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THE ORIGINS OF AMERICAN POLITICS

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Title: THE ORIGINS OF AMERICAN POLITICS


1
THE ORIGINS OF AMERICAN POLITICS
2
The New Government
THE BIG IDEA George Washington had to establish
the Executive Branch of the new government.
Thomas Jefferson Secretary of State Past
Experience Main writer of the Declaration of
Independence, Ambassador to France
John Adams Vice-President Past Experience
Revolutionary Leader, Lawyer, influential
Federalist
George Washington President Past Experience
Commander of the Continental Army, President of
the Constitutional Convention
Alexander Hamilton Secretary of Treasury Past
Experience Personal Aide to Washington, author
of many Federalist Essays
Henry Knox Secretary of War Past Experience
General in Continental Army, Sec. Of War under
Articles
3
TARIFF a tax on imports STRICT CONSTRUCTION
the belief that the nation should be run exactly
as outlined in the Constitution LOOSE
CONSTRUCTION the belief that the Constitution
should be viewed as a loose framework of laws
meant to guide but not to prohibit what was not
explicitly contained in it WHISKEY REBELLION
revolt in Western PA against the federal
government and the implementation of the tax on
whiskey JAYS TREATY treaty between the US and
GB which GB gave up claims to the NW Territory
and which trade expanded between the two
countries POLITICAL PARTY group of people who
try to influence politics
4
Hamiltons Plan for National Debt
  • Congress accepted the plan based on a deal
  • move the Capital to Washington DC
  • Why would the Government want to add to 50
    Million debt by adding the States debts?
  • Most debt was owed to foreign countries,
    merchants and speculators
  • did not want government to fail
  • wanted citizens to feel secure
  • Raise Money - Whiskey Tax and Tariff
  • Place this in a special fund
  • Repay debt with interest from it

5
Political Parties - Issues Begin
  • Hamiltons Program started controversy
  • Strict vs. Loose Interpretation of the
    Constitution
  • Strict constructionist
  • Loose constructionist
  • French Revolution 1789
  • English, French or Neutral
  • Whiskey Rebellion
  • Washington showed strength of the Government
  • Jays Treaty - Chief Justice John Jay
  • Americans stayed Neutral with war between Britain
    and France
  • Washington wanted to side with Britain even
    though France was first ally
  • people saw this as a sellout to the British
  • Failed to protect American merchants

6
  • 1. What was Hamiltons plan for paying off the
    Revolutionary War debt?
  • Natl govt would take on States Debt
  • Whiskey tax and Tariff will be put into special
    fund
  • Creditors will be paid with interest from fund
  • 2.Why did some Americans oppose Hamiltons plan?
  • objected to the interference of the federal
    government in local and state affairs
  • opposed taxes
  • 3.How did the French Revolution divide Americans?
  • Federalists opposed it seeing it as out of
    control
  • Jeffersons people supported it as a noble
    extension of the American Revolution

Federalist policies supporting order and
stability in the 1790s sharply divided Americans.
  • 6.How did the views of the Jeffersonian
    Republicans and the Federalists differ?
  • Federalists wanted a strong natl govt even if it
    meant the sacrifice of individual liberties
  • Jeffersonian-Republicans felt that preservation
    of liberties was the highest ideal

4.Why did the Whiskey Rebellion take place? -
people were angry at the tax on whiskey which was
critical to their economy
  • 5.Why did Jays Treaty cause controversy?
  • Many saw it as a betrayal of ideals they had
    fought for in the Revolution and as a sell-out to
    the British
  • Failed to protect American shipping from the
    British searches

7
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8
Up here you write down the political opinions of
each political party and their leaders
  • HOMEWORK Mind Notes
  • Find pictures of the leaders of the new political
    parties or draw profiles
  • Label by political party and leader
  • Fill in thought bubbles with opinions of
    political parties

Federalists Alexander Hamilton
Democratic Republicans AKA Jeffersonian
Republicans Thomas Jefferson
9
John Adams as President
  • XYZ Affair
  • France begins to attack our merchant ships
    because of Jays Treaty with Britain
  • Adams sends officials to negotiate treaty with
    France
  • French officials XYZ tried to extort from the
    USA
  • American People Millions for the defense, but
    not a cent for tribute.
  • undeclared war on France

10
Adams Contd
  • Because of the Anger at foreigners
  • Alien and Sedition Acts
  • Alien - President has the right to imprison or
    deport citizens of other countries living in the
    US
  • Sedition - Fined or jailed if you speak out
    against the govt (used against Jeffersonian
    Republicans)
  • Republican Response
  • Jefferson and Madison
  • violation of the first amendment
  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
  • state has the right to judge whether or not laws
    made by Congress are Constitutional
  • Nullification/States Rights

11
Election of 1800
  • Spirit of 1776 - Jefferson
  • campaigning on the idea of liberty found in the
    Declaration of Independence
  • accused Adams of being a monarch
  • Spirit of 1787 - Adams
  • emphasis of order and the Constitution
  • Jefferson was a godless man who would lead the US
    into chaos
  • House of Representatives had to elect Pres.
  • First peaceful transfer of political parties

12
1st Change of Political Parties
  • Why Adams Lost
  • unfair judgement of his abilities
  • more honest than most Presidents
  • went against supporters in dealing with France
  • failed to quiet critics and angered supporters
  • Why Jefferson won
  • leader of local government supporters
  • better to risk too much freedom than too much
    government
  • Started a permanent political party

13
Jeffersons Democratic Agenda
  • Reduction of Government
  • reduced taxes
  • reduced size of Bureaucracy
  • Reduced size of the Army
  • Judicial Branch
  • Judiciary Act of 1789 - setup system (GW)
  • Judiciary Act of 1801 - increased of Federal
    judges so that Adams could appoint them (JA)
  • Midnight Judges

14
Marbury vs. Madison
  • Jefferson tried to block federal judges
  • Jefferson ordered Madison not to deliver
    Marburys official papers to Congress
  • Marbury vs. Madison
  • Supreme Court did not have the power to let
    Marbury in
  • John Marshall declared Judiciary Act of 1789
    Unconstitutional
  • Judicial Review Precedent - Supreme Courts power
    to declare an Act of Congress or the President
    Unconstitutional

15
Louisiana Purchase
  • French used their control of the Mississippi to
    extort money from American farmers
  • Jefferson tried to make a deal
  • Slave Revolt in Haiti
  • All of Louisiana for 15 million
  • doubled the size of the U.S.
  • Lewis and Clark
  • find route to Pacific, contact Indians, gather
    information about resources - surveyors

16
Toussaint LOuverture
17
Louisiana Purchase and Western Expeditions
  • Treaty of Paris 1783
  • Ended the Revolutionary War
  • Created boundaries from Atlantic to the
    Mississippi
  • Problems with Democracy
  • Hard to govern such distances
  • Understanding needs of the Western Territory
  • New slave states? Slaveholder control of
    Congress?
  • Louisiana Purchase 1803
  • Mysterious ancient towers, tribes of giants, salt
    mountain

18
Lewis And Clark
  • Meriwether Lewis and William Clark
  • Pioneered the Louisiana Territory
  • Jeffersons Orders
  • Find a water route to pacific
  • Make friends with Natives
  • Survey the land
  • York Capt. Clarks slave
  • Novelty to the natives
  • Sacajawea Shoshone

19
Zebulon Pike
  • Sent to find origin of Mississippi River
  • Surveyed the Southwest
  • Pikes Peak
  • New Mexico
  • People were awesome
  • Accused of being a spy
  • Arrested by Spanish troops
  • Escorted out of Spanish Territory
  • Due to Lewis, Clark, and Pike citizens of the US
    became inspired to settle in the West

20
Trans-Appalachian West
  • What made it attractive?
  • Lewis and Clarks Journals
  • Pikes book about Southwestern People and Land
  • People
  • Hunters, Trappers and Fur Traders
  • Settlers and Land Speculators
  • People with unsavory pasts criminals,
    scoundrels, neer do wells
  • Unorthodox religious groups, social reformers,
    idealists

21
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22
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23
The War of 1812 Mr. Madisons War
  • Causes
  • British attacks on US shipping
  • Impressment
  • War Hawks
  • Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun
  • Arming Indians and encouraging attacks on
    settlers in ORV
  • Excuse to conquer Canada
  • Course of War
  • Consequences
  • Hartford Convention
  • Treaty of Ghent
  • Panic of 1819

24
Life in the New Nation Chapter 7
  • The big idea is to realize the effects of each of
    the following events. You must actually think
    for yourselves. You will become enlightened.
  • The U.S. becomes more democratic, bigger, and
    more efficient.

25
As American Population Grew People Moved West US
Population Growth, 1780-1830
14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0
Number of Persons in Millions
What were the causes of this population
growth? What were the effects of this population
growth?
26
Technological Influence
  • Cotton Gin 1793
  • Using the Cotton Gin, one worker could clean
    1,000 lbs of cotton per day 1,000 slaves
    without the Gin
  • Turned a profitless plant into the Souths most
    valuable cash crop
  • Accelerated the migration of southerners west in
    search of cotton-growing lands
  • National Road 1806 (Cumberland Road)
  • Nations 1st interstate highway authorized by
    Congress
  • Steamboats 1807 Robert Fulton
  • Allowed boats to travel upstream
  • Allowed for growth of towns along river routes

27
Inventions and Innovations
  • In what ways have people tried to change their
    own lives or society in general? Do people
    always respond favorably to efforts toward
    change? Why, or Why Not?
  • Spirit of Improvement?
  • Focus on learning to better the condition of
    society
  • Enlightenment inspired well-educated Americans to
    take interest in Science and Medicine
  • Benjamin Rush Benjamin Banneker
  • Industrial Revolution
  • Change in the way things are produced
  • Samuel Slater
  • 1st American Textile Mill (factory system)
  • Eli Whitney
  • Interchangeable Parts
  • Cotton Gin
  • EFFECTS?

28
Taming the Wilderness
  • Roads, Rivers, Canals, and
  • Railroads from 1820-1840

29
  • Steam Power
  • 1807 - Robert Fultons
  • Clermont steams up the
  • Hudson River
  • Inventors exploited steam
  • power
  • Cost of transportation and
  • Commerce were reduced
  • Canals
  • Erie Canal connects
  • Lake Erie to NYC in 1825
  • By 1840, 3,000
  • miles of canals are in use

EFFECTS
CHANGES IN TRANSPORTATION
EFFECTS
EFFECTS
  • Railroads
  • 1828-The BO Railroad
  • line becomes the nations
  • first railroad
  • 1840-U.S. has more miles
  • of track than any other nation
  • Roads
  • By 1833, the Cumberland Rd.
  • runs from Maryland to Ohio
  • New roads of stone and
  • gravel help Americans move
  • West

EFFECTS
30
Transportation and Trade
  • An effect of the War of 1812 was improved
    transportation and communication.
  • This was an early form of the use of technology
    to improve the nation.
  • Roads, rivers and canals brought people together
    and moved raw materials and goods from one part
    of the nation to another.
  • It promoted trade and communication, westward
    expansion, and nationalism.
  • Rivers, roads, canals, and finally, the
    railroads, were the avenues of growth for the
    United States.

31
River Travel
  • connected the people inside the nation together.
  • Americas rivers were the primary highways of the
    early nation.
  • The first boats used came from Native Americans.
  • Technology allowed improvements to take place on
    the design of boats
  • How did boats change over time?

32
Roads
  • The earliest roads were nothing more than trails.
  • Many of the earliest roads were trails blazed by
    the Native Americans, such as the Appalachian
    Trail.
  • The National Road was an investment by the
    Jeffersonian government and was the first real
    link for communities and economic growth.

33
The Craze for Canals
  • Man-made rivers that were cut through the
    landscape to connect rivers and lakes with
    landlocked areas.
  • Allowed builders to control water depth and
    control obstacles such as currents.
  • Canal building ended with the advancement of the
    railroad as a more efficient system of
    transportation.
  • By the Civil War, the canal craze had ended in
    most areas of the U.S. due to economic downturns
    and the railroad.

34
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35
Railroads
  • The first rails were laid in the 1820s.
  • By 1830, the railroad had proved to be an
    efficient carrier of goods and people.
  • Railroads benefited by capital investment and
    government support.

36
Social and Religious Changes
The Second Great Awakening
  • Anyone rich or poor, can win salvation
  • Salvation can be achieved through belief in Jesus
    Christ
  • People demonstrate their faith by performing good
    deeds
  • The bible is the final authority
  • People can be revived or brought back to faith
    by listening to preachers
  • Preachers can preach anywhere, including outdoor
    revivals

37
Chapter 8 - The Market Revolution
  • Changes in the American Economy
  • Northern Growth
  • Southern Growth
  • Growth of Nationalism
  • Era of Jackson

38
The Market Revolution As factories and banks
grew, the United States moved from a household
economy to a market economy.
  • Define Market Economy
  • Comparing Household to Market Economies

39
Effects of a Market Economy
  • Manufacturing
  • centralized factories
  • free enterprise system
  • working outside the home
  • shopping
  • Banks
  • provided capital
  • uncontrolled lending
  • bank notes

40
The North - Northern cities and industries grew
quickly between 1800 and 1850, bringing new
wealth and new problems
  • Sectionalism - division of regions based on
    geographic, economic, and cultural differences
  • Farming in the Northwest
  • OH, IN, IL, MI, WI, MN
  • Industry in the Northeast
  • Former New England and Middle Colonies
  • Population Density, Industrialization
  • Growth of Cities
  • urbanization, tenements
  • Labor Disputes
  • strikes
  • unions

Number of people (in millions)
41
The South - As cotton farming grew, so did the
slave trade leading to several slave revolts
South develops economy based on farming and
slavery
South has good conditions for farming
Cotton Gin makes cotton manufacturing more
profitable
Rich landowners create huge plantations, relying
on slave labor to grow cotton. Cottonocracy
Cotton becomes the most valuable product in the
South
Industrial Revolution leads to growing textile
industry which needs cotton to make cloth
42
The Southern Section
  • South-DE, MD, VA, NC, SC, GA KY, TN, AL, MS, LA,
    AR
  • Southern agricultural economy
  • rural
  • dependent on Northern Manufacturing
  • Cotton becomes King
  • spread west with invention of Cotton Gin
  • Created New Political Power
  • Cottonocracy
  • Urban Growth in the South
  • Slow, but there were cities
  • Charleston, New Orleans, Richmond
  • Slave System
  • 1804 all northern states had ended slavery in
    some form
  • 1808 importation of slaves illegal
  • 1820 - 1.5 Million slaves
  • 1850 - 3.2 million
  • Slave Rebellions
  • Denmark Vessy
  • Nat Turner
  • Effects
  • passed laws against educating slaves
  • restricted movement

43
Era of Good Feelings - (1817-1824)
  • James Monroe President
  • After War of 1812
  • Feeling of Nationalism came to USA that had been
    missing since after the Revolution
  • Good Feelings
  • Nationalism
  • Incredible Growth
  • 1816 - 2nd Bank of the U.S. helped growth
  • Henry Clays American System
  • Protective tariff, national bank, federal aid for
    roads, bridges, and canals
  • Political parties faded
  • Three Political Giants
  • John C. Calhoun - SC, farmer, yale, intensity
  • Daniel Webster - MA, Lawyer, well-respected
  • Henry Clay - The Great Compromiser, KY

44
NATIONALISM
  • Adams-Onis Treaty - FL for 5 Mil
  • Strengthening of the Federal Government
  • Supreme Court Decisions
  • McCulloch v. Maryland - supported Natl Bank
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward - protected
    Contracts
  • Gibbons v. Ogden - regulated commerce
  • Foreign Policy
  • Monroe Doctrine
  • U.S. not involved in foreign wars or foreign
    internal affairs
  • would not interfere with Western Hemisphere
  • The U.S. would not allow further colonization of
    Western Hemisphere
  • Any European power to attempt to control the
    Western Hemisphere would be seen as a hostile
    action against the U.S.

45
Whigs
  • political party formed to oppose Andrew Jackson
  • led by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster
  • supported Clays American System
  • Protective tariff, national bank, federal aid for
    roads, bridges, and canals
  • slavery issue and annexation of Texas destroyed
    the Whigs
  • turned into Know-Nothings or Republicans

46
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47
2 New Political Parties
  • Election of 1824
  • The Corrupt Bargain - Why is it called this?

48
On the left side of your notebooks for
Homework Read about the election of 1824 and
1828 and then Create a campaign poster that might
have been used in the election of 1828. The
poster should list Andrew Jacksons
qualifications for the presidency, include a
memorable campaign slogan, and employ colorful
visuals. Consult other resources when creating
your poster
ANDREW JACKSON FOR PRESIDENT - Hero of the
Battle - Distinguished service in the -
Honorable Service for the - Dedicated advocate
of
Old Hickory, dickory, dock His leadership will be
as solid as a rock
49
Andrew Jackson in Office
Kitchen Cabinet - unofficial group of
advisors democrats and newspaper editors
  • Election of 1828 - Andrew Jackson Wins
  • Landslide victory after bitter campaign
  • More than twice the voters from 1824
  • New Forms of Democracy
  • expanded suffrage
  • nominating conventions replaced caucuses
  • Spoils System
  • Patronage

50
Andrew Jackson (1767-1845) First to
have Vice President (John Calhoun) resign
First to be nominated at a national
convention--second term First target
of an assassination attempt First
born in a Log Cabin First to marry a
divorcee Only first lady who smoked
a pipe. First 'Toga Party' at the
President's House First to use the
pocket veto First to ride on a train
First to be convicted of a contempt
of court charge - in 1815 Andrew Jackson was
fined 1,000 for contempt of court for refusing
to lift martial law before receiving
confirmation of peace. First former
POW (Revolutionary War) Last
Revolutionary War Veteran Only
president to pay off the national debt
Only veteran who served in both the
Revolutionary War and the War of 1812
Wounded in a duel at the age of 39, Jackson
carried the bullet, lodged near his heart, to
his grave One of four presidents to
have a state capital named for him -- Jackson,
Mississippi Jefferson, MissouriMadison,
Wisconsin and Lincoln, Nebraska
51
Jacksonian Democracy
  • Nullification Crisis
  • Tariff of Abominations 1828
  • John C. Calhoun
  • States Rights
  • Nullification Act
  • Henry Clay Compromise
  • The Indian Problem
  • Indian Removal Act
  • Trail of Tears
  • The Bank War

52
Jacksons Successors
  • Martin Van Buren - Democrat
  • Martin Van Ruin very unpopular
  • Panic of 1837
  • William Henry Harrison - Whig
  • First to die in office
  • John Tyler Whig (more of a Democrat)
  • Became unpopular very quickly
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