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Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Australia

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Title: Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Australia


1
Southeast Asia, Oceania, and Australia
  • Coach Martinez

2
Physical Geography of Southeast Asia,
Oceania, and Antarctica
3
Southeast Asia
  • Peninsulas and Islands
  • Two peninsulas
  • Indochinese Peninsula
  • Large rectangular section of southeast Asia
  • Malay Peninsula
  • Serves as a bridge between the mainland and
    islands
  • Most of the islands are found in archipelagos
  • set of closely grouped islands which are
    sometimes curved in an arc
  • The Philippines and the islands like Borneo are
    high points of submerged section of the Eurasian
    plate

4
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5
Mountains and Volcanoes
  • Mainland Southeast Asia has several mountain
    ranges
  • Annamese Cordillera
  • Islands
  • most mountains are volcanic
  • High
  • Islands
  • Low
  • Islands

6
Rivers and Coastlines
  • Mainland has several large rivers that run north
    through the valleys between mountain ranges
  • Mekong River
  • Flows from China to Vietnam
  • River spreads out into fertile deltas
  • Coastline is long and irregular so there are many
    ports

7
Resources
  • Fertile soil
  • from volcanic activity
  • flooding rivers
  • Access to large numbers of fish
  • Mineral resources petroleum, tin and gems

8
Lands of the Pacific and Antarctica
  • Pacific has an estimated 20,000 islands
  • Oceanias many islands
  • Erosion causes some islands in Oceania to vanish,
    while others are created by volcanic activity
  • High islands
  • islands created by volcanic actions
  • Low islands
  • islands made of coral reefs
  • The islands of Oceania are not rich in resources

9
Majestic New Zealand
  • New Zealand is made up of two main islands
  • North Island
  • Very hilly and has a volcanic plateau
  • Has fertile farmland and forest that supports the
    lumber industry, also has natural harbors for
    ports
  • South Island
  • Is very mountainous
  • New Zealand has few mineral resources, but can
    make electricity using dams at fast moving rivers

10
New Zealand
11
Flat Australia
  • Smallest and flattest continent on earth
  • Main mountain range is the Great Dividing Range
    near the east coast
  • To the west of the range is a vast expanse of
    plateaus
  • Very few rivers in Australia
  • Country is rich in minerals
  • Great Barrier Reef- 1250 mile chain of 2500 reefs
    and islands

12
Australia and Great Barrier Reef
13
Icy Antarctica
  • 5th largest continent
  • Circular in shape, centered on the South Pole
  • Topography is hidden by thick ice sheet
  • The Transantarctic Mountains divide continent in
    two
  • East Antarctica- plateau surrounded by mountains
    and valleys
  • West Antarctica- group of separate islands linked
    by ice
  • Resources
  • Largest supply of fresh water in world
  • May have coal, minerals, and petroleum
  • 1991- 26 nations agreed not to mine Antarctica
    for 50 years

14
Climate and Vegetation
  • Most of Southeast Asia and Oceania is tropical
  • Year-round rains
  • Tropical wet
  • High temperatures
  • 100-200 inches of rain per year

15
Wet and Dry Seasons
  • Monsoons shape weather
  • Dry monsoons bring less rain
  • Wet monsoons bring lots of rain
  • Hot temperatures
  • Rainfall varies
  • Tropical Plants
  • Diverse plant species in Southeast Asia
  • Oceania does not have diverse vegetation

16
Moderate Climate
  • Australia and New Zealand
  • Hot summers, mild winters
  • Northern Australia has a humid subtropical
    climate.
  • Mild summers, cool winters
  • Southern Australia and New Zealand has a marine
    west coast climate
  • Mountains
  • In Australia forces moisture-bearing winds to
    rise and shed their rain before moving inland
  • Central Australia is desert.

17
Hot and Cold Deserts
  • Arid Australia
  • 1/3 of Australia is desert in center of continent
  • Semiarid climate surrounds desert and crops can
    graze there with irrigation
  • Outback- unpopular inland region where few people
    live
  • White Desert
  • Antarctica
  • Coldest and driest continent
  • Receives little precipitation
  • Only plants are lichens and mosses

18
Human-Environment Interaction
  • Traveling the Pacific
  • Navigation Charts
  • People who settled Pacific Islands most likely
    came from Southeast Asia
  • Used land bridges and small rafts/canoes to
    travel the Pacific
  • Relied on star navigation and also charts made
    out of sticks and shells
  • Sticks showed the pattern of waves commonly found
    in a region
  • Shells showed positions of islands

19
Special Canoes
  • Voyaging canoes
  • double hulled canoes for voyaging, stable, and
    could carry lots of weight
  • Also had sails and cabins
  • Outrigger canoes
  • used for lagoons
  • has a frame with float extending from canoes for
    balance

20
Invasion of the Rabbits
  • Europeans brought rabbits to Australia.
  • This almost ruined Australian landscape
  • In 1859, Thomas Austin released 24 rabbits into
    Australia so he could hunt them
  • A single pair of rabbits can have up to 184
    descendants in 18 months
  • Rabbits have few natural enemies such as foxes in
    Australia
  • By 1900, Australia had more than 1 billion
    rabbits
  • Rabbits wiped out native plants and destroyed
    crops

21
Control Measures
  • Imported foxes to prey on rabbits
  • Foxes caused almost as much damage as rabbits
  • In 1900s, the government built a 2000 mile fence
    to keep rabbits from spreading to the Southwest
  • This failed to control the population of rabbits
  • In 1950s, the government infected the rabbits
    with a disease called myxomatosis.
  • More than 90 of rabbits died
  • Rabbits became immune to the disease and their
    numbers boomed again to 300 million by the 1990s
  • Now trying poison, new diseases, erecting fences,
    and destroying the burrows where rabbits live

22
Nuclear Testing
  • Tests in Bikini Atoll
  • After World War II the United States tested
    atomic weapons in the Pacific
  • Bikini Atoll was the site of the U.S. atomic
    weapons tests
  • In 1946, the government moved 167 islanders to
    another atoll and conducted two tests
  • 1951- 1958, the U.S. government held about 60
    more tests
  • Explosion of the Hydrogen bomb, Bravo, vaporized
    islands and contaminated area with radiation
  • Long term effects
  • Bikini Atoll may never be suitable for human life
    again

23
Southeast Asia
  • Human geography

24
A long history of Diversity
  • Early History
  • China and India influenced ancient southeast Asia
  • China ruled Vietnam from 111 BC to AD 939 and
    influenced their art, technology, ideas, etc.
  • Hinduism and Buddhism spread through southeast
    Asia from India
  • Early southeast Asias states had mandalas-
    states organized as rings of power around a
    central court
  • Khmer Empire mandala that lasted from 9th to
    15th centuries

25
Powerful States
  • 1300s thru 1800, five powerful states existed
    that were similar to mandalas, but larger and
    more complex
  • The Burmese, the Vietnamese, the Thai, and the
    Javanese began to shape their national identities

26
Colonialism and its Aftermath
  • Southeast Asia traded with merchants from Arabia
    and India who brought Islam to southeast Asia
  • European Control
  • When Europeans arrived in 1509, they just wanted
    to make money
  • The regions wealth flowed from southeast Asia to
    Europe
  • By 20th century , only Siam (Thailand) was not a
    colony
  • Affects of colonization
  • Europeans set up bureaucratic governments
  • Forced them to make goods that were good for the
    European economy
  • Included rubber, sugar, rice, tea, and coffee
  • Colonialism sparked nationalism as southeast
    Asian states united to rebel against European rule

27
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28
Independence
  • Japan occupied southeast Asia during World War II
  • After the war, Southeast Asian countries sought
    independence.
  • Indonesia fought to win independence from the
    Dutch
  • Vietnam a French colony suffered decades of
    turmoil until they finally received their
    independence in 1954
  • Vietnam war
  • the U.S. became involved in keeping Communist
    North Vietnam from taking South Vietnam which
    ended in 1975.

29
Vietnam War
30
An uneven economy
  • Traditional economies (farming)
  • Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos, and Vietnam
  • Ex rice and teak (yellowish-brown wood)
    industries
  • Lack of industry caused by
  • Vietnam War destroyed factories and roads
  • Thousands of refugees fled after the war
  • Political turmoil in Cambodia and Myanmar

31
Industry and Finance
  • Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines,
    Singapore, and Thailand have more highly
    developed economies
  • ASEAN
  • Association of Southeast Asian Nations
  • promotes economic growth
  • Industries include
  • processing agricultural products
  • Textiles,
  • Electronic products
  • Finance
  • Singapore is a center of finance

32
A Rich Mosaic of Culture
  • Religious Diversity
  • Buddhism throughout Southeast Asia
  • Philippines is Catholic
  • Indonesia and Brunei are Muslim
  • Some areas practice Hinduism and other
    traditional local beliefs

33
Rich Artistic Legacy
  • Angkor Wat
  • ancient temple complex in Cambodia
  • Buddhism and Hinduism have influenced the
    regions sculpture and architecture

34
Changing Lifestyles
  • Most Southeast Asians live in rural villages and
    follow traditional ways
  • People live on wood houses built on stilts
  • Roofs are usually made of thatch
  • Most villages have Buddhist temples that serves
    as the center of social life
  • Most villagers wear traditional clothing, such
    as longyi a long, tightly wrapped skirt worn in
    Southeast Asia

35
The Cities
  • Many people are moving to the cities such as
    Kuala Lumpur and Singapore
  • In Southeast Asia, people mostly live in
    apartments
  • Shortage of housing, some set up shacks

36
Oceania
  • A History of the Islands
  • First Islanders
  • Prehistoric people journeyed from mainland of
    southeast Asia to nearby Pacific islands using
    small rafts and canoes and land bridges that have
    since disappeared
  • They migrated to as far as Hawaii, New Zealand,
    and Madagascar
  • 3 regions of Oceania
  • Micronesia- tiny islands
  • Melanesia- black islands
  • Polynesia- many islands

37
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38
Contact with the West
  • In the 1500s Europeans like began exploring the
    Pacific
  • In the 1800s Christian missionaries arrived
  • Convert the natives to Christianity
  • Hunted whales
  • Started plantations
  • Coconut, coffee, pineapples, and sugar
  • Brought disease
  • Western ways replaced traditional ways

39
Recent History
  • Suffered during the last half of the 20th century
  • World War II was fought in the Pacific
  • US fought Japan in fierce battles there to gain
    control of Pacific
  • Some islands were used as nuclear test sites by
    the US and other countries
  • Since 1962, 12 nations have gained independence

40
Battles in the Pacific
41
A Traditional Economy
  • Most islands economies are based on subsistence
    activities.
  • Agriculture
  • Islands in the Pacific are not good for
    agriculture
  • Grow bananas, sugar, cocoa, coffee and copra
    (dried meat of coconuts)
  • Fishing
  • Other economic Activities
  • Tourism
  • Good because it brings in money
  • Bad because it threatens environment and
    traditional ways of life

42
Culture of the Islands
  • Language and Religion
  • There over 1,100 different languages spoken in
    Oceania
  • Papua New Guinea speak 823 languages
  • Many Pacific Islanders speak European languages
  • Spanish, English, French
  • Christianity is most widely spread religion
  • Some Pacific islanders still practice their
    traditional religions.

43
Island Life
  • Traditional Life
  • In Polynesia most people lived in villages led by
    a chief
  • Economies centered on fishing and farming
  • Taro- crop with a starchy root that can be eaten
    boiled or made into breads, pudding or a paste
    called poi
  • Polynesians were warlike
  • Micronesians tended to exist peacefully and lived
    in extended families
  • Polynesians fished and farmed
  • In Melanesia, people lived on coast so they could
    fish

44
Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctica
  • Australia, New Zealand, and Antarctic made up the
    last region to be explored by Europeans
  • 1788, Great Britain founded Sydney, Australia as
    a penal colony (a place to send prisoners)
  • Sydney is located on a deep, beautiful harbor
    that allows for a port and also provides an arena
    for sailing and swimming
  • Mild climate
  • Diverse population

45
History Distant European Outposts
  • The original inhabitants
  • Australia
  • Aboriginal people migrated to Australia from Asia
    40,000 years ago, made 500 groups, speaking 200
    languages
  • Complex religious belief and social structures
    but simple economy based on hunting and gathering
  • New Zealand
  • Maori migrated from Polynesia more than 1000
    years ago

46
Early Explorers
  • Captain James Cook of Britain was the first to
    explore New Zealand in 1769 and Australia in 1770

47
European Settlement
  • Australia
  • 1788 Britain colonized Australia
  • Place for prisoners
  • Pacific navel bases
  • In Australia, Europeans had violent conflicts
    with native people and killed many and gave them
    deadly diseases
  • New Zealand
  • Colonized by hunter and whalers from Europe,
    America, and Australia
  • Treaty of Waitangi
  • Gave Britain control over New Zealand .
    Disagreement over treaty caused war between the
    Maori and British
  • Tens of thousands of Maoris died from diseases
  • Antarctica
  • Was not colonized because of its cold climate
  • Gold
  • Discovered in 1851 in Australia and 1861 in New
    Zealand
  • Hundreds of thousands of people moved here to
    strike it rich
  • Most never left

48
Modern Nations
  • Both Australia and New Zealand are both
    independent but remain part of the British
    Commonwealth
  • New Zealand became the first country to grant
    women the right to vote in 1893.
  • Both countries are attempting to improve the
    lives of the Aboriginal people and Maori by
    returning their former lands.

49
Antarctica
  • Antarctica is unsettled
  • 12 countries drafted treaty preserving continent
    for research
  • In 2000, 18 countries have sent scientists there
    for research

50
Economy Meat, Wool and Butter
  • Agriculture
  • Major exporter of farm products
  • Butter, cheese, meat, and wool
  • Ranching is big in New Zealand
  • Sheep ranching in Australia

51
Mining and Manufacturing
  • Mining
  • Australia- diamonds, lead, zinc, and opals,
    bauxite, coal, copper, gold and iron ore
  • Mining in Australia is tough because most of the
    minerals are in the outback
  • Manufacturing and Service
  • Major industry in Australia and New Zealand is
    processing food products
  • New Zealand- wood and paper industry
  • Nearly 65 of Australias jobs are in the service
    industry

52
Economic Future
  • Nations want to diversify economy and not rely on
    Agriculture
  • Hard to develop industry with nearby Asia with
    cheap labor costs

53
Distinctive Culture
  • Australias Culture
  • Most Australians are of British descent but
    Australia has high rates of immigration
  • 20 of Australians come from Greece, Italy and
    Southeast Asia
  • Christianity is main religion
  • English is main language
  • Drink tea and play rugby
  • 1 of people are
  • Aboriginal people

54
New Zealands Culture
  • The majority of New Zealanders are of European,
    mostly British, descent.
  • 15 of New Zealands people are Maori
  • English and Maori are official languages
  • Christianity is main religion

55
Modern Life
  • City and Country
  • In both countries about 85 of people live in
    cities or towns
  • Both countries are modern with good roads,
    sanitation, and infrastructure
  • In Australia, many wealthy ranchers own private
    airplanes to keep them cross country
  • Recreation
  • Good climate for outdoor activities

56
Southeast Asia, Oceania, Australia and Antarctica
  • Todays issues

57
Aboriginal Land Claims
  • In 1976, the Australian government denied claims
    of Aboriginal people for their land back
  • In protest Aboriginal people erected a tent on
    the lawn of Old Parliament House in the
    Australian capital to symbolize how they were
    foreigners in their own land
  • Australian government tried to get rid of it but
    couldnt

58
Aboriginal People Lose Land
  • Aboriginal people were hunters and gatherers so
    they depended on nature completely
  • British policy
  • Since they didnt farm, mine, or build on land,
    the British felt they had no claims to the land.
    British called it Terra Nullius Latin for empty
    land
  • So British decided they could take the land away
    from the Aboriginal people

59
Stolen Land and Stolen Children
  • Stolen Land
  • Europeans began to settle Australia in 1788 and
    chose most fertile land
  • Aboriginal people fought back but were defeated
  • Some Aboriginal people got put on reservations
  • Some blended into European ways of life
  • Stolen Children
  • Between 1909 and 1969, the Australian government
    took about 100,000 Aboriginal children and gave
    them to white families
  • Assimilation- minority adopts majoritys culture
  • Aboriginal people call those children the Stolen
    generation
  • Many Aboriginal people are fighting assimilation
    by passing their culture on to their children

60
Land Claims
  • Aboriginal people were not recognized as full
    citizens until 1967
  • Land Rights Act of 1976
  • Gave Aboriginal people the right to claim land in
    taken away from them in the Northern Territory
  • The Mabo Case
  • In 1992 the courts ruled that Aboriginal people
    had owned land before the British arrived
  • The Wik Case
  • In 1996 the courts ruled that Aboriginal people
    could claim land owned by the government and used
    as pastoral lease
  • Many white ranchers feared that their way of life
    was threatened (ranching)by this and sued
  • Issue is still not resolved today.

61
Industrial Sparks Change
  • For many people struggling to escape poverty, any
    job, even one with long hours, low pay, and abuse
    is better than none
  • Moving to find Jobs
  • Across southeast Asia, people are moving from
    farms to cities to work in factories
  • They may work 16 hours a day, 7 days a week
  • Industrialization (growth of industry) has caused
    cities to grow

62
Push Factors
  • Push Factors in East Asia
  • Lost resources
  • soil erosion
  • Deforestation
  • water overuse
  • Scarcity of land
  • 60 of rural families dont have enough land to
    earn a living by farming
  • Population growth
  • as population grows , land shortage became worse

63
Pull Factors
  • Pull Factors in East Asia
  • Industry
  • find a job in a factory
  • Education
  • Government services
  • Impact on cities
  • Low availability of housing
  • More pollution, traffic has increased
  • Disposal of human waste is a problem no sewage
    treatment facilities

64
Other Results of Industrialization
  • Economic Effects
  • Rapid industrial growth since the 1960s
  • Increase in trade and exports
  • Higher income for some citizens, income gap is
    expanding
  • Social unrest and crime
  • Environmental Effects
  • Factories can pollute the air by burning fossil
    fuels, carelessly disposing of toxic materials
  • Industry has harmed the environment by using up
    valuable resources such as water and trees
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