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World Politics

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Title: World Politics


1
World Politics
  • What is World politics and why do we study it?
  • Kelly Walker
  • Global Systems
  • Tallwood High School

2
Terms
Political science hat
  • Theory a logically consistent set of statements
    that explains a phenomenon of interest.
  • Political Scientists analyze events and develop
    criteria for understanding the conditions as to
    why they occur.
  • Why did this happen?

3
The Framework
  • A way of thinking about world politics that will
    build theories that shed light on events.
  • Interests What actors want to achieve through
    political action their preferences over the
    outcomes that might result from their political
    choices.
  • Business have an interest in maximizing profits
  • Interactions The ways in which the choices of
    two or more actors combine to produce political
    outcomes.
  • War is the product of an interaction
  • Institution a set of rules, known and shared by
    the community, that structure political
    interactions in particular ways.
  • United Nations

4
Interactions
  • Two broad types of interactions
  • Bargaining situations in which two or more
    actors try to divide something they both
    want-states bargain over territory
  • Cooperation actors have common interests and
    need to act together in order to achieve their
    interests. Governments that want to stop one
    country from invading another may collectively
    set sanctions on the aggressor.

5
Levels of Analysis
  • Interactions at 3 levels
  • International Level (UN, WTO)
  • Domestic Level (subnational actors, politicians,
    business and labor groups)
  • Transnational Level (MNCs, terrorist
    organizations)

6
Realism, Liberalism, and Constructivism
  • Realism States are dominant actor and world
    politics is characterized by anarchy- War a
    permanent condition as states always wag war when
    it is in their interest to do so.
  • Liberalism No single interest dominates and
    wealth is a common goal. Optimistic about
    cooperation in the world. Progress is possible.
  • Constructivism Many types of actors are
    important and actors interests are influenced
    by culture, identity, and prevailing ideas.
    Similar to liberals, except they do not believe
    in material sources of interest. Nonmaterial
    factors such as ideas, culture, and norms are
    important. Transformers.

7
What Shaped Our World?
  • 1

8
What Shaped Our World?
  1. Cooperation Through History
  2. The Mercantilist Era, 14921815
  3. The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  4. The Thirty Years Crisis, 19141945
  5. The Cold War, 19451990
  6. PostCold War, 1991Present
  7. Future Trends and Challenges

9
What Shaped Our World?
  1. Cooperation Through History
  2. The Mercantilist Era, 14921815
  3. The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  4. The Thirty Years Crisis, 19141945
  5. The Cold War, 19451990
  6. PostCold War, 1991Present
  7. Future Trends and Challenges

10
Cooperation Through History
  • 1800s Relative peace and prosperity
  • Earlymid-1900s Wars, depression
  • Late 1900s Economic globalization
  • 2000s Still unknown

11
What Shaped Our World?
  1. Cooperation Through History
  2. The Mercantilist Era, 14921815
  3. The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  4. The Thirty Years Crisis, 19141945
  5. The Cold War, 19451990
  6. PostCold War, 1991Present
  7. Future Trends and Challenges

12
The Mercantilist Era,14921815
  • Explorers and traders discover the New World
  • Mercantilism the use of military power to enrich
    imperial governments
  • Height of mercantilism was from the 16th to 18th
    Centuries.
  • Favor the mother country over both colonies and
    competing empires
  • Key mechanisms
  • - State monopolies (Spanish mines, Hudsons Bay
    Company)
  • - Controls on colonial trade

13
The Mercantilist Era,14921815
  • Mercantilism as economic doctrine
  • Military and economic power complementary

14
The Mercantilist Era,14921815
  • The British imposed mercantilist policies on
    their colonies in North America. For example, the
    tobacco being loaded onto these ships in the
    Virginia Colony could be exported only to
    Britain, where the American producers received a
    lower price for their crops than they would on
    world markets.
  • Sought goods to satisfy empire for example, tea,
    cocoa, rubber, gold, and silver.

15
The Mercantilist Era,14921815
Controls on Trade An Example - Britain
restricted Virginias commerce. - Virginia
Colony could sell tobacco only to Britain The
British paid Virginia Colony about 49 less for
its tobacco than growers could have earned on
world markets, and paid rice planters of South
Carolina less than half what they could have
gotten on world markets. Britains colonies could
buy goods only from Britain.   Net effect -
Lower price for tobacco and rice (leading to
underproduction) - Higher price for manufactured
goods - Unfavorable terms of trade for colonies
16
The Mercantilist Era,14921815
  • The Thirty Years War, 16181648
  • The Peace of WestphaliaThe Thirty Years War
  • - Rising imperial competitors emerged
  • - Between 1618 and 1648, the French and Dutch
    battled Spain
  • - Sealed the decline of Spain
  • The Peace of Westphalia
  • Effects
  • - Stabilized borders
  • - Helped resolve religious conflicts
  • - Beginning of the modern system of states
    pledge of noninterference
  •  

17
Sovereignty
  • Establishing sovereignty
  • - Sovereignty refers to the expectation that
    states have legal and political supremacy within
    their boundaries, and control over their own
    policies and political processes such as the
    maintenance of domestic order and provision of
    governance.
  • In practice, intervention still occurs for
    example, when the U.S. government demanded that
    Saddam Hussein step down from power in Iraq.
    Sovereignty is presumed but not always respected.
    This topic will come up again when we talk about
    humanitarian intervention, and when we consider
    the U.S. withdrawal from Afghanistan.
  • Early understandings of sovereignty emphasized
    ethical obligations, and later understandings
    emphasize
  • 1. territorial integrity,
  • 2. border inviolability
  • 3. supremacy of the state
  • 4. the sovereign as supreme lawmaking
    authority within its jurisdiction

18
The Mercantilist Era,14921815
  • Fight for Hegemony
  • Anglo-French Rivalry
  • Seven Years War
  • Napoleonic Wars (Waterloo)

19
The Mercantilist Era,14921815
  • Interests
  • Security through power
  • Control of markets and resources
  • Interactions
  • Zero-sum bargaining among states
  • Institutions
  • Few international institutions beyond the norm of
    sovereignty

20
What Shaped Our World?
  1. Cooperation Through History
  2. The Mercantilist Era, 14921815
  3. The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  4. The Thirty Years Crisis, 19141945
  5. The Cold War, 19451990
  6. PostCold War, 1991Present
  7. Future Trends and Challenges

21
The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  • The Hundred Years Peace
  • Sources of Cooperation

22
The Pax Britannica, 18151914
Figure 1.1 GDP per Capita, 1500-2008
23
The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  • Industrial revolution altered interests
  • Exchange replaces mercantilism
  • Economic integration increases
  • Mechanisms
  • migration
  • free trade
  • gold standard

24
The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  • The Gold Standard
  • Gold becomes the major monetary system,
    promoting stability and predictability.

25
The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  • The Colonial Empires, 1914

26
The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  • Interests
  • Economic wealth through trade and investment
  • Interactions
  • Informal diplomacy state cooperation in security
    and economic affairs
  • Institutions
  • British hegemony and the Concert of Europe

27
What Shaped Our World?
  1. Cooperation Through History
  2. The Mercantilist Era, 14921815
  3. The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  4. The Thirty Years Crisis, 19141945
  5. The Cold War, 19451990
  6. PostCold War, 1991Present
  7. Future Trends and Challenges

28
The Thirty Years Crisis,19141945
  • Europe divides into two camps
  • Central Powers
  • Allied Powers

29
The Thirty Years Crisis,19141945
Map 1.2 Europe, 1914
30
The Thirty Years Crisis,19141945
  • Map 1.3 Europe after World War I, 1920

31
The Thirty Years Crisis,19141945
  • The Treaty of Versailles

32
The Thirty Years Crisis,19141945
33
The Thirty Years Crisis,19141945
  • The Great Depression of 1929
  • Countries turn inward

34
The Thirty Years Crisis,19141945
  • World War II
  • Axis Powers
  • Allied Powers

35
The Thirty Years Crisis,19141945
  • Interests
  • Security through alliances, expansion, and
    economic self-sufficiency
  • Interactions
  • World Wars I and II
  • Institutions
  • The League of Nations

36
What Shaped Our World?
  1. Cooperation Through History
  2. The Mercantilist Era, 14921815
  3. The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  4. The Thirty Years Crisis, 19141945
  5. The Cold War, 19451990
  6. PostCold War, 1991Present
  7. Future Trends and Challenges

37
The Cold War, 19451990
  • Map 1.4 The Cold War and Its Alliances, 1980

38
The Cold War, 19451990
  • The Eastern Bloc Command Economy, centralized
    government with few civil liberties
  • The Western Bloc Free enterprise economy,
    democracies, protect civil liberties

39
The Cold War, 19451990
  • Conflicts, crises, and coups
  • Rise of the Third World
  • NATO forms to combat USSR hegemony (Warsaw Pact)
  • Bretton Woods lowered trade barriers among
    member states

40
The Cold War, 19451990
  • GATT- General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    (WTO)
  • IMF-US tied to gold and all other currencies
    were tied to the - Go US
  • World Bank-Fostered development in developing
    nations.
  • Created an integrated international economy
    Peace

41
The Cold War, 19451990
  • Warsaw Pact- military alliance formed by the USSR
    to include its satellite states
  • Comecon-(Council for Mutual Economic Assistance)
    Economic alliance formed by the USSR and its
    satellite states

42
The Cold War, 19451990
  • Interests
  • Superpowers and allies sought to maximize global
    influence
  • All countries sought gains in wealth
  • Interactions
  • Bipolar structure turned more pluralistic
  • Coercive diplomacy slowly yielded to bargaining
  • Brinkmanship- Berlin Airlift/ Cuban Missile
    Crisis
  • Decolonization
  • Institutions
  • U.S.-supported institutions survived
  • Soviet institutions lacked legitimacy

43
What Shaped Our World?
  1. Cooperation Through History
  2. The Mercantilist Era, 14921815
  3. The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  4. The Thirty Years Crisis, 19141945
  5. The Cold War, 19451990
  6. PostCold War, 1991Present
  7. Future Trends and Challenges

44
PostCold War, 1991Present
45
PostCold War, 1991Present
  • Collapse of the USSR
  • Cooperation
  • Economic Developments
  • Regional Trade Agreements
  • EU growsEuro
  • Free Trade Agreements NAFTA

46
PostCold War, 1991Present
  • Diplomatic Challenges
  • Ethnic and regional conflict
  • Non-state actors
  • Transnational issues (environment, human
    trafficking, narcoterrorism)
  • Who is the enemy????

47
PostCold War, 1991Present
  • Interests
  • States increasingly focus on wealth gains through
    trade and investment
  • Rise of non-state actors with diverse goals
  • Interactions
  • Complex interdependence
  • Weak states often bargain with global
    institutions
  • Institutions
  • UN and global financial and trade institutions
  • NGOs participate

48
What Shaped Our World?
  1. Cooperation Through History
  2. The Mercantilist Era, 14921815
  3. The Pax Britannica, 18151914
  4. The Thirty Years Crisis, 19141945
  5. The Cold War, 19451990
  6. PostCold War, 1991Present
  7. Future Trends and Challenges

49
Future Trends and Challenges
  • Predominance of the United States
  • Globalization

50
Future Trends and Challenges
  • US political Challenges in the 21st century
  • Military, political and ethnic conflicts
  • Environmental costs
  • Nuclear proliferation
  • Financial crises
  • Power shifts

51
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