1651)
  • People form a commonwealth for protection
  • People have no right to rebel
  • Believed in strong government to maintain social
    order
  • John Locke (1632 1704)
  • Two Treatises of Government
  • Inalienable Rights Life, Liberty and Property
  • People form a government to protect their rights
  • If government does not fulfill their social
    contract with the people, the people have the
    right to revolt

96
Scientific Revolution
97
Toward a New Heaven A Revolution in Astronomy
  • Greatest Achievements in the Scientific
    Revolution of the 16th 17th centuries came in
    the fields dominated by the ideas of the Greeks
  • Astronomy, mechanics, medicine
  • Aristotle, Claudius Ptolemy and Christian
    Theology
  • Ptolemaic view Geocentric model

98
  • Geocentric Universe
  • Motionless Earth was the center of the universe
  • Ten Spheres surrounded the Earth Mercury,
    Venus, the sun, Mars Jupiter, Saturn and the
    fixed stars
  • According to Aristotle, spheres moved in a circle
    around Earth
  • Christianized Ptolemaic Universe
  • Beyond the spheres was Empyrean Heaven location
    of God and all of the saved souls
  • Christian Ptolemaic universe had a fixed outer
    boundary

99
  • What were the roots of the Scientific Revolution?

100
Copernicus
  • Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • Studied mathematics astronomy in his native
    Poland later Italy
  • Tried to create a simpler explanation but
    develops a theory nearly as complicated as
    Ptolemy
  • On The Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
  • Didnt publish it until right before his death
    for fear of ridicule
  • Heliocentric Universe sun centered universe
  • Based on observations of earlier astronomers and
    his own observations
  • Everything seemed to rotate around Earth because
    Earth was rotating
  • Creates doubt about the Ptolemaic system
    Aristotles astronomy
  • Copernicus and his theory were denounced by
    Protestant leaders (Luther)
  • Catholics did not denounce them until Galileo

101
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
  • Danish nobleman who built an observatory at
    Uraniborg castle
  • Recorded astronomical data on positions
    movements of planets stars
  • Rejected Aristelian-Ptolemaic system but was
    unable to accept Copernicus model
  • Brahe thought the planets orbited the sun and the
    sun orbited the earth
  • Took on an assistant in Prague, named Johannes
    Kepler

102
A Revolution in Astronomy, Continued
  • Johannes Kepler (1571 1630)
  • Originally a student of theology
  • Interest in Hermetic thought and Mathematical
    magic
  • Believed mathematical relationships were the
    basis for all nature not just on earth but the
    universe
  • Music of the Spheres
  • Harmony or mathematical concept of movement of
    heavenly spheres
  • Convinced that celestial bodies effected things
    on earth
  • The moons orbit effected the tides on earth

103
  • Laws of Planetary Motion
  • Orbits of planets were not circular, but
    elliptical
  • Speed of a planet differs depending on proximity
    to the sun
  • Planets with larger orbits revolve at a slower
    average velocity
  • Discredits Aristotelian-Ptolemaic System
  • Keplers laws of planetary motion gained
    acceptance in the scientific community
  • Confirmed Copernicus heliocentric theory

104
Galileo Galilei (1564 1642)
  • Galileo
  • Mathematics professor
  • 1st European to observe the heavens with a
    Telescope
  • Discovered 4 moons of Jupiter, mountains
    craters on moon, sunspots
  • Observed that celestial bodies were made up of
    the same natural properties as Earth
  • The Starry Messenger published his findings
  • Did more to further the new picture of the
    universe than Copernicus and Keplers
    mathematical theories
  • Supported the heliocentric system

105
Galileo and the Church
  • Condemned by the Church
  • Roman Inquisition condemned Copernicanism
    ordered Galileo to reject the Copernican thesis
  • The church would allow Galileo to discuss
    Copernicanism as long as he maintained it was a
    mathematical supposition not a fact
  • The Church attacked Copernican System
  • The heavens were no longer a spiritual world but
    a world of matter
  • Humans were no longer the center of the universe
  • God was no longer in a specific place
  • The Copernican System raised so many
    uncertainti
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