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POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE, 18691889

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direct election of US senators. one-term limit on presidency ... Public opinion hates the bill and blame Dems. Democrats hammered in 1894 mid-term election. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE, 18691889


1
Chapter 23
  • POLITICS IN THE GILDED AGE, 1869-1889

2
The Bloody Shirt Elects Grant
  • Grant was immensely popular after the war
  • Nation was weary after war, and eager for a fresh
    face.
  • Republicans, nevertheless, enthusiastically
    nominate Grant
  • Grant is singularly unequipped to be President.

3
The BLOODY SHIRT Elects Grant
  • Democrats divided between eastern and western
    democrats.
  • Nominate Horatio Seymour
  • Republicans wave the Bloody Shirt
  • Republican Platform
  • Democrats divided over redemption of Bonds.
  • Grants wins easily in the electoral college, but
    by only 300,000 votes.
  • Impact of Black vote.

4
The Era Of Good Stealings
  • Civil War bred corruption and graft.
  • Causes
  • RR corruption
  • Jim Fisk and Jay Gould scheme to corner the gold
    market.
  • Boss Tweed/Tammany Hall.
  • Samuel Tilden.

5
A Carnival Of Corruption
  • Grants administration was riddled with corrupt
    officials.
  • Credit Mobilier scandal.
  • Exposed in 1872.
  • Members of congress censured.
  • Vice President implicated.
  • Whiskey Tax scandal.

6
Liberal Republican Revolt Of 1872
  • Liberal republicans were tired of corruption
  • Liberal Republican party.
  • Nominate Horace Greeley
  • Democrats endorse him, too. Why?
  • Campaign very ugly

7
Grant v. Greeley
  • Grant wins easily, 286-66, because
  • Grant is perceived to be the lesser of two evils
  • Democrats are still stained with fault for the
    Civil War.
  • Did lead the Republicans to clean their own
    house.
  • General amnesty Act,
  • lowered tariffs
  • Mild civil-service reform

8
Depression And Demands For Inflation
  • 1873 severe recession hits
  • Causes
  • 15,000 businesses went under.
  • Collapse of Jay Cooke and Co.

9
Depression And Demands For Inflation
  • Debtors advocate inflationary policies.
  • Call for more Greenbacks.
  • Federal government had removed one-fourth from
    circulation. Why?
  • Grant sides with conservatives and signs
    Resumption Act of 1875

10
Silver
  • Debtors advocated the coinage of silver dollars.
  • Why?
  • Congress had formally dropped silver money in
    1873.
  • Reasons
  • Grant rejects call to mint Silver.
  • Consequences of Grants policy

11
Bland-Allison Act
  • Bland-Allison Act.
  • What does it authorize?
  • Why does it have little inflationary effect.
  • Leads to Democratic backlash in congressional
    elections.
  • Plants the seeds of the Grange

12
Pallid Politics In The Gilded Age
  • Balance of two political parties during the
    Gilded Age from 1869-99.
  • Majority in Congress flipped back and forth six
    times in the 11 terms between 1869-91
  • Few controversial stands
  • Few dramatic policy differences between parties.
  • Voter turnout /voter loyalty.
  • Political machines and patronage

13
Republicans v. Democrats
  • Republicans
  • Embodied the old Puritanical ideals.
  • Strict moral codes and belief that government
    should be an instrument in regulating economic
    and moral affairs of the community.
  • Strong in Midwest and in rural and small-town New
    England.
  • Got most of votes from Freedman and from Union
    Civil War Vets.

14
Republicans v. Democrats
  • Democrats
  • More Roman Catholic and Lutheran.
  • South and northern industrial cities
  • Large immigrant base and strong Dem. machines.

15
Stalwarts v. Halfbreeds
  • Republicans had two rival factions
  • Stalwarts (Conklingites)
  • led by NY Sen. Roscoe Conkling).
  • Big believers in patronage.
  • Half-Breeds.
  • Led by James Blaine.
  • Flirted with civil service.
  • Consequences of this division

16
The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876
  • Republicans dissuade Grant from running again.
  • Rutherford B. Hayes.
  • Hayes largely unknown, but a civil war officer
  • Also, importantly, former three-term governor of
    Ohio.

17
The Hayes-Tilden Standoff, 1876
  • Samuel Tildon.
  • Platform.
  • Attacks against Republicans.
  • Electoral College dispute
  • Reasons
  • Attempts to resolve
  • Electoral Count Act
  • Further compromise

18
Hayes-Tilden Disputed Election of 1876
19
End of Reconstruction
  • Compromise was the end of reconstruction.
  • Literacy tests and poll taxes
  • Civil Rights Cases
  • Crop-Lien System/Share Cropping
  • Jim Crow Laws
  • Plessy v. Ferguson

20
Sharecropping
21
Tenancy the Crop Lien System
22
Class Conflicts And Ethnic Clashes
  • Strikes in the 1870s
  • Who wins?
  • Why?
  • Chinese in California
  • Dennis Kearney/Kearneyites
  • Chinese Exclusion Act

23
Election of 1880
  • Hayes administration was not very noteworthy.
    Did not accomplish much beyond end to
    reconstruction.
  • Old 8-7 and His Fraudulency.
  • He did not run for reelection and wouldnt have
    been renominated had he tried.

24
Republicans in 1880
  • Stymied by Stallwart-Halfbreed rivalry and take
    35 ballots to settle on a candidate.
  • Chose James Garfield. Dark-Horse.
  • Chester Arthur, was chosen VP. Why?
  • Platform is for higher tariffs and (weakly) for
    civil service reform

25
Election of 1880
  • Democrats chose Winfield Hancock
  • Civil War General, but popular in south
  • Why?.
  • Both parties shun substantive political issues.
  • Garfield wins by only 40,000, but 214-155 in
    electoral college.
  • He was besieged by office seekers.
  • Made Blain Sec. of State
  • Battle raging politically between Stalwarts and
    Half-Breeds.

26
Election of 1880
27
1881 Garfield Assassinated!
Charles Guiteau I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is
President now!
28
CHESTER ARTHUR TAKES COMMAND
  • Not many expected much from Arthur. Why?
  • Displayed surprising integrity, intelligence and
    independence.
  • Arthur threw his support behind reform of spoils
    system.
  • Pendleton Act of 1883
  • Details
  • Unintended consequences?

29
THE BLAINE-CLEVELAND MUDSLINGERS OF 1884
  • Rep. nominate Blain
  • Tainted with numerous rumors of scandals.
  • The tattooed man
  • Mulligan letters
  • Mugwumps.

30
Grover Cleveland
  • Democrats nominate Grover Cleveland.
  • Reputation for reform and honesty.
  • Clevelands Bastard.
  • One of the ugliest campaigns in American history
  • New York the key state
  • Rum, Romanism and Rebellion

31
Election of 1884
32
Old Grover Takes Over
  • First Dem. president since Buchanan
  • Issues raised by this?
  • Clevelands political philosophy
  • Last Jeffersonian Democrat?
  • Named two former confederates to his cabinet,
    helping to heal the north-south divide

33
Tariffs and Pensions
  • Cleveland and office seekersfires 2/3 of federal
    employees
  • Military Pension issue
  • Tariffs
  • Country was running at a surplus because of high
    tariffs.
  • Republicans had little motivation to reduce these
    tariffs.
  • Clevelands two choices?
  • He favored reducing tariffs. Why?
  • Cleveland makes tariff reduction his number-one
    issue.
  • Created a real political difference between the
    parties just in time for the election of 1888.

34
Harrison Ousts Cleveland
  • Dems renominate Cleveland.
  • Rep. turn to Benjamin Harrison, grandson of
    William Henry Harrison.
  • Primary issue?
  • Republicans use fear of British against
    Cleveland.
  • Republicans raise a huge war chest. How?
  • Harrison wins electoral vote but loses the
    popular vote.

35
1888 Presidential Election
36
Cleveland and History
  • Cleveland the first sitting president to be voted
    out of office since Van Buren in 1840. (Others
    J. Adams, J.Q. Adams, Harrison, Hoover, Carter,
    Bush)
  • Cleveland last to win popular vote and lose
    electoral college until Gore.
  • Cleveland only president to have two
    non-consecutive terms.

37
The Republicans Return Under Harrison
  • Benj. Harrison in the White House.
  • Republicans eager for patronage.
  • Blaine is Secretary of State.
  • Teddy Roosevelt Civil Service Commission.
  • Republican quorum problem in the House
  • Speaker Thomas Reed

38
Political Gravy For All
  • Billion Dollar Congress
  • Pension Act of 1890
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Act
  • Tariffs and Silver
  • Easterners wanted a higher tariff
  • Westerners and farmers wanted more silver minted

39
Tariff Ire
  • Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890
  • McKinley Tariff Bill
  • raised tariff rates to their highest peace-time
    level48
  • Farmers hated the new tariff. Why?
  • Republicans punished in 1890 congressional
    election.
  • Lose nearly 60 seats and Dems have a huge
    majority in Congress

40
1892 Presidential Election
Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison again!
(DEM) (REP)
41
Populists
  • Populists emerge as a potent third party.
  • Officially the Peoples Party
  • Nominate James B. Weaver
  • Populist Agenda
  • free and unlimited coinage of silver at the ratio
    of sixteen to one
  • graduated income tax
  • Govt ownership of telephone, telegraph and RR
  • direct election of US senators
  • one-term limit on presidency
  • use of the initiative and referendum to allow
    citizens to propose and review legislation.
  • Shorter work day-to appeal to labor
  • restriction on immigrationto appeal to labor

42
Populists
  • Labor is mad and are ripe for wooing by
    Populists.
  • Homestead strike
  • Populists poll over one-million votes and become
    one of the few third parties to win electoral
    votes
  • Populists problems with Blacks
  • Grandfather Clause

43
1892 Presidential Election
44
OLD GROVER CLEVELAND AGAIN
  • Depression of 1893
  • Causes
  • Over-building and over-speculation
  • labor unrest
  • agricultural depression from low commodity prices
  • reduction of US credit abroad because of Silver
    Purchase Act
  • Problems with overseas banks, which were forced
    to call in US loans.
  • Cleveland does next to nothing laissez faire

45
Gold Problem
  • Treasury was running a deficit because of the
    Silver Purchase Act. Reasons
  • Cleveland saw no choice but to repeal the Silver
    Purchase Act.
  • William Jennings Bryan
  • Cleveland forced to issue bonds to raise money in
    order to buy gold
  • J.P. Morgan deal
  • Public reaction

46
DEMOCRATIC TARIFF TINKERING
  • McKinley Tariff causes deficit
  • Democrats propose bill to reduce tariff but add
    income tax
  • Senate tacks on lots of provisions to help
    special interests.
  • Wilson-Gorman Tariff Act of 1894.
  • Cleveland refused to sign it, but cant veto.
  • Supreme Court throws out income tax
  • Public opinion hates the bill and blame Dems.
  • Democrats hammered in 1894 mid-term election.
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