Animal structure and function - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

Animal structure and function

Description:

Animal structure and function * Figure 40.17 Bioenergetics of an animal: an overview Muscle tissue Skeletal muscle Attached by tendons to bones Contract move bones ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:262
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 63
Provided by: Lancaster82
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Animal structure and function


1
Animal structure and function

2
(No Transcript)
3
Tissues
  • Epithelial
  • Connective
  • Muscle
  • Nervous

4
Epithelial tissue
  • Epithelial tissue (epithelium)
  • Covers all surfaces of the body
  • Epidermis (ectoderm)
  • Outer portion of skin
  • Endoderm
  • Lining of inner surfaces of digestive tract
  • Mesoderm
  • Inner surface of body cavities

5
Epithelial tissue
  • Closely packed
  • Tight junctions
  • One/or few cell layers thick
  • Selective absorption in the intestines
  • Rapid gas exchange in lungs
  • Protection from microbes, water loss

6
Epithelial tissue
  • Regenerative capabilities
  • Liver (gland from epithelial tissues)
  • Epidermis every 2 weeks
  • Stomach lining every 2-3 days

7
Epithelial tissue
  • Types
  • Based on cell thickness
  • Shape on exposed surface
  • Simple
  • One layer thick
  • Stratified
  • Multiple layers of cells

8
Epithelial tissue
  • Shapes of cells
  • Cuboidal
  • As wide as they are tall (like dice)
  • Columnar
  • Taller than wide (like bricks on end)
  • Squamous
  • Flat like floor tiles

9
Epithelial tissues
10
Epithelial tissue
  • Simple squamous
  • Lining of lungs, capillary walls and blood
    vessels
  • Simple cuboidal
  • Lining of some glands
  • Simple columnar
  • Lining of stomach, intestines and parts of
    respiratory tract

11
Epithelial tissue
  • Stratified squamous
  • Outer layer of skin and mouth
  • Keratin
  • Water resistant protein

12
Epithelial tissue
  • Exocrine glands (duct system)
  • Duct
  • Connection from gland to tissue
  • Secrete/absorb chemical solutions
  • Sweat and sebaceous glands
  • Lining of intestines lungs that secrete mucous

13
Epithelial tissue
  • Endocrine glands (ductless glands)
  • Hormones
  • Secreted into blood stream

14
Glands
15
Connective tissue
  • Holds tissues organs together
  • Derived from mesoderm
  • Loosely packed cells
  • Scattered in an extracellular matrix

16
Connective tissue
  • Matrix
  • Composed of a web of fibers
  • In a foundation of liquid, jellylike or solid
  • Fibers (proteins) are collagen, elastic, or
    reticular

17
Connective tissue
  • Collagen
  • Non-elastic-doesnt tear easily
  • Elastic
  • Makes tissue elastic
  • Elastin (protein)
  • Reticular
  • Thin, branched, joins connective tissue to
    adjacent tissues

18
Connective tissue
  • Cells in matrix
  • Fibroblasts
  • Produce secrete extracellular matrix
  • Macrophages
  • Engulf foreign bodies debris
  • Mast cells heparin

19
Connective tissue types
  • 1. Loose connective tissue
  • Beneath skin between organs
  • Support, insulation, food storage
  • Adipose tissue (fat)
  • Cells become larger when gain weight
  • Shrink with weight loss

20
Connective tissue
  • 2. Dense connective tissue
  • Tendons, ligaments, sheath around organs
    (periosteum), dermis of skin
  • Support, strong connections
  • 3. Special connective tissue
  • Cartilage, bone, blood,

21
Connective tissue
22
Special connective tissue
  • Cartilage
  • Consists of chondroitin (glycoprotein) collagen
  • Strong, flexible tissue, absorb stress
  • Joints, ear pinna, nose, intervertebral discs,
    larynx
  • Chondrocytes
  • Cartilage cells

23
Cartilage
24
Bone
  • Embryos---more cartilage
  • Cartilage is replaced with bone cells or
    osteocytes
  • Matrix hardens with crystals of calcium phosphate
    mixed with collagen

25
Bone
  • Osteoblasts
  • Lay down new bone
  • Osteoclasts
  • Dissolve bone
  • Osteons
  • Unit of bone structure
  • Contains calcified matrix, osteocytes, nerve
    fibers, blood vessels

26
Bone
  • Flat bones
  • Long bones
  • Spongy bone
  • Contains marrow
  • Blood cells formed
  • Compact bone
  • More dense, gives strength

27
Bone
28
Bone
29
Blood
  • Plasma (matrix)
  • Cells
  • RBC (erythrocytes)
  • Contain hemoglobin (carries oxygen)
  • WBC (leukocytes)
  • Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes,
    monocytes
  • Platelets (thrombocytes)

30
Blood
31
Blood
  • Plasma contains
  • Wastes, nourishment
  • Hormones
  • Na, Ca2, other ions
  • Fibrinogen, albumin, antibodies

32
Muscle tissue
  • Movement
  • Organization of actin myosin filaments
  • Smooth, skeletal cardiac muscles
  • Striated muscles skeletal cardiac
  • Skeletal muscles voluntary control
  • Smooth cardiac muscles involuntary control

33
Muscle tissue
  • Smooth muscle
  • Walls of blood vessels, stomach, intestines
  • Viscera
  • Internal organs
  • Made of sheets of cells each with a single nucleus

34
Muscle tissue
  • Skeletal muscle
  • Attached by tendons to bones
  • Contract move bones

35
Muscle tissue
36
Muscle tissue
  • Cardiac muscle
  • Small interconnected cells
  • Linked by gap junctions
  • Openings allow small substances electrical
    charges to pass between cells
  • Myocardium
  • Single functioning units

37
(No Transcript)
38
Nerve tissue
  • Neurons
  • Cell body, dendrites, axon
  • Neuroglia
  • Supporting cells
  • Insulate neurons
  • Eliminate foreign bodies

39
Nerve tissue
  • Dentrites
  • Thin, branched extensions
  • Receive impulses
  • Axons
  • Single extension of cell body
  • Carries impulse away
  • Myelin sheaths, insulating cover

40
Neurons
41
(No Transcript)
42
Neurons
  • Sensory neurons
  • Eye,ears, surface of skin
  • Motor neurons
  • Brain spinal cord
  • Interneurons
  • Brain spinal cord
  • Neurons within the CNS

43
Neurons
44
Summary
  • Epithelial tissues
  • Simple or stratified
  • Cuboidal, columnar, squamous
  • Connective tissues
  • Loosely packed, tightly packed
  • Special (bone, cartilage, blood)
  • Matrix

45
Summary
  • Muscle tissues
  • Smooth, cardiac, skeletal
  • Nerve tissues
  • Neurons (cell body, dentrites, axons)
  • Sensory, motor and interneurons

46
Coordination
  • Hormones
  • Nervous system
  • Homeostasis

47
Homeostasis
  • Dynamic constancy of internal environment
  • Dynamic because conditions fluctuate
  • Narrow range
  • pH
  • Temp
  • Glucose
  • Oxygen

48
Regulation
  • 1. Negative feedback loops
  • 2. Positive feedback loops

49
Negative feedback
  • media\40_08NegativeFeedback_A.html

50
Positive feedback
media\40_08PositiveFeedback_A.html
51
Negative feedback loops
  • Sensors
  • Measure internal environment
  • Integrating center
  • Receives information from sensors
  • Compares to normal range
  • Responds

52
Negative feedback loops
  • Effectors
  • Muscles or glands
  • Receive information from center
  • Response

53
Negative feedback loops
  • Temperature increase
  • Hypothalamus senses deviation
  • Sends signals to relieve heat
  • Sweating vasodilation
  • Reach baseline
  • Negative feedback stops response

54
Negative feedback loops
  • Temperature decrease
  • Hypothalamus sends signals
  • Shiver, vasoconstriction
  • Temp to baseline
  • Negative feedback stops response

55
Thermoregulation
56
Fig. 40-9
(a) A walrus, an endotherm
(b) A lizard, an ectotherm
57
Negative feedback loops
  • Glucose (eat a meal)
  • Elevated blood level
  • Islets of Langerhans (sensor, center)
  • Insulin
  • Lowers blood sugar (uptake in muscle, fat liver
    cells)
  • Negative feedback stops insulin release

58
Positive feedback loops
  • Uterine contractions
  • Pressure from baby on uterus
  • Causes contractions
  • Causes more stretching
  • More contractions
  • Continues until birth

59
Positive feedback loop
  • Blood clotting
  • Clotting factors stimulate the formation of more
    factors
  • Clot forms
  • Maintain blood volume

60
Bioenergetics
  • Overall flow transformation of energy in an
    animal
  • Determines nutritional needs
  • Animal size, activity and environment

61
Fig. 40-17
Organic molecules in food
External environment
Animal body
Digestion and absorption
Heat
Energy lost in feces
Nutrient molecules in body cells
Energy lost in nitrogenous waste
Carbon skeletons
Cellular respiration
Heat
ATP
Biosynthesis
Cellular work
Heat
Heat
62
Metabolic rate
  • Amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time
  • Torpor
  • Physiological state of low activity with low
    metabolism
  • Hibernation
  • Long term torpor
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com