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Title: AP European History Review

AP European History Review
  • Renaissance French Revolution

Late Middle Ages
Black Death and Social Crisis
  • Famine and Population
  • Little Ice Age
  • Drop in temp and change in weather patterns
  • Resulted in crop failures and famine
  • Killed approx. 10 of European Population
  • Famine led to chronic malnutrition
  • People were more susceptible to disease

  • The Black Death
  • Bubonic plague
  • Spread by rats carrying infected fleas
  • Pneumonic plague
  • Deadlier version which spread to the lungs
  • Spread of the Plague
  • The plague originated in Asia
  • Mongol troops came in contact with
    European trade routes
  • Flea infested rats came back to Italian
    port cities on merchant ships (1347)
  • European Population declined by 25-50 between
    1347 and 1351

  • Life and Death Reactions to the Plague
  • Surrounded with death, some people began living
    for the moment
  • Others thought the plague was punishment from God
    or the work of the Devil
  • Flagellants whipped themselves to win
    forgiveness from and angry God
  • Blamed Jews for the spread of the disease
  • Pogroms organized Jewish massacres

  • Noble Landlords and Peasants
  • The Plague caused a severe labor shortage
  • Led to a rise in wages (basic supply and demand)
  • Population declined and so did demand for
    agriculture drop in prices for agriculture
  • Standard of living for nobles decreased while
    peasants increased
  • English Parliament passed Statute of Laborers
  • Attempted to limit wages to pre-plague levels
  • Wage restrictions and government taxes angered
    the peasants

  • To what extent were climate and disease key
    factors in producing economic and social changes
    in the Late Middle Ages?

Political Instability
  • Lord-serf relationship changed to wage earners
  • Lord-vassal relationship changed from military
    service (think of knights)
  • Paid scutage (money payments)
  • Allowed monarchy to hire professional soldiers
  • Created factions amongst nobles

  • Heirs to the French, English and German thrones
    were not clear descendents
  • To gain support for their coronation, they had to
    offer favors, land and money to noble factions
    for their support
  • Paying for mercenary soldiers left the monarchies
    strapped for cash
  • To generate money, they had to tax which required
    the approval of parliament in most cases.
  • This opened the door for parliament to gain more
    power and prestige

Decline of the Church
  • King Phillip IV of France tried to tax the French
  • Pope Boniface VIII said a secular ruler had no
    right to tax the clergy without the popes
  • Unam Sanctam (1302) papal bull
  • Statement of supremacy of the church over the
  • Pope Boniface VIII also excommunicated Phillip IV
  • Phillip IV sent troops and captured Pope Boniface
  • Italian nobles rescued the pope but he died
    shortly after
  • King Phillip IV of France influenced the college
    of cardinals
  • Elected Clement V as pope
  • Clement V moved papal residence from Vatican City
    to Avignon

Papacy at Avignon
  • Remained there for 72 years
  • Created a specialized bureaucracy to obtain new
    revenue for the church
  • Elected 134 new cardinals, 113 were French
  • Avignon papacy became a symbol of church

The Great Schism
  • Catherine of Siena (a mystic) seemed to have
    convinced Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome
  • He died soon after his return
  • Italians pressured French cardinals to elect an
    Italian pope Pope Urban VI
  • French cardinals got home
  • Elected Clement VII as pope
  • Pope Clement VII returned to Avignon
  • Great Schism 1378-1417
  • Period with two popes
  • Two popes split Europe along alliances
  • England and her allies Rome Pope Urban VI
  • France and her allies - Avignon Pope Clement VII
  • Both factions increased taxation and corruption
    to raise revenue

  • What were the main causes of the Great Schism?
    What were the major results of this great
    political and religious conflict?

Vernacular Literature
  • Latin was the language of the clergy and educated
  • Vernacular refers to the common regional language
  • Dante - Divine Comedy
  • Story of the souls progression to salvation
  • 3 act poem hell, purgatory, and heaven

  • What was the significance of artists writing in
    the vernacular language?

Meaning and Characteristics of the Italian
  • Renaissance Rebirth
  • Rebirth of antiquity Greco-Roman civilization
  • Jacob Burkhardt
  • Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy (1860)
  • Portrayed Italy as the birthplace of the modern
  • Urban Society
  • City-states dominated political, economic,
    social life
  • Age of Recovery
  • Effects of Black Death, political disorder,
    economic recession
  • Emphasis on individual ability
  • New social ideal of a well rounded or universal
  • Wealthy upper class, not a mass movement

Machiavelli and the New Statecraft
  • Niccolo Machiavelli (1469 1527)
  • The Prince (1513)
  • Realistic examination political rule
  • Acquisition, maintenance and expansion of
    political power
  • Prince should act on behalf of the state, not his
  • Cesare Borgia
  • Pope Alexander VI son
  • Perfect model for the The Prince

  • How did Machiavelli deal with the issue of
    political power?

The Italian States in the Renaissance
  • Five Major Powers
  • Milan
  • Francesco Sforza takes control
  • Viscontis and Sforzas created a centralized state
    and collected large tax revenues
  • Venice
  • Ruled by an oligarchy of merchant aristocrats
  • Maritime power which looked to expand to mainland
    to secure food sources
  • Florence
  • Cosimo Medici (1434-1464) (made money in banking)
  • Lorenzo the Magnificent (1469-1492)
  • Republican form of Gov, but controlled by Medici
  • The Papal States
  • Weakened by the Great Schism
  • Looked to regain control over Urbino, Bologna,
  • Kingdom of Naples
  • Controlled by monarchy and a population of poor
  • Did not experience the Renaissance like the rest
    of Italy

  • What was the relation between art and politics in
    Renaissance Italy?

Italian Renaissance Humanism
  • Classical Revival (Greco-Roman classics)
  • Individualism and Secularism were two
    characteristics of the Renaissance
  • Renaissance was a movement of the elite, not the
  • Petrarch (1304 1374)
  • Characterized the Middle Ages as dark
  • Promoted studying the classics
  • Humanism in Fifteenth-Century Italy
  • Study of Ancient Greek and Roman writers
  • Leonardo Bruni (1370 1444)
  • New Cicero
  • Renaissance Ideal duty of an intellectual to be
  • for ones state
  • Civic Humanism fusion of political action and
    literary creation
  • Lorenzo Valla (1407 1457)
  • Wrote Elegances of the Latin Language
  • Wanted to restore Latin as proper language over
    the vernacular
  • Giovanni Pico della Mirandola (1463 1494),
    Oration on the Dignity of Man Human Potential
    (people could be whatever they chose or willed)

Education, History, and the Impact of Printing
  • Education in the Renaissance
  • Liberal Studies history, moral philosophy,
    eloquence (rhetoric), letters (grammar and
    logic), poetry, mathematics, astronomy, music,
    physical education (martial arts)
  • Purpose was to create individuals who followed a
    path of virtue and wisdom could influence
    others to do the same
  • Education of women
  • Few women got an education
  • Ones who did got an education focusing on
    religion and morals
  • Aim of education was to create a complete citizen
  • Humanism and History
  • Periodization of history (ancient world, dark
    ages, present time)
  • Secularization took religious events out of
  • Guicciardini (1483 1540), History of Italy,
    History of Florence
  • Examined evidence supporting historical events

The Impact of Printing
  • Johannes Gutenberg
  • Movable type (1445 1450)
  • Gutenbergs Bible (1455 or 1456)
  • The spread of printing
  • By 1500, more than 1000 printers in Europe
  • Became one of Europes largest industries
  • Printing of books encouraged development of
  • More laymen (regular people) became literate

  • How did the printing press change European

Art in the Early Renaissance
  • Primary goal of artists was imitation of nature
  • Masaccio (1401 1428)
  • Took up where Giotto left off
  • Frescoes are regarded as first masterpieces of
    the Early Renaissance
  • Perspective and Organization (use of math in art)
  • Movement and Anatomical Structure (study of the
    human form)
  • Paolo Uccelo (1397 1475)
  • The Martyrdom of Saint Sebastian
  • Sandro Botticelli (1445 1510)
  • Primavera
  • Donato di Donatello (1386 1466)
  • David
  • First free standing nude bronze sculpture since
  • Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 1446)
  • The Cathedral of Florernce finished the dome
  • Church of San Lorenzo

The Artistic High Renaissance
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452 1519)
  • Last Supper
  • Showed personality and relationship to Jesus
    through the apostles reaction one of you will
    betray me
  • Raphael (1483 1520)
  • Known for his madonnas
  • School of Athens imaginary gathering of ancient
  • Michelangelo (1475 1564)
  • The Sistine Chapel
  • Told the story of the fall of man
  • David marble sculpture

The Northern Artistic Renaissance
  • Northern Renaissance artists
  • Less mastery of perspective
  • Emphasis on illuminated manuscripts wooden
    panel painting
  • Did not portray the human body like Italian
  • Jan van Eyck (c. 1380 1441)
  • Most influential Northern Renaissance artist
  • Giovanni Arnolfini and His Bride
  • Albrecht Dürer (1471 1528)
  • Adoration of the Magi

Prelude to Reformation
  • Christian or Northern Renaissance Humanism
  • Christian Humanists
  • Northern Renaissance Goal-reform of Christianity
  • Focus on sources of Christianity
  • Holy Scriptures writings of Church fathers
  • Found early religion simpler
  • Desiderius Erasmus (1466 1536)
  • Handbook of the Christian Knight (1503)-showed
    his preoccupation with religion
  • The Philosophy of Christ-stressed inner piety
    over external religion such as sacraments,
    pilgrimages, fasts, veneration of saints, and
  • The Praise of Folly (1511) criticism of the
  • Wanted reform from within the church
  • Understand the philosophy of Jesus
  • Enlightened education in early Christianity
  • Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched
  • Erasmus would eventually disapprove of Luther and
    the Protestant reformers
  • Erasmus wanted to reform the church from within
    rather than split it up

  • What was Christian humanism and how did it help
    prepare the way for the Protestant Reformation?
  • Did Erasmus works pave the way for Luthers
    break with Rome and Catholicism?

Thomas More (1478-1535)
  • Well educated worked for English government as
    Lord Chancellor
  • Friends with English humanists including Erasmus
  • Wrote Utopia (1516)
  • Greek for Nowhere, set in an imaginary island
    near the new world
  • Based on communal ownership rather than private
  • Citizens enjoyed abundant leisure time
  • More saw corruption first hand serving King Henry
  • Opposed Henry VIIIs divorce and break with the
    Catholic church
  • Thomas More was executed in 1535

Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation
  • Corruption in the clergy
  • Pluralism high church officials took over more
    than one church office, which led to duties being
  • Widespread desire for meaningful religious
  • The masses wanted to insure their salvation
  • Church used relics and indulgences to generate
    money and reduce a persons time in purgatory
  • Modern Devotion popular mystical movement
  • Thomas à Kempis, The Imitation of Christ
  • Downplayed religious dogma stressed the
    teachings of Jesus

The Early Luther
  • Early Life
  • Education in law
  • Joins Augustinian Hermits (becomes a monk)
  • Struggled with assurances of salvation
  • Catholic Doctrine stressed faith and good work
    for salvation
  • Justification by faith the Bible became pillars
    of the Protestant Reformation
  • The Indulgence Controversy
  • Jubilee indulgence (1517)
  • Raised money to finish St. Peters Basilica
  • As soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the
    soul from purgatory springs
  • Ninety-Five Theses
  • Luthers indictment of church corruption
  • Pope Leo X did nothing
  • translated into German and thousands of copies
    were printed

Luther Contd
  • The Quickening Rebellion
  • 1519 Leipzig Debate
  • Johann Eck forced Luther to deny the authority of
    popes and councils
  • 1520 Luther moves toward break with Rome
  • Wrote three pamphlets
  • Address to the Nobility of the German Nation
  • Called for German princes to overthrow the papacy
    in Germany
  • The Babylonian Captivity of the Church
  • Attacked the sacramental system
  • Called for clergy to be able to marry
  • On the Freedom of a Christian Man
  • Salvation through faith alone rather than good

1521 Diet of Worms
  • 1521 Diet of Worms - Luther refuses to recant
  • Holy Roman Emperor Charles the V passes Edict of
  • Excommunicates Luther
  • His works are burned
  • Luther becomes an outlaw within the Holy Roman

Church and State
  • Doctrinal Issues
  • Justification by faith
  • Luther downplayed good works as a passage to
  • Transubstantiation
  • Luther denied the practice of the bread and wine
    consumed turning to the blood and body of Jesus
  • Authority of Scripture
  • The word of God in the Bible was sufficient
    authority in religious affairs
  • Priesthood of all believers
  • All Christians who followed the word of God were
    their own priests
  • State Churches New Religious Services
  • Luther replaced the mass with Bible readings and

  • What was Luthers fundamental problem with the
    Catholic Church?

Germany and the Reformation Religion and Politics
  • Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (1519 1556)
  • Faced four major problems
  • French, papacy, Turks and Germanys internal
  • Problems allowed Luthers movement to grow and
  • Francis I of France (1515 1547)
  • Chief concern during the reign of Charles V
  • Habsburg Valois Wars (1521 1544) (wars
    between France Spain)
  • Pope Clement VII (1523 1534) sides with Francis
  • Charles V sacked Rome, took over Italy (1527)
  • Allowed time for the development of Lutheranism
    in Germany
  • Suleiman the Magnificent (1520 1566) (Turks)
  • Killed King Louis of Hungary and moved into
  • Turks were pushed back in 1529
  • Charles V decided to deal with Luther

  • Germanys fragmented political power had made
    German states independent
  • Diet of Augsburg (1530)
  • Charles V demands that Lutherans return to the
    Catholic Church
  • Schmalkaldic League alliance of German princes
    (8 princes 11 imperial cities join)
  • New threats from the French and the Turks forced
    Charles to compromise with the Lutherans

Schmalkaldic War
  • First Phase 1546-1547
  • Luther died in 1546
  • Charles invades German states and defeats the
    Lutherans at the Battle of Muhlberg
  • Second Phase
  • German Princes allied with new French king Henry
  • Although he was Catholic, he hated Charles more
    than the Lutherans
  • Charles V was forced to offer a truce
  • Charles abdicated (stepped down) as Holy Roman
  • Peace of Augsburg (1555)
  • Division of Christianity acknowledged
  • Lutheranism granted equal rights with Catholicism
  • German rulers could chose the religion of their

The Spread of the Protestant Reformation
  • Lutheranism in Scandinavia
  • Disintegration of Denmark, Norway, Sweden union
  • Development of Lutheran national churches
  • By 1540, Scandinavia was a Lutheran stronghold
  • The Zwinglian Reformation
  • Swiss Confederation
  • Loose association of 13 self-governing states
    called cantons
  • Ulrich Zwingli (1484 1531)
  • Strongly influenced by Christian Humanism
  • Unrest in Zurich
  • Zwinglis preaching vs. Catholic ideals in town
    hall debate
  • Seeks alliance with German reformers
  • For protection against imperial and conservative
  • Marburg Colloquy attempt to unite Swiss
    German reformers
  • Stalled over interpretation of Lords Supper
  • Zwingli believed it was symbolic
  • Luther believed it was literal
  • No alliance was formed
  • Swiss Civil War (Swiss Protestants vs. Catholic

The Reformation in England
  • Henry VIII (1509 1547)
  • Catherine of Aragón (First Wife)
  • Henry seeks to dissolve marriage
  • Charles the V was Catherines nephew, delayed
  • Anne Boleyn (Second Wife)
  • Elizabeth I
  • Act of Supremacy (1534)
  • King was the head of the Church of England
  • Formal break with the church of Rome
  • Seized church land and sold it

  • How did the English Reformation differ from the
    reformation in other countries?

John Calvin and the Development of Calvinism
  • John Calvin (1509 1564)
  • Humanist education
  • Influenced by Luther
  • Institutes of Christian Religion (1536)
  • Synthesis of Protestant thought
  • Predestination
  • Some people were destined to be saved (the elect)
    and others were destined to be damned (the
  • Calvinism militant form of Protestantism
  • Two Sacraments
  • Baptism sign of remission of sin
  • The Lords Supper believed in presence of Jesus
    in the sacrament
  • Geneva
  • Consistory a special body for enforcing moral

  • How was Calvinism similar and different to

The Catholic Reformation
  • Old and New
  • Emergence of new female mysticism
  • Regeneration of religious orders
  • Did good works and preached the Gospel (combating
    spread of Protestantism)
  • Creation of new religious orders
  • New orders founded orphanages, hospitals, schools
    and other acts of charity
  • The Society of Jesus (Jesuits)
  • Ignatius of Loyola (1491 1556)
  • The Spiritual Exercises training manual for
    spiritual development
  • Jesuits recognized as a religious order (1540)
  • Absolute obedience to the papacy
  • Structured like the military
  • Three major objectives of Jesuits
  • Education crucial to combating Protestantism
  • Propagation of Catholic faith among non-Catholics
    (missionary work)
  • Fight Protestantism restored Catholicism to
    parts of Germany, Poland and Eastern Europe

A Revived Papacy
  • Pope Paul III (1534 1549)
  • Reform Commission (1535 1537)
  • Blamed the churchs problems on corrupt policies
    of popes and cardinals
  • Recognized Jesuits summoned the Council of
  • Roman Inquisition (1542)
  • No compromises with Protestantism
  • Pope Paul IV (1555 1559) (Cardinal Caraffa)
  • 1st true pope of the Counter Reformation
  • Index of Forbidden Books banned books
  • Any Protestant others

The Council of Trent
  • Met intermittently from 1545 1563 (3 sessions)
  • Divisions between moderates and conservatives
    (conservatives won)
  • Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings
  • Scripture and Tradition
  • Reaffirmed as equal authorities
  • Only the church could interpret Scripture
  • Faith and Good Works were declared necessary for
  • 7 Sacraments, transubstantiation and clerical
    celibacy were all upheld
  • Purgatory indulgences were affirmed
  • (no more hawking indulgences)
  • Most important was the creation of theological
    seminaries for training priests

  • What were the contributions of the papacy,
    Council of Trent, and the Jesuits to the revival
    of Catholicism?

Politics and the Wars of Religion in the
Sixteenth Century
  • The French Wars of Religion (1562 1598)
  • Huguenots
  • 10 of pop but 40 50 of French nobility
  • The ultra-Catholics
  • Led by the Guise family
  • Favored strict opposition to the Huguenots
  • Revolts against the monarchy
  • Nobility and townships became more loyal to
    religion than monarchy
  • The Politiques put government before religion
  • Saint Bartholomews Day Massacre (August 24,
  • Killed 3 thousand Huguenots in three days in
  • Huguenots rebuild backfires against Valois
  • Henry IV of Navarre (1589 1610)
  • Converts to Catholicism
  • Edict of Nantes (1598) acknowledges Catholicism
    as official religion of France but guaranteed
    Huguenots certain rights to hold office and
    practice religion

The England of Elizabeth
  • Queen Elizabeth I (1558 1603)
  • Act of Supremacy (1559) restored Protestantism to
    England and made Elizabeth the supreme ruler
  • Elizabeth tried to make religion acceptable to
  • Puritans wanted to eliminate all traces of
    Catholicism from Anglican church
  • Foreign Policy tried to avoid alliances and
  • Encouraged English seamen to raid foreign ships
  • Secretly sent aid to French Huguenots Dutch
    Calvinists to weaken France Spain
  • Avoided alliances that would bring England into
  • Conflict with Spain
  • Philip II grew tired of Englands involvement in
    the Netherlands
  • The Spanish Armada (1588)
  • Set sail to invade England
  • Armada was routed

  • Centralization of political authority
  • Monarchies had the resources authority to
    finance these expenditures
  • Maps
  • Ptolemys Geography (printed editions 1477)
  • Written in 2nd Century A.D.
  • Depicted a round earth, 3 continents, two oceans
  • Circumference of Earth was dramatically
  • Columbus and other explorers thought they could
    easily circumnavigate the globe
  • Ships and Sailing
  • Previous sailors used the Pole Star for
  • But it was useless south of the equator
  • Naval technology
  • Axial rudder, lateen sails, compass, astrolabe
  • Knowledge of wind patterns

The Development of a Portuguese Maritime Empire
  • Prince Henry the Navigator (1394 1460)
  • Founded a school for navigators
  • During his reign, Portuguese sailors explored the
    west coast of Africa
  • The Portuguese in India
  • Bartholomeu Dias (c. 1450 1500)
  • Rounded Cape of Good Hope
  • Vasco da Gama (c. 1460 1524)
  • Reaches India by rounding Cape of Good Hope
  • Returned with spices such as ginger and cinnamon
  • Alfonso dAlbuquerque (1462 1515)
  • Commercial Military bases (Goa)

  • In Search of Spices
  • Portuguese expansion
  • Set up trading posts in India China,
    established spice trade
  • Used military and naval advantage to seize
    control of spice trade from Muslim traders
  • Reasons for Portuguese success
  • Guns Seamanship

  • Why were the Portuguese so well positioned for
    overseas exploration?

Voyages to the New World
  • Christopher Columbus (1451 1506)
  • Knowledgeable Europeans knew the Earth was round
    but it was smaller than it actually is
  • Tried to reach Asia by sailing west
  • Reached the Bahamas (Oct. 12, 1492)
  • Additional voyages (1493, 1498, and 1502)
  • Carried with him a copy of Marco Polos Travels
  • Additional Discoveries
  • John Cabot explored New England coastline
    (Henry VII)
  • Pedro Cabral (Portuguese) discovered South
    American coastline
  • Amerigo Vespucci accompanied several voyages
  • wrote letters describing new world
  • Name America come from his name

Treaty of Tordesillas
  • 1494 divided up the newly discovered world
    between the Spanish and the Portuguese
  • Dividing line gave all of the New World to Spain
    except Brazil.
  • The Portuguese got Brazil and everything east

The Spanish Empire in the New World
  • Early Civilizations in Mesoamerica
  • The Maya (300 A.D.-800 A.D.)
  • The Aztecs (1200 A.D.-1500s A.D.)
  • The Spanish Conquest of the Aztec Empire
  • Hernan Cortés (1485 1547)
  • Marched to Tenochtitlan making alliances
  • Moctezuma (Montezuma)
  • Initially thought Cortes was a God
  • Aztec Empire overthrown
  • Small pox and allies

  • Administration of the Spanish Empire
  • Encomienda system of tribute and labor for
  • Made the Indians basically slaves to the Spanish
  • Dominican friars began to voice their concern
    over the harsh treatment of the Indians
  • Bartolome de Las Casas was the most vocal
    opponent of the encomienda system
  • Viceroys Kings chief military civil officer
  • The Church mass conversions

Africa The Slave Trade
  • New Rivals
  • European powers began establishing forts in
    Africa to dominate the trade in gold
  • The Dutch Republic began to take over the spice
    trade from Portugal
  • Origins of the Slave Trade
  • Sugar cane and slavery
  • Indian population was decimated by disease
  • African climate and soil werent suited to grow
    sugar cane
  • Growth of the Slave Trade
  • Up to 10,000,000 African slaves taken to the
    Americas between the Sixteenth and Nineteenth
  • The Middle Passage (trip across the Atlantic)
    high death rate during transit
  • 300 to 450 slaves per ship (loose pack or tight
  • Trip took a little over 3 months
  • Approx. 10 of slaves died on voyage
  • Prisoners of war (Slave trade increased wars
    between African tribes)
  • Triangle Trade Europe to Africa to Americas,
    then back to Europe
  • Europeans traded goods for slaves, sold the
    slaves, kept some profit, bought more goods and
    started the cycle over again

  • What social and economic forces drove the Slave

  • Mercantilism is a set of economic principles that
    came to dominate economic practices in the 17th
  • Belief that the total volume of trade
  • Economic activity war through peaceful means
  • One nation could expand its trade at the expense
    of another nation
  • Importance of bullion (gold silver) and
    favorable balance of trade
  • Export valuable goods to New World
  • Import Bullion to European states
  • State Intervention in the economy was desirable
    for the sake of the national good.

  • What economic changes occurred in Europe as a
    result of Mercantilism and Capitalism?

The Columbian Exchange
  • Reciprocal importation and exportation (exchange)
    of plants and animals between the New World and
  • Europe exported Wheat, grapevines, olive trees,
    horses, cattle, pigs, goats, and sheep to the New
  • Europe imported tomatoes, peanuts, peppers,
    beans, squash, sweet potatoes, and manioc from
    the New World

European States
  • The Witchcraft Craze
  • Witchcraft existed for centuries as a traditional
    village culture
  • Medieval church connected witchcraft to the
    devil, making it an act of heresy
  • Establishment of the Inquisition in the 13th
    century, increased prosecutions and executions
  • Accusations against witches
  • Allegiance to the devil
  • Attended sabbats
  • Use of evil incantations or potions

  • Reasons for witchcraft prosecutions
  • Religious uncertainty (areas of strife between
    Protestants Catholics)
  • Social conditions old single women cut off from
    charity by the new emphasis on capitalism over
    communal interests became the scapegoats when
    problems arose
  • Women as primary victims
  • Most theologians, lawyers, philosophers
    believed women were inferior to men more
    susceptible to witchcraft
  • Begins to subside by mid-seventeenth century
  • Fewer judges were willing to prosecute accused
  • A more educated populous questioned the old view
    of a world haunted by spirits

  • What does the witchcraft craze tell us about
    European society and the place of women in that
    society in the sixteenth and seventeenth

The Thirty Years War (1618 1648)
  • Background
  • Religious conflict (militant Catholicism
    militant Calvinism)
  • Secular, dynastic-nationalist considerations were
    more important
  • Tensions in the Holy Roman Empire
  • Most of the fighting took place in Germany, but
    it was a Europe wide struggle
  • Conflict for European leadership
  • Between Bourbon dynasty of France vs.
  • Habsburg dynasty of Spain Holy Roman
  • Posturing for war (think alliance system)
  • Frederick IV of Palatinate (Calvinist) formed the
    Protestant Union
  • Duke Maximilian of Bavaria (Catholic) formed the
    Catholic League of German States
  • Germany divided into two armed alliances along
    religious lines
  • Holy Roman Emperors looked to relatives in Spain
    to help consolidate their authority in the German
  • German princes looked to Spains enemy France for

The Bohemian Phase (1618-1625)
  • Bohemian estates accepted Habsburg Archduke
    Ferdinand as their king
  • Ferdinand set about re-catholicizing Bohemia
  • Protestants rebelled in 1618, deposing Ferdinand
    electing Protestant ruler Frederick V of
    Palatinate (head of Protestant Union)
  • Ferdinand is elected Holy Roman Emperor
    returned with the help of Maximilian of Bavaria
    the Catholic League
  • Imperial forces Spanish retook Bohemia
    captured Palatinate by 1622

The Danish Phase (1625 1629)
  • King Christian IV of Denmark intervened on the
    Protestant side
  • Formed alliances with United Provinces England
  • Christian IVs forces were defeated, ending
    Danish supremacy in the Baltic Sea
  • Emperor Ferdinand II issued the Edict of
    Restitution (1629)
  • Prohibited Calvinist worship
  • Restored property to the Catholic church

The Swedish Phase (1630 1635)
  • Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden enters the war
  • Gustavuss army defeated imperial forces moved
    into central Germany
  • Imperial forces defeat the Swedes at the battle
    of Nordlingen, ensuring that southern Germany
    would remain Catholic
  • The emperor tried to use this victory to make
    peace by annulling the Edict of Restitution of
  • The peace failed because the Swedes wished to
    continue fighting the French Catholics under
    Cardinal Richelieu were about to enter the war on
    the Protestant side

The Franco-Swedish Phase (1635 1648)
  • Battle of Rocroi (1643) French defeat Spanish
    troops, ending Spains military greatness
  • French defeat Bavarian Imperialist armies in
    Southern Germany
  • War in Germany ends in 1648 but continues between
    the French Spanish until 1659

Outcomes of the 30 year war
  • Peace of Westphalia (1648)
  • All German states were free to determine their
    own religion
  • France Sweden gained territory
  • Holy Roman emperor reduced to a figurehead
  • Made clear that religion politics were now
  • Social and economic effects
  • Decline in German Population
  • Some areas of Germany were devastated, others
    were untouched experienced economic growth
  • Most destructive European war to date

Outcomes continued
  • Peace of Pyrenees (1659)
  • Ends the conflict between France Spain
  • Spain becomes a 2nd class power
  • France emerges as the dominant European nation
  • Some historians feel the 30 years (1618-1648)
    should actually be called the 50 years war
    (1609-1659) stretching from the formation of the
    Protestant Union Catholic League to the Peace
    of Pyrenees

A Military Revolution?
  • War and Politics in Seventeenth-Century Europe
    made it essential that a ruler had a powerful
  • New Tactics
  • Battalions of infantry armed with pikes became
    superior to cavalry
  • Gustavus Adolphus employed a standing army
    (conscripts) instead of mercenaries
  • Mixed musketeers with pikemen effectively (volley
    of shots followed by a rush)
  • Adolphus used a similar strategy with cavalry
  • New Technologies
  • Firearms, cannons, standing armies, mobile
  • The Cost of a Modern Military
  • Heavier taxes making war an economic burden
  • State bureaucracy grew and so did the power of
    state government

  • What was the military revolution and what
    effect did it have on warfare in the sixteenth
    and seventeenth centuries?

Absolute Monarchy in France
  • Absolutism sovereign power or ultimate
    authority in the state rested in the hands of a
    king who claimed to rule by divine right
  • Foundations of French Absolutism
  • Political Theorist Jean Bodin defined sovereign
    power as authority to
  • Make laws, tax, administer justice, control the
    state determine foreign policy
  • Bishop Jacques Bossuet wrote
  • Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy
    Scripture God established kings so their rule
    was divine

Cardinal Richelieu (1624 1642)
  • Cardinal Richelieu (1624 1642)
  • Louis XIIIs chief advisor
  • Initiated policies that strengthened the monarchy
  • Eliminated political military rights of
    Huguenots (French Calvinists) but preserved their
    religious ones
  • Transformed the Huguenots into more reliable
  • Eliminated noble threats to the crown
  • Sent out royal officials (intendants) to reform
    strengthen the central government
  • Richelieu ran the crown into debt
  • Mismanagement of funds 30 Years War

The Reign of Louis XIV (1643 1715)
  • Louis XIV took control of France at the age of 23
  • Administration of the Government
  • Domination and bribery
  • Dominated the actions of ministers and
  • Stacked the royal council with loyal followers
    from new aristocratic families
  • Issued bribes to control provinces and the people
    who ran them
  • Religious Policy One King, one law, one faith
  • Edict of Fontainebleau (1685)
  • Revoked the Edict of Nantes (1598)
  • Destruction of Huguenot churches closing of
    Protestant schools
  • Over 200k Huguenots left France, weakening the
    economy strengthening Protestant opposition to
    Louis in other countries

Palace at Versailles
  • Daily Life at Versailles
  • Purposes of Versailles
  • Intended to overawe subjects impress foreign
  • Housed royal officials princes
  • Court life and etiquette
  • Set the standard for European monarchies
  • Princes nobles were arranged according to
  • Real purpose was to exclude them from power by
    including them in the life of the king at

The Wars of Louis XIV
  • The Wars of Louis XIV
  • Professional army 100,000 men in peacetime
    400,000 in wartime
  • Louis XIV waged war to insure French dominance in
    Europe and preserve the Bourbon dynasty
  • Four wars between 1667 1713
  • Invasion of Spanish Netherlands (1667-1668)
  • Triple Alliance (English, Dutch Swedes) forced
    Louis to sue for peace (received a few towns in
    the Spanish Netherlands)
  • Dutch War (1672-1678)
  • Louis invaded the United Provinces leading
    Brandenburg, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire to
    form a coalition to stop him
  • Received Franche-Comte from Spain
  • Annexation of Alsace and Lorraine, occupation of
    Strasbourg (1679) led to new opposition.

Louiss Wars
  • War of the League of Augsburg (1689 1697)
  • Spain, The Holy Roman Empire, the United
    Provinces, Sweden, England formed the League of
  • Caused economic depression and famine in France
  • Treaty of Ryswick ended the war causing Louis to
    give up most of the territory he had previously

Louiss Wars
  • War of the Spanish Succession (1702 1713)
  • Louiss grandson was set to inherit the Spanish
    throne, (Phillip V) scaring neighboring countries
    about a united Spain France
  • Coalition of England, United Provinces, Habsburg
    Austria, the German states opposed France
  • Peace of Utrecht (1713)
  • Confirmed Phillip V as ruler of Spain
  • Affirmed thrones would remain separate
  • Coalition gained French Spanish territory
  • England emerges as a strong naval force, gaining
    territory in America from France
  • Louis XIV died 2 years later, leaving France
    broke and surrounded by enemies.

  • Define absolutism and determine to what extent
    Frances government in the seventeenth century
    can be labeled an absolute monarchy.

Absolutism in Central and Eastern Europe
  • The German States
  • The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia
  • The Hohenzollern Dynasty
  • Frederick William the Great Elector (1640 1688)
  • Army (standing army of 40K men)
  • General War Commissariat to levy taxes
  • Evolved into an agency for civil government
  • Reinforced serfdom through concessions to the
  • Used Mercantilist Policies
  • High tariffs, subsidies, monopolies
  • Frederick III (1688 1713)
  • Aided Holy Roman Empire in the War of Spanish
  • In return, he was granted the title King of
    Prussia (1701)

The Reign of Peter the Great (1689 1725)
  • Visits the West (1697 1698)
  • Seeks to modernize Russia
  • Mostly technical
  • Reorganizes armed forces
  • Modernized military standing army of 210,000
  • Created a navy
  • Reorganizes central government
  • Divides Russia into provinces
  • Seeks control of the Russian Church
  • Introduces Western Customs
  • No spitting on floor or scratching oneself at
  • Cutting off beards and coats

The Reign of Peter the Great
  • Positive Impact of Reforms on Women
  • Upper class women were encouraged to mingle with
  • Women could choose who they wanted to marry
  • Open a window to the West
  • A port easily accessible to Europe
  • Attacks Sweden
  • Battle of Narva (1700)
  • 8,000 Swedes defeat 40,000 Russians
  • Great Northern War (1701 1721)
  • Battle of Poltava (1709)
  • Russian army defeats Swedish army
  • Peace of Nystadt (1721)
  • Russia gains control of Estonia, Livonia and
  • St. Petersburg
  • Window to the West (port in the Baltic Sea)
  • New Russian capital

England Constitutional Monarchy
  • James I (1603 1625) and the House of Stuart
  • Took over after Elizabeths death
  • Claimed he ruled by Divine Right of Kings
  • Parliament and the power of the purse
  • Religious policies
  • The Puritans controlled most of the lower House
    of Commons
  • Charles I (1625 1649)
  • Petition of Right
  • Prevented any taxation without Parliaments
  • Personal Rule (1629 1640) Parliament does
    not meet
  • Charles I tries to collect taxes without
  • Forced to call Parliament to raise tax money to
    fight Scottish rebellion
  • Religious policy angers Puritans
  • Charles I married a Catholic (Louis XIIIs sister
  • Charles I calls Parliament and the members make
    changes to limit royal authority
  • Charles I arrests radical members of Parliament
    and Parliament rebels starting the English Civil

Civil War (1642 1648)
  • Oliver Cromwell
  • New Model Army effective against Royalists
  • Extreme Puritans who believed they were fighting
    for God
  • 1st phase
  • Charles I is captured after 1st Phase of Civil
    War (1646)
  • Charles I escaped and got the Scotts to help
    invade England
  • Charles I is captured, tried, executed (Jan.
    30, 1649)
  • Parliament abolishes the monarchy
  • Cromwell dissolves Parliament (April 1653)
  • Cromwell divides country into 11 regions ruled by
  • Cromwell dies (1658)
  • Army reestablishes the monarchy, Charles II

Restoration a Glorious Revolution
  • Charles II (1660 1685)
  • Reestablished Anglican church
  • Parliament suspected he was Catholic because his
    brother James was
  • Charles II passed Declaration of Indulgence
  • Suspended laws passed by Parliament against
    Catholics and Puritans
  • Parliament passed Test Act (1673) Only
    Anglicans could hold military and civil offices
  • James II (1685 1688)
  • Devout Catholic
  • Issued new Declaration of Indulgence (1687)
  • Protestant daughters Mary and Anne
  • Catholic son born in 1688
  • Parliament invites Mary and her husband, William
    of Orange, to invade England
  • James II, wife and son flee to France

  • Mary and William of Orange offered throne (1689)
  • Bill of Rights
  • Affirmed Parliaments right to make laws tax
  • laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy
  • The Toleration Act of 1689
  • Granted Puritans right to free public worship
  • Ironically the Toleration Act still didnt
    tolerate Catholics

Responses to the Revolution
  • Thomas Hobbes (1588 1679)
  • Leviathan (1651)
  • People form a commonwealth for protection
  • People have no right to rebel
  • Believed in strong government to maintain social
  • John Locke (1632 1704)
  • Two Treatises of Government
  • Inalienable Rights Life, Liberty and Property
  • People form a government to protect their rights
  • If government does not fulfill their social
    contract with the people, the people have the
    right to revolt

Scientific Revolution
Toward a New Heaven A Revolution in Astronomy
  • Greatest Achievements in the Scientific
    Revolution of the 16th 17th centuries came in
    the fields dominated by the ideas of the Greeks
  • Astronomy, mechanics, medicine
  • Aristotle, Claudius Ptolemy and Christian
  • Ptolemaic view Geocentric model

  • Geocentric Universe
  • Motionless Earth was the center of the universe
  • Ten Spheres surrounded the Earth Mercury,
    Venus, the sun, Mars Jupiter, Saturn and the
    fixed stars
  • According to Aristotle, spheres moved in a circle
    around Earth
  • Christianized Ptolemaic Universe
  • Beyond the spheres was Empyrean Heaven location
    of God and all of the saved souls
  • Christian Ptolemaic universe had a fixed outer

  • What were the roots of the Scientific Revolution?

  • Copernicus (1473-1543)
  • Studied mathematics astronomy in his native
    Poland later Italy
  • Tried to create a simpler explanation but
    develops a theory nearly as complicated as
  • On The Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres
  • Didnt publish it until right before his death
    for fear of ridicule
  • Heliocentric Universe sun centered universe
  • Based on observations of earlier astronomers and
    his own observations
  • Everything seemed to rotate around Earth because
    Earth was rotating
  • Creates doubt about the Ptolemaic system
    Aristotles astronomy
  • Copernicus and his theory were denounced by
    Protestant leaders (Luther)
  • Catholics did not denounce them until Galileo

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601)
  • Danish nobleman who built an observatory at
    Uraniborg castle
  • Recorded astronomical data on positions
    movements of planets stars
  • Rejected Aristelian-Ptolemaic system but was
    unable to accept Copernicus model
  • Brahe thought the planets orbited the sun and the
    sun orbited the earth
  • Took on an assistant in Prague, named Johannes

A Revolution in Astronomy, Continued
  • Johannes Kepler (1571 1630)
  • Originally a student of theology
  • Interest in Hermetic thought and Mathematical
  • Believed mathematical relationships were the
    basis for all nature not just on earth but the
  • Music of the Spheres
  • Harmony or mathematical concept of movement of
    heavenly spheres
  • Convinced that celestial bodies effected things
    on earth
  • The moons orbit effected the tides on earth

  • Laws of Planetary Motion
  • Orbits of planets were not circular, but
  • Speed of a planet differs depending on proximity
    to the sun
  • Planets with larger orbits revolve at a slower
    average velocity
  • Discredits Aristotelian-Ptolemaic System
  • Keplers laws of planetary motion gained
    acceptance in the scientific community
  • Confirmed Copernicus heliocentric theory

Galileo Galilei (1564 1642)
  • Galileo
  • Mathematics professor
  • 1st European to observe the heavens with a
  • Discovered 4 moons of Jupiter, mountains
    craters on moon, sunspots
  • Observed that celestial bodies were made up of
    the same natural properties as Earth
  • The Starry Messenger published his findings
  • Did more to further the new picture of the
    universe than Copernicus and Keplers
    mathematical theories
  • Supported the heliocentric system

Galileo and the Church
  • Condemned by the Church
  • Roman Inquisition condemned Copernicanism
    ordered Galileo to reject the Copernican thesis
  • The church would allow Galileo to discuss
    Copernicanism as long as he maintained it was a
    mathematical supposition not a fact
  • The Church attacked Copernican System
  • The heavens were no longer a spiritual world but
    a world of matter
  • Humans were no longer the center of the universe
  • God was no longer in a specific place
  • The Copernican System raised so many
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