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Animal Structure and Function

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Title: An Introduction to Animal Structure and Function: How do animals (plants and bacteria too) work? Author: Zoology Last modified by: Zoology – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Animal Structure and Function


1
Animal Structure and Function
2
Keywords importance of size, scaling, collagen,
ascorbate, hydroxyproline
  • Reading Ch. 40 in Campbell 6th edition

3
Objectives of the second half of the course
  • Learn how animals, plants, and bacteria work.
  • Understanding of relationship between organism
    function and physical principles
  • Linkages between biochemistry/cell biology and
    whole organism function/ecology

4
In the second half will discuss the basic
functional needs of organisms
  • What is an animal animal diversity
  • circulation and gas exchange
  • nutrition
  • control of internal environment
  • chemical signaling
  • reproduction
  • nervous systems
  • sensory and motor mechanisms

5
This section introduces overall themes we will
come back to
  • 1) Organisms have similar functional needs
  • 2) Organisms must obey physical laws
  • 3) Understanding how an organism works involves
    consideration of biochemistry, cell biology,
    physiology, ecology and evolution

6
1. Organisms have similar functional needs
7
bacterium
8
Sea anemone
9
(No Transcript)
10
Example Size Does Matter (scaling effects)
11
What is it like for a mayfly to hatch out of a
stream?
12
E. coli swimming in water -- is like a human
swimming in hot asphalt
13
How do insects cling to vertical surfaces?
14
Example scaling of skeletons
  • Is it possible to have 12 foot tall humans?
  • Have to consider scaling effects

15
What happens if you double thelinear dimension
of an animal?
tissue
skeleton
Cross sectional area pr2 Mass increases to the
third power of the linear dimension
16
To avoid weaker skeletons on large animals, the
skeleton size increases disproportionately
Not This
This
17
The relationship between skeleton size and body
mass for a variety of mammals
18
The relationship between skeleton size and body
mass for a variety of mammals
19
A mouse-sized elephant would have a skeleton
around 5 times heavier than a mouse
20
3) To understand how the functional needs of
organisms are met, we need to integrate
information about
  • Biochemistry
  • Cell biology
  • Physiology
  • Evolution and Ecology

21
Collagen
  • most abundant protein of mammals
  • skin, bone, tendon, cartilage, and teeth
  • Great tensile strength
  • 3 helical polypeptides nearly 1000 residues long
  • repeated (...glycine-x-x-glycine-x-x) amino acid
    sequence
  • Often Glycine-proline-hydroxyproline

22
Structure of collagen
23
What happens when there is faulty collagen Scurvy
  • Jacques Cartier 1536 exploration of the Saint
    Lawrence River
  • Some did lose all their strength, and could not
    stand on their feet.. Others also had all their
    skins spotted with spots of blood of a purple
    colour then did it ascend up to their ankles,
    knees, thighs, shoulders, arms, and necks. Their
    mouths became stinking, their gums so rotten,
    that all the flesh did fall off, even to the
    roots of the teeth, which did also almost all
    fall out.

24
Why did this happen?
  • Primates and guinea pigs cannot synthesize
    ascorbate (Vitamin C)
  • Ascorbate is vital for the enzymatic conversion
    of proline (pro) to hydroxyproline (hyp)
  • In scurvy patients, collagen has an amino acid
    sequence of gly-X-pro rather than gly-X-hyp

25
Why does the improper amino acid sequence have
deleterious effects?
  • Collagen of scurvy patients has a low melting
    temperature
  • Melting temp 24 C for gly-X-pro in scurvy
    patients compared with 58 C for gly-X-hyp in
    normal people

26
The pompeii worm Alvinella pompejana
27
What about animals living at high temperatures?
  • The pompeii worm lives on undersea volcanoes at
    temperatures reported to be as high as 80C
    making it the hottest living metazoan
    (multicellular animal) known.
  • This is well above the melting temperature for
    normal collagen -- efforts are underway to
    determine the biochemical basis for high
    temperature collagen in these worms.

28
Summary
  • 1) Organisms have similar functional needs, but
    have developed diverse ways of meeting them
  • 2) Organisms must obey physical laws
  • 3) Understanding how an organism works involves
    consideration of biochemistry, cell biology,
    physiology, ecology and evolution
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