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A Campaign to Clean Up Politics

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A Campaign to Clean Up Politics Under the spoils system, or patronage, government jobs went to supporters of the winning party in an election. By the late 1870s, many ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A Campaign to Clean Up Politics


1
A Campaign to Clean Up Politics
  • Under the spoils system, or patronage, government
    jobs went to supporters of the winning party in
    an election. ?
  • By the late 1870s, many Americans believed that
    patronage corrupted those who worked for the
    government. ?
  • They began a movement to reform the civil
    service. ?
  • President Rutherford B. Hayes attacked the
    practice of patronage.

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2
  • The Stalwartsa group of Republican machine
    politicians who strongly opposed civil service
    reformaccused Hayes of backing civil service
    reform to create openings for his own supporters.
    ?
  • Civil service reformers were called Halfbreeds.
    ?
  • The Republican candidates for the election of
    1880 were a Halfbreed, James Garfield for
    president, and the Stalwart, Chester Arthur for
    vice president. ?
  • They won the election.

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3
  • President Garfield was assassinated a few months
    into his presidency. ?
  • He was killed by a Stalwart who wanted a civil
    service job through the spoils system. ?
  • In 1883 Congress passed the Pendleton Act. ?
  • This civil service reform act allowed the
    president to decide which federal jobs would be
    filled according to rules set up by a bipartisan
    Civil Service Commission.

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4
  • Candidates competed for federal jobs through
    examinations. ?
  • Appointments could be made only from the list of
    those who took the exams. ?
  • Once appointed to a job, a civil service official
    could not be removed for political reasons.

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5
How did the Pendleton Act help reform the civil
service?
This civil service reform act allowed the
president to decide which federal jobs would be
filled according to rules set up by a bipartisan
Civil Service Commission. Candidates competed for
federal jobs through examinations. Appointments
could be made only from the list of those who
took the exams. Once appointed to a job, a civil
service official could not be removed for
political reasons.
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6
Two Parties, Neck and Neck
  • A major reason that few new policies were
    introduced in the 1870s and 1880s was because the
    Democrats had control of the House of
    Representatives and the Republicans had the
    control of the Senate. ?
  • Both the Republicans and the Democrats were well
    organized in the late 1800s. ?
  • The presidential elections were won with narrow
    margins between 1876 and 1896.

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7
Two Parties, Neck and Neck (cont.)
  • In 1876 and 1888, the presidential candidate lost
    the popular vote but won the electoral vote and
    the election. ?
  • The Republicans won four of the six presidential
    elections between 1876 and 1896. ?
  • The Democrats controlled the House of
    Representatives, however, and the Senate was
    controlled by Republicans who did not necessarily
    agree with the president on issues.

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8
Two Parties, Neck and Neck (cont.)
Why were few new policies introduced in the 1870s
and 1880s?
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9
Two Parties, Neck and Neck (cont.)
Both the Republicans and the Democrats were well
organized in the late 1800s. The presidential
elections were won with narrow margins between
1876 and 1896. The Republicans won four of the
six presidential elections between 1876 and 1896.
The Democrats controlled the House of
Representatives, however, and the Senate was
controlled by Republicans who did not necessarily
agree with the president on issues. This created
a nearly even division of power between
Republicans and Democrats that produced political
deadlock at the federal level.
10
Democrats Reclaim the White House
  • In the presidential election of 1884, Republicans
    remained divided over reform. ?
  • Democrats nominated Governor Grover Cleveland of
    New York, a reformer who opposed Tammany Hall. ?
  • Republicans nominated James G. Blaine, a former
    Speaker of the House of Representatives. ?
  • Blaine was popular among Republican Party workers.

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11
Democrats Reclaim the White House (cont.)
  • A major issue in the campaign was corruption in
    American government. ?
  • Voters focused on the morals of each candidate. ?
  • Some Republican reformers, called Mugwumps,
    disliked Blaine so much that they left the party
    to support the Democratic candidate Grover
    Cleveland. ?
  • The Mugwumps did not like Blaines connection
    with the Crédit Mobilier scandal.

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12
Democrats Reclaim the White House (cont.)
  • Cleveland admitted to having fathered a child
    ten years earlier and retained the support of
    the Mugwumps for his honesty. ?
  • Blaine tried to persuade Roman Catholics to vote
    Republican because his mother was an Irish
    Catholic. ?
  • His tactic failed, and Cleveland was elected
    president.

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13
Democrats Reclaim the White House (cont.)
Why did Grover Cleveland win the presidential
election of 1884?
Some Republican reformers, called Mugwumps,
disliked Blaine and supported Grover Cleveland
instead. They disliked Blaine because they did
not like his personal morals and his connection
with the Crédit Mobilier scandal.
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14
A President Besieged by Problems
  • Many supporters of President Grover Cleveland
    sought patronage jobs after his election to
    office. ?
  • Many strikes occurred during Clevelands
    administration. ?
  • Police and paid guards sometimes attacked the
    strikers. ?
  • A bomb exploded at a labor demonstration in
    Haymarket Square in Chicago.

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15
  • Small businesses and farmers became angry at
    railroads because they paid high rates for
    shipping goods, but large corporations were given
    rebates, or partial refunds, and lower rates for
    shipping goods. ?
  • Both Democrats and Republicans believed that
    government should not interfere with
    corporations property rights.

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16
  • In 1886 the Supreme Court ruled in the case of
    Wabash v. Illinois that the state of Illinois
    could not restrict the rates that the Wabash
    Railroad charged for traffic between states
    because only the federal government could
    regulate interstate commerce. ?
  • In 1887 a bill was signed creating the Interstate
    Commerce Commission. ?
  • This was the first law to regulate interstate
    commerce.

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17
  • Many Americans wanted to do away with high
    tariffs because they felt that large American
    companies could compete internationally. ?
  • They wanted Congress to cut tariffs because these
    taxes caused an increase in the price of
    manufactured goods. ?
  • President Cleveland proposed lowering tariffs,
    but Congress was deadlocked over the issue. ?
  • Tariff reduction became a major issue in the
    election of 1888.

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18
What was the purpose of the Interstate Commerce
Commission?
The commission was created to regulate interstate
commerce. The commission limited railroad rates
to what was reasonable and just, forbade
rebates to high-volume users, and made it illegal
to charge higher rates for shorter hauls.
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19
Republicans Regain Power
  • The Republican candidate in the 1888 election was
    Benjamin Harrison. ?
  • His campaign was given large contributions by
    industrialists who wanted tariff protection. ?
  • The Democratic candidate was Cleveland. ?
  • He was against high tariff rates. ?
  • Harrison won the election by winning the
    electoral vote, but not the popular vote.

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20
Republicans Regain Power (cont.)
  • As a result of the election of 1888, Republicans
    gained control of both houses of Congress and the
    White House. ?
  • The Republicans were able to pass legislation on
    issues of national concern. ?
  • The McKinley Tariff cut tariff rates on some
    goods, but increased the rates of others. ?
  • It lowered federal revenue and left the nation
    with a budget deficit.

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21
Republicans Regain Power (cont.)
  • A new pension law passed in 1890 for veterans
    furthered worsened the federal deficit. ?
  • The Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 made trusts
    illegal, although the courts did little to
    enforce the law.

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22
Republicans Regain Power (cont.)
What were the results of the Sherman Antitrust
Act?
The courts did little to enforce the Sherman
Antitrust Act. The legislative act was important
for establishing a precedent in the regulation
of big business.
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