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Political Parties

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Political Parties Chapter 8 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Political Parties


1
Political Parties
  • Chapter 8

2
The Meaning of Party
  • Political Party
  • A team of men and women seeking to control the
    governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly
    constituted election.
  • Parties can be thought of in three parts
  • Party in the electorate
  • Party as an organization
  • Party in government

3
The Meaning of Party
  • Tasks of the Parties
  • Linkage Institution The channels through which
    peoples concerns become political issues on the
    governments policy agenda.
  • Parties Pick Candidates
  • Parties Run Campaigns
  • Parties Give Cues to Voters
  • Parties Articulate Policies
  • Parties Coordinate Policymaking

4
The Meaning of Party
  • Parties, Voters, and Policy The Downs Model
  • Rational-choice theory Assumes that individuals
    act in their own best interest, weighing the pros
    cons.

5
The Party in the Electorate
  • These are the voters in an election.
  • Ticket-splitting
  • Voting for candidates of different parties.

Year Dem Ind Rep
1964 52.2 23 24.8
1976 40.2 36.8 23.0
1988 35.7 36.3 28.0
2000 34.8 41.0 24.2
6
The Party Organizations From the Grass Roots to
Washington
  • These are the people that work for the party.
  • Local Parties
  • Party Machines A type of political party
    organization that relies heavily on material
    inducements to win votes and to govern.
  • Patronage A job, promotion or contract given for
    political reasons rather than merit. Used by
    party machines.
  • Now local organizations are generally weak.

7
The Party Organizations From the Grass Roots to
Washington
  • The 50 State Party Systems
  • Closed voters must be registered with their
    party in advance and can only vote for that party
  • Open voters decide on election day which party
    to participate in, and then only that party
  • Blanket voters get a list of all candidates and
    can vote for one name for each office, regardless
    of party label

8
The Party Organizations From the Grass Roots to
Washington
  • The National Party Organizations
  • National Convention The meeting of party
    delegates every four years to choose a
    presidential ticket and write the partys
    platform.
  • National Committee One of the institutions that
    keeps the party operating between conventions.

9
The Party in Government Promises and Policy
  • These are the party members actually elected to
    government.
  • Candidates are less dependent on parties to get
    elected, but they still need help
  • Coalition
  • A group of individuals with a common interest
    upon which every political party depends.
  • Parties politicians generally do what they say
    they will do.

10
The Party in Government Promises and Policy
  • Rep Platform 2000
  • Bush Regan set the stage for todays
    prosperity.
  • The party of peace through strength.
  • Personal saving accounts are the cornerstone
  • Dem Platform 2000
  • Clinton turned America into the prosperous
    country of today.
  • Reversed a decline in defense spending.
  • Create privately managed savings accounts.

11
Party Eras inAmerican History
  • Party Eras
  • Historical periods in which a majority of votes
    cling to the party in power.
  • Critical Election
  • An electoral earthquake where new issues and
    new coalitions emerge.
  • Party Realignment
  • The displacement of the majority party by the
    minority party, usually during a critical
    election.

12
Party Eras inAmerican History
  • 1796-1824 The First Party System
  • Madison warned of factions
  • First party were the Federalists
  • 1828-1856 Jackson and the Democrats Versus the
    Whigs
  • Modern party founded by Jackson
  • Whigs formed mainly in opposition to Democrats

13
Party Eras inAmerican History
  • 1860-1928 The Two Republican Eras
  • Republicans rose as the antislavery party
  • 1896 election revolved around the gold standard
  • 1932-1964 The New Deal Coalition
  • Forged by the Democrats- relied upon urban
    working class, ethnic groups, Catholics and Jews,
    the poor, Southerners

14
Party Eras inAmerican History
  • 1968-Present The Era of Divided Party Government
  • Party dealignment- disengagement of people from
    parties
  • Party neutrality- people are indifferent towards
    the two parties

15
Third Parties Their Impact on American Politics
  • Political parties other than Democrat or
    Republican
  • Rarely win elections
  • But, they bring new groups and people into
    politics
  • Two-party system discourages extreme views

16
Third Parties Their Impact on American Politics
  • Winner-take-all system
  • Legislative seats awarded only to first place
    finishers.
  • Proportional Representation
  • Legislative seats awarded based on votes received
    by the party- more votes, more seats
  • Coalition Government
  • Two or more parties join to run government

17
Understanding Political Parties
  • Democracy and Responsible Party Government
  • 1. Parties have distinct comprehensive programs.
  • 2. Candidates are committed to the program.
  • 3. Majority party must carry out its program.
  • 4. Majority party must accept responsibility.

18
Understanding Political Parties
  • Individualism and Gridlock
  • Easier to pass the buck than bite the bullet
  • Lack of uniformity even within parties
  • American Political Parties and the Scope of
    Government
  • Lack of uniformity keeps government small
  • But, it also makes cutting government programs
    harder to do

19
Understanding Political Parties
  • Is the Party Over?
  • No longer the chief source of information for
    voters
  • But, state and national party organizations are
    getting stronger
  • Majority of people still identify with a party,
    but still split their tickets
  • Parties will continue to be around

20
Internet Resources
  • Republicans
  • Democrats
  • Libertarians
  • Reform Party
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