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POLITICAL PARTIES

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POLITICAL PARTIES & THE LATIN AMERICAN POLITY INTEREST AGGREGATION or the Combining of Demands An activity process Backed by resources Can be performed by Individual ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: POLITICAL PARTIES


1
POLITICAL PARTIES THE LATIN AMERICAN POLITY
2
INTEREST AGGREGATION or the Combining of Demands
  • An activity process
  • Backed by resources
  • Can be performed by
  • Individual or
  • group
  • Political party the dominant form

3
INSTITUTIONAL GROUPS INTEREST AGGREGATION
  • Institutional groups with a history as
    aggregators of political interests
  • Religious denominations (especially Roman
    Catholic Church in Latin America)
  • Military organizations
  • Bureaucracy (Ministry of Public Works)

4
Military Second most important Aggregators of
Political Interests in Latin America
  • Monopoly of coercive resources
  • Goals vary
  • Nationalistic development within global
    capitalism (Brazilian model 1964-85)
  • Social justice and revolutionary change (Peruvian
    model 1968-79)
  • Process of aggregating interests changes the
    military as an institution

5
ASSOCIATIONAL GROUPS AS INTEREST AGGREGATORS
  • Composed of associations of institutions
  • Examples include
  • Peasant confederations
  • Labor confederations
  • Middle class groups (civic associations)
  • Urban Poor (Bolivarian Circles in contemporary
    Venezuela)

6
In Latin America
  • Political parties are the most important
    institutions involved in interest aggregation
  • Nineteenth century political parties founded by
    elite groups in competition with other factions
    of the traditional big three
  • Conservatives
  • Liberals

7
Contemporary Latin America
  • Most contemporary political parties and party
    systems emerged following periods of military
    rule
  • Traditional Conservatives and Liberals destroyed
  • Exception Colombia - 19th century Conservative
    and Liberal political parties continue to
    dominate the system of political parties

8
Rise of Contemporary Political Parties in Latin
America
  • Middle sectors in the Southern Cone gained
    visibility during first decade of Twentieth
    Century
  • Gave rise to reformist political parties
  • Radicals in Argentina Chile
  • Colorados Blancos in Uruguay
  • Some with international ties
  • Communist parties
  • Socialist parties

9
Mexican Revolution 1917
10
Revolution Led to establishment of Revolutionary
Institutional Party (PRI) in 1928
  • Mass based party with a revolutionary agenda
  • tempered with passage of time
  • Aspired to include all classes (polyclasista)
  • Control consolidated by Lázaro Cardenas
  • Ruled Mexico for more than 70 years (until 2000)

11
Emergence of Contemporary Political Parties in
Latin America Center-Left Tradition I
  • Haya de la Torre APRA
  • Growth of the middle sectors throughout Western
    Hemisphere in 1920s and 1930s led to the
    founding of a new group of mass based political
    parties
  • APRA in Peru (Indo-America)
  • Most Focused on national concerns
  • PLN in Costa Rica
  • AD in Venezuela

12
Emergence of Contemporary Political Parties in
Latin America II.
  • Christian Democratic parties appeared in 1930s
    and 1940s
  • Varying degrees of clerical orientation
  • Led by pro-clerical middle class
  • Greatest successes in Venezuela, Chile Costa
    Rica

13
Emergence of Contemporary Political Parties in
Latin America III.
  • Nationalist parties based on strong personalities
    who established linkages to disadvantaged sectors
  • Peronism in 1940s (Argentina)
  • Velasco Ibarra in 1940s (Ecuador)
  • Chavismo in 1990s (Venezuela)
  • Evita Peron addresses crowd
  • of 2,000000

14
Political Party Systems differ from Political
Parties
  • Political party systems include
  • Constellation of individual political parties
  • Relationships among the political parties
  • Types of party systems (first cut)
  • Non-competitive
  • Competitive

15
Party Systems Structured by Elections and Voting
Procedures
  • Universal suffrage widespread by the end of the
    twentieth century
  • Voting often compulsory
  • Plural vs. proportional representation
  • Electoral turnout
  • Simultaneity of national and regional elections

16
National and Regional Institutions of Government
also Structure Party Systems
  • Strong national political institutions favor
    national party system
  • Single Member Districts vs. proportional
    representation
  • Decentralization opens way for regional political
    parties

17
PARTY SYSTEMS CAN BE NON-COMPETITIVE
  • Mexican party system until 2000
  • Argentine party system between 1946 1955
  • Emerging Venezuelan party system of the Fifth
    Republic

18
Competitive Party Systems more than one
political party has possibility of winning
  • Majoritarian
  • Multiparty
  • Attitudes toward regime
  • Consensual,
  • Conflictual
  • Consociational

19
Political Parties in Government
  • Pass and implement legislation
  • Use of negotiations, bargaining, and competition
  • Form coalitions in order to govern
  • Some accountability expected in democracies

20
Characteristics of Interest Aggregation by
Political Parties In Latin America
  • Restrains and limits the impact of political
    culture
  • Alters (or exacerbates?) the amount of
    polarization
  • In comparison with dictatorial control
    aggregation by political parties tends to be
    supportive of
  • Freedom
  • Participation
  • Stability

21
Trends in Political Party and Party System
Evolution
  • More democracy?
  • Representative
  • Direct
  • Movement away from single party systems?
  • Decline of ideology?
  • Special case of Cuba, Venezuela, Bolivia
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