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POLITICAL PARTIES Group of individuals, often having some measure of ideological agreement, who organize to win elections, operate government, and determine public ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Group of individuals, often having some measure
    of ideological agreement, who organize to win
    elections, operate government, and determine
    public policy
  • Team of men and women seeking to control the
    governing apparatus by gaining office in a duly
    constituted election --Dahl

Three-Headed Giant Different Aspects of the
  • Party in the electorate (Label)
  • Certain conception in the minds of the voters
  • Membership not required
  • Number of independents rising a lot, and strong
    party ID is declining a little.
  • Split-ticket voting

Three-Headed Giant Different Aspects of the
  • Organization
  • Recruit and campaign
  • Provide continuity between elections
  • State party system
  • Closed primaries only people who have registered
    in advance
  • Open primaries allow voters to decide on
    election day
  • Blanket primaries voters are allowed to select
    Democrats and Republicans
  • Political Machines and patronage

Political Machines
  • Patronage system which recruits members using
    money, political jobs, other political favors
  • Political leader secures and retains the loyalty
    of his supporters and followers by rewarding them
    with public goods, such as official posts.
  • Patron politician Client citizen wanting
  • "WANTED -- A GOVERNMENT CLERKSHIP at a salary of
    not less than 1,000 per annum. Will give 100 to
    any one securing me such a position.
  • Garfield assassinated by disappointed office
    seeker (Charles Guiteau)

Political Machines
  • The Pendleton Act (1883) (under Chester Arthur)
  • classified certain jobs and removed them from the
    patronage ranks
  • set up a Civil Service Commission to administer a
    system based on merit rather than political
  • Created a Civil Service Commission, a
    three-member, nonpartisan board to create and
    administer competitive examinations for
    applicants to low-level federal jobs
  • Stopped the practice of assessing federal workers
    a portion of their salary for the benefit of the
    political party that appointed them
  • Granted the president broad powers to apply civil
    service reform procedures to other
    classifications of federal workers.

Political Machines
  • Strong leadership control
  • Tended towards corruption
  • Hatch Act (1939) Illegal for federal employees
    to get involved formally with political campaigns
  • Federal employees cant serve as party officers,
    solicit campaign funds, run for a partisan
    office, work on campaigns, endorse partisan
    candidates, take voters to polls, count votes.
    Can only vote and make contributions
  • As education increased and legislation passed,
    machines have declined in importance

Three-Headed Giant Different Aspects of the
  • Party in Government
  • Set of leaders who try to control political
  • Spokespersons and symbols for the party

Party Functions
  • Select candidates almost no one above the local
    level (and often not there) gets elected to
    public office without winning a partys
  • Run campaigns
  • Present an image to voters
  • Articulate and advocate policies
  • Coordinate policymaking

Downs Model
  • Voters want to maximize the chance that policies
    they favor will be adopted by the government
  • Parties want to win office
  • Therefore, parties select positions that are
    widely favored and may go to great lengths to win
    (kiss babies, negative advertising, etc.)
  • Median voter model

Why are American political parties weak? Britain
vs. USA
  • Strong party loyalty
  • Centralized
  • Nominated by party leaders
  • Majority party selects executive (prime minister)
  • Parliamentary system
  • Weak party loyalty
  • Decentralized
  • Primary elections
  • Separate Presidential election
  • Separation of powers

Party identification and trends
  • No formal "membership" in American parties
  • Over the past 25 years a decline of both parties
    and the increasing percentage Independents
    (mostly at the expense of the Democrats)
  • Almost every major social group (except African
    American voters) has moved toward a position of
    increased independence
  • African Americans have moved even more solidly
    into the Democratic party (currently only 5
    percent of African Americans identify themselves
    as Republicans).
  • Traditionally, much of the Republican support has
    been the wealthy business class.

Party identification and trends
  • Party identification remains strongly linked to
    the voter's choice, but ticket-splitting (voting
    with one party for one office and another for
    other offices) is near an all-time high.
  • Those who still identify with a party are no
    longer as loyal in the voting booth as they once
  • As party identification increases, there is a
    greater interest in elections, higher voter
    turnout, and more straight-ticket voting.
  • Recent trends often results in divided government
    (often with Republican President and Democratic
    control of Congress)

Early views of parties
  • Madison factions
  • Washingtons Farewell address the baneful
    effects of the Spirit of Party
  • Jefferson If I could not go to heaven but with
    a party, I would not go there at all
  • Ben Franklin infinite mutual abuse of parties,
    tearing to pieces the best of characters

Founding (1789 1820s)
  • Republicans (Anti-Federalists),
    Democrat-Republicans, or Jeffersonians
  • Jefferson, Madison, Monroe
  • Rural support, popular in the South
  • Purpose defeat Adams and the Federalists
  • Eventually torn apart by factionalism
  • Federalists
  • Hamilton, Adams
  • Washington needed a coalition of factions to get
    legislation passed by Congress
  • Domestic policy national bank
  • Foreign policy soft on Britain
  • Support by capitalists
  • Quickly faded

Jacksonian (1828 1856) Birth of national
party system
  • Democratic-Republican became known as Democratic
  • Westerners, Southerners, new immigrants, and
    settled Americans
  • Whigs opposed Jackson Democrats
  • Northern industrialists and Southern plantation
  • United by a common enemy (Democrats) more than by
    common ground

Jacksonian (1828 1856) Birth of national
party system
  • Party convention replaces caucus
  • Caucus (members of Congress who nominate
    presidential candidate) system loses legitimacy
    after 1824 candidate got third place out of four
  • Great increase in voting participation
  • Electors were selected by popular vote rather
    than by state legislators
  • Increased local control

Two Republican Eras (1860-1932) North South
Division (1860-1896)
  • The Republican Party begins as a third party
  • Slavery split both parties
  • Union and anti-slavery supporters became
    Republicans in late 1850s
  • Confederate supporters or anti-Civil war became

Two Republican Eras (1860-1928) East-West
Division (1896-1932)
  • Bryan, a Democrat, alienated northeastern Dems
    and attracted voters from South and Midwest, West
    (farmers, small towns, low tariffs, rural
    interests, fundamentalists protestants) with a
    populist platform
  • Free silver advocate this would devalue money
    and help debtors since there was more silver than
  • Republicans gold standard, industry, business,
    tariffs, industrialization, banks, high
    tariffs,industrial working class (Catholics and
    Lutherans who did not like fundamentalists, and
    hostility toward liquor and immigrants)

Divisions within the parties
  • At the end of the 19th Century, two different
    groups begin to emerge within the two parties,
    but ESPECIALLY in the Republican Party
  • Stalwarts- the Old Guard of the party.
  • Party machinery, party loyalty, patronage,
    WINNING is the primary interest.
  • Mugwumps (Progressives)- the reformers
  • Oppose emphasis on patronage, wanted to see the
    party take unpopular positions on issues like
    free trade, advocacy and articulation of issues,
    PRINCIPLE is the main interest.

The Era of Reform
  • Progressives realize that to have any power, they
    have to attack partisanship itself.
  • Favored primary elections over nominating
  • Favored Nonpartisan elections at city level
  • Wanted strict voter registration requirements to
    reduce fraud
  • Civil service reform
  • In California, direct primary adopted in
    1910-1911, as well as initiative and referendum

New Deal Coalition (1932-1964)
  • Urban dwellers big cities (Chicago and
    Philadelphia) had been Republicans before
  • Labor Unions FDR first president to endorse
  • Catholics and Jewish people
  • The poor low turnout, but supported FDR and
  • Southerners white Southerners maintained loyalty
    from before Civil War through New Deal (going to
    change in 1948.- Dixiecrats to Republicans)
  • African-Americans Republicans lost this
  • Intellectuals few but provided many ideas for
    New Deal

New Deal Coalition (1932-1964)
  • JFK
  • Johnsons Great Society and War on Poverty

Divided Government (1968- Present)
  • Nixon (1968) first time in 20th century that a
    newly elected president did not have his party in
    control of both houses of Congress
  • Happened again under Reagan and Bush
  • Clinton started out with both houses but lost
    that in 1994
  • Both houses and the presidency controlled by same
    party houses for only 9.3 years form 1969 to 2005
  • Party dealignment moving away from both parties

Critical (Realigning) periods
  • 1800- Jeffersonians defeat the Federalists
  • 1828- Rise of Jacksonian Democrats
  • 1860- Whigs collapse and Republicans under
    Lincoln take power
  • 1896- Republicans defeat William Jennings Bryan
    and Populists/Democrats
  • 1932- New Deal Coalition and FDR

Decline of the Party
  • Proportion of people voting a split ticket
    increased until around 1980, and has slowly
    declined since, but is still higher than in the
  • Key in this change is the switch to the
    office-bloc (Massachusetts) ballot from the
    party-column (Indiana) ballot.
  • Ticket splitting leads to DIVIDED GOVERNMENT.
    (White House and Congress are controlled by
    different parties.)

National Party Structure
  • National Convention nominates president every
    four years
  • National Committee
  • state delegates who meet between elections
  • Select time and place of next national convention
  • Issues a call for the convention determines
    number of delegates for each state and the rules
    for how the delegates will be chosen
  • Congressional Campaign Committee help incumbent
    or new legislators
  • National Chairman day-to-day party duties,
    elected by CCC

1. National Convention
  • Selects the presidential candidate
  • Formula for number and distribution of delegates
  • Reforms decreased power of party leaders
  • Democrat reforms toward more intraparty equity

What happens at a typical national convention?
  • First Day Keynote speechmelds the past, present
    and future of the party with its goals and
  • Second Day centers on party platform
  • Drafted prior to convention by a committee
    consisting of proponents of each candidate (in
    proportion to their strength)
  • If over 20 of committee disagrees on platform,
    they can bring an alternative minority plank to
    the convention floor for debate
  • Third Day formally nominate candidate for
  • One major speech about candidate and then others
    also speak about him/her
  • End of evening states cast their ballots for the
  • Usually, home state casts deciding number
  • Vice President chosen, but this is now a formality

2. National Committee
  • State delegates who meet between elections (can
    include governors, members of Congress, other
    party officials, and others)
  • Select time and place of next national convention
  • Issues a call for the convention determines
    number of delegates for each state and the rules
    for how the delegates will be chosen.

Formulas for determining number of delegates
  • Democrats should a larger share of delegates
    come from south (solidly Democrat in the past) or
    the north and west (more liberal or larger
  • Large states are rewarded
  • Vote each state cast in the past and number of
    electoral votes of each state
  • Republicans (conservative) Midwest or (liberal
  • Loyal states are rewarded
  • Number of representatives in Congress and if the
    state in past elections votes for the Republican
    president elected to the Senate, the House,and
    the governorship

How are delegates chosen?
  • Democrats (since 1972)
  • Tried to weaken local party leader control
  • Increase proportion of women, young people,
    African-Americans, and Native-Americans
  • As of 1988, Party leaders and 80 of elected
    officials(senators, house of representatives,
    governors) given delegate seats (superdelegates)
  • Superdelegates do not have to pledge to a
  • Represent leftist wing of the liberal middle
  • Republicans represent more conservative wing of
    the traditional middle class (more closely
    represents most citizens)

3. Congressional Campaign Committee
  • help incumbent or new legislators running for

4. National Chairman
  • Day-to-day party duties
  • Direct mailings
  • Public opinion polls
  • Fund raising
  • advertising
  • Elected by national committee

  • Where do candidates get their support?

Ideological Parties
  • Values principles above all else
  • Does not rely on money incentives
  • Contentious and Factional
  • Third parties
  • Socialist/Socialist Workers
  • Libertarians
  • Right-to-life
  • Christian Coalition (within Republican party)

Solidary Groups
  • People who get together because of camaraderie
    and love of politics
  • Members like to be in the know
  • Former political machines, sometimes
  • Not corrupt or inflexible
  • Not very hard working

Sponsored Parties
  • Another organization, such as a union, creates or
    sponsors a political party
  • Not very common

Personal Following
  • Candidate must have an appealing personality, a
    lot of friends, or a big bank account
  • Kennedy dynasty
  • Bush family

Conclusion regarding parties
  • Only a few (8) states have traditional
    partieshierarchical and based on material
    incentives, and capable of influencing who gets
    nominated (mostly in Northeast )
  • Factional, traditional parties (5)
  • Weak party system of solidary clubs, personal
    followings, ideological groups and sponsored
    parties for all the rest

Why are there only two parties?
  • Single member district, plurality system
  • Duvergers law
  • Cooptation Major parties take the ideas of
    third parties and incorporate them into their
  • Umbrella Partyall encompassing

Plurality vs Proportional Representation
  • First past the post
  • Winner take all
  • Most votes
  • Broad-based parties
  • Electoral College
  • Majority
  • Runoff elections
  • Narrow parties

  • Proportional Rep
  • Party A 20
  • Party B 30
  • Party C 40
  • Party D 10
  • Each party of seats
  • Plurality
  • Party A 20
  • Party B 30
  • Party C 40
  • Party D 10
  • Party C wins all the seats

Third Parties
  • Ideological a comprehensive view of society that
    is radically different from established parties
  • Socialist, Communist, Libertarian
  • Single-Issue single policy and avoiding others
  • Free soil, Know-nothing, Prohibition
  • Economic Protest protesting depressed economic
  • Usually farmers in particular regions
  • Disappears when problems improve
  • Factional Parties split in major party
  • Bull Moose, States Rights (Dixiecrats), American
    Independent, Reform Party (Perot)
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