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Basic Structure of a Cell

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... parts of a microscope Slide 41 The cell is the Basic Unit of Life Levels of organization Tissue Organ The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Structure of a Cell


1
Basic Structure of a Cell
2
Introduction to Cells
  • Cells are the basic units of organisms
  • Cells can only be observed under microscope
  • Basic types of cells

Bacterial Cell
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
3
Number of Cells
  • Organisms may be
  • Unicellular composed of one cell
  • Multicellular- composed of many cells that may
    organize

4
Cells May be Prokaryotic or Eukaryotic
  • Prokaryotes are bacterial cells. They lack a
    nucleus or membrane-bound structures called
    organelles
  • Eukaryotes include most other (plants, fungi,
    animals)
  • They have a nucleus and membrane-bound organelles

5
Prokaryotes
  • Nucleoid region contains the DNA
  • Cell membrane cell wall
  • Contain ribosomes in their cytoplasm that make
    proteins
  • Ribosomes are tiny structure that are NOT covered
    with membranes

6
Eukaryotic Cell
  • Contain 3 basic cell structures
  • Nucleus
  • Cell Membrane
  • Cytoplasm with organelles

7
Two Main Types of Eukaryotic Cells
Animal Cell
Plant Cell
8
Organelles
  • Cell structures that are very small
  • Can only be observed under a microscope
  • Have specific functions
  • Found throughout cytoplasm
  • Most are surrounded by a membrane

9
Organelles Found in Cells include
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) canals for movement.
Two types rough smooth Golgi Bodies wrap
export proteins Nucleolus makes
ribosomes Lysosomes digest get rid of
wastes Ribosomes makes proteins
10
Golgi Bodies
  • Stacks of flattened sacs
  • Have a shipping side a receiving side
  • Receive modify proteins made by ER
  • Transport vesicles with modified proteins pinch
    off the ends

Transport vesicle
11
Lysosomes
  • Contain digestive enzymes
  • Break down food and worn out cell parts for cells
  • Programmed for cell death (lyse release enzymes
    to break down recycle cell parts)

12
Nucleolus
  • Cell may have 1 to 3 nucleoli
  • Inside nucleus
  • Cannot be seen when cell divides
  • Makes ribosomes that make proteins

13
Smooth Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth ER lacks ribosomes makes proteins that
are used in the cell Rough ER has ribosomes on
its surface makes proteins to EXPORT
14
Cell Powerhouse
Rod shape organelle Site of Cellular respiration
15
In Animal Cells
Mitochondria
Active cells like muscles have more mitochondria
than other cells Burn sugars to produce energy ATP
16
Surrounding the Cell
Lies immediately against the cell wall in plant
cells Made of protein and phospholipids Selectivel
y permeable
17
Cell or Plasma Membrane
Cell membrane
Living layer Controls the movement of materials
into and out of the cell Selectively permeable
18
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19
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20
Cytoplasm of a Cell
Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell
membrane Provides a medium for chemical reactions
to take place
21
More on Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm
Contains organelles to carry out specific jobs
22
Control Organelle
Controls the normal
activities of the cell Bounded by a

nuclear membrane Contains chromosomes
23
More on the Nucleus
Nucleus
Each cell has fixed
number of chromosomes that
carry genes Genes control cell characteristics
24
Special Plant Cell Organelles
Contains the green pigment chlorophyll Traps
sunlight to make to make sugars (food) Process
called photosynthesis
25
Plant Cell
Cell wall
Dead layer Large empty spaces present between
cellulose fibers Freely permeable
26
Plant Cell
  • Made of cellulose
  • Strong and rigid

27
Plant Cell
Cell wall
Protects and supports the enclosed substances
(cytoplasm) Prevents entry of excess water into
the cell Give shape to the cell
28
Plant Cell Organelles
Plants have a large central vacuole Contains
cell sap Water, sugars, proteins, minerals,
wastes, pigments
29
Different kinds of plant cells
30
Animal cell
cytoplasm
vacuole
No cell wall, large central vacuole, or
chloroplast
nucleus
mitochondrion
cell membrane
glycogen granule
31
Organelle Unique to Animal Cells
  • Near the nucleus
  • Paired structures
  • Help cell divide

32
Different kinds of animal cells
33
Similarities between plant cells and animal cells
  • Both have a cell membrane surrounding the
    cytoplasm

Both have a nucleus
Both contain mitochondria and other organelles
34
Differences between plant cells and animal cells
Animal cells
Plant cells
Relatively smaller in size
Relatively larger in size
Irregular shape
Regular shape
No cell wall
Cell wall present
35
Differences between Plant Cells and Animal Cells
Animal cells
Plant cells
Vacuole small or absent
Large central vacuole
Nucleus at the center
Nucleus near cell wall
36
Discovery of Cells
  • By Robert Hooke in 1665.
  • Did not take place until a microscope was
    invented.
  • Looked at cork cells. Only saw cell walls. Named
    them after the rooms or cells of a monastery.

37
Led to the Cell Theory
  • All living things are made of cells.
  • A cell is the basic unit of structure and
    function in a living thing.
  • Cells only come from other cells.

38
Old Theory
  • Spontaneous generation living things can come
    from nonliving materials.
  • Ex rats from grain stored in dark room
  • - maggots from rotting meat

39
Modern Compound Microscope
  • Instrument for observing small objects
  • Magnify images up to 2000X their size

40
Different parts of a microscope
41
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42
The cell is the Basic Unit of Life
  • Unicellular organisms are made of one cell only
  • The cells of multicellular organisms are
    specialized to perform different functions
  • e.g. mesophyll cells for photosynthesis and
    root hair cells for water absorption

43
Levels of organization
  • Cells are grouped together and work as a whole to
    perform special functions

44
Tissue
  • A group of similar cells to perform a particular
    function
  • Animals epithelial tissue, muscular tissue
  • Plants vascular tissue, mesophyll

45
Organ
  • Different tissues group together to carry out
    specialized functions
  • Heart consists of muscles, nervous tissue and
    blood vessels
  • Leaf consists of epidermis, mesophyll and
    vascular tissue

46
The Structures of a Leaf (Plant Organ)
Chloroplast
Palisade Mesophyll Cell
Spongy Mesophyll Cell
Air Space
Stoma
47
The Structures of a Heart (Animal Organ)
48
System
  • Several organs and tissues work together
    to carry out a particular set of
    functions in a co-ordinated way
  • Human digestive, respiratory, excretory,
    circulatory and reproductive systems
  • Plant root and shoot systems

49
Human Body Systems
  • Examples of systems
  • Digestive System
  • Respiratory System
  • Circulatory System
  • Nervous System
  • Reproductive System

50
Levels of Organization
  • CELLS (muscle cells,nerve cells)
  • TISSUES (muscle, epithelium)
  • ORGANS (heart, lungs, stomach)
  • SYSTEMS (circulatory system)
  • ORGANISM (human)

51
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