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AP World Review


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Title: AP World Review

AP World Review
Test Format
  • Exam last 3 Hours and 5 Minutes
  • 55 Minutes for 70 Multiple Choice Questions
  • Break
  • 50 Minutes for Document Based Question (10
    minutes for Reading and Evaluating Documents)
  • 40 Minutes for Change Over Time Essay
  • 40 Minutes for Comparative Essay Question

  • 70 Multiple Choice Questions 1/2 Score
  • Document Based Question 16.66 of Score
  • Change Over Time Essay 16.66 of Score
  • Comparative Essay 16.66 of Score
  • Essays Graded on Scale of 0 to 9

What do the questions look like
  • The questions fall into 6 basic categories, which
    are as follows
  • Identification (35-40 of the test) - simply test
    whether you know a fact, or facts.
  • Analytical (20-25 of the test) - makes you think
    about relationships, see connections, place in
  • Quotation Based (10 or less of the test) - match
    the quote with the appropriate person.

  • Image Interpretation (10 or less of the test) -
    determine images relevance, purpose, or meaning.
  • Map Based Questions (10 or less of the test) -
    identify what a map shows, or interpret it's
  • Graph Chart Interpretation (10 or less of the
    test) - interpret answer from data given in chart

Six Themes
  • 1. The impact of interaction among major
    societies. Such as Trade, International Exchange,
    War, and Diplomacy
  • 2. The Relationship of Change and Continuity
    across the periods of World History
  • 3. Impact of Technology and Demography on People
    and the Environment Including Population change,
    Manufacturing, Agriculture, etc.

Six Themes
  • 4. Systems of Organization and Gender Structure
  • 5. Cultural and Intellectual Development and
    Interactions among Societies
  • 6. Change over time in functions and structures
    of Political States

Time Frames
  • Prehistory to 600 C.E 10 or less Questions
  • 600 C.E-1450 C.E 22 of Questions
  • 1450 C.E- 1750 C.E 19-20 of Questions
  • 1750 C.E- 1914 C.E 19-20 of Questions
  • 1914-Present 19-20 of Questions

Bookends of Foundation Period 8000 BCE 600 CE
  • 8000 BCE marks the Neolithic civilization and
    the development of four river valley
  • 600 CE marks the time which classical empires fall

Building Blocks of Civilization
  • What is a Civilization?
  • Economic System
  • Political Organization
  • Moral Code (Religion)
  • Written Language and Intellectual Tradition
  • Division of labor

PreHistory History
  • Presence of a written language
  • Writing is essential for record keeping,
    bureaucracy, commerce, and accumulating
  • it makes possible more varied cultural forms.
  • Writing also led to new social divisions based on
    selective literacy.
  • Scribes
  • Scholarly gentry
  • Dark Age
  • Art of writing has developed and been lost

Environmental determinism
  • Relationship between culture of a civilization,
    success and stability
  • How does the culture react to the environment or
    environmental change
  • Technology
  • Movement of peoples into and out of the area
  • Crossroads vs. isolation

River Valley Civilizations
  • China
  • Yellow River valley
  • Shang China first dynasty
  • Develop in isolation w/ minimal contact with
    India and Middle East

River Valley Civilizations
  • China
  • Became the subject of many legends in later
    Chinese history
  • Monarchy
  • Bronze work, silk making, pottery, jade,
    elaborate intellectual life, writing, interest in
    science and technology

Political structure tied to social order and
culture by Confucianism
  • Confucianism emphasized order, hierarchy, and
    deference, including specific injunctions to obey
    the emperor.
  • Bureaucracy aimed to alleviate political
    instability, difficulties of centrally
    controlling outlying provinces, and related
    competition among landed aristocrats for power
    and influence.

Classical Civilizations and great empires
  • Mesoamerican
  • Andean
  • Han
  • Gupta

Change from River Valleys to Classical Civs
  • 1000 BCE
  • LocationChina, India, Mediterranean World
  • New/renewed civs that were durable
  • Left the most substantial impacts and legacies
  • Set in motion key values and institutions that
    extend well beyond the classical period
  • All 3 built on achievements of the River valley

  • Classical civs not a continuation of ancient
    river valleys
  • Change political centers
  • Improve technology
  • Est. More elaborate philosophical and religious
  • Expand science and math
  • Set up methods for territorial expansion and
    embraced a diverse group of people
  • Integrated aspects of their institutions and
  • Each civ operated separately despite contacts
    with each other
  • Greece/IndiaAlexander the Great
  • Rome/ChinaSilk Road

  • The area from north central Mexico to Nicaragua
  • Beginning about 5,000 BCE, domesticated certain
    plants beans, peppers, avocados, and squash.
  • Maize dominated the diet of these agricultural
  • Later innovations such as pottery took place
    around 2000 BCE.

  • When Shang dynasty ruled in China, permanent
    sedentary villages based on some agriculture
    appeared. There were small, modest settlements
    without much hierarchy or social differentiation
    and a lack of craft specialization.
  • Numbers of villages rose proliferated and
    population densities rose.

  • 1400 BCE to 500 BCE
  • Suddenly appeared
  • They had irrigated agriculture, impressive
    drainage systems, monumental sculpture, urbanism
    and beginnings of calendar and writing systems
    (carved inscriptions).

  • Giant stone heads were found in ruins. No one
    knows how the 40-ton sculptures were moved from
    the quarries without wheeled vehicles or draft
    animals. All of these attest to a high degree of
    social organization and artistic skill.
  • Called the Mother Civilization of Mesoamerica

  • They provided the basis of a state ruled by a
    hereditary elite in which the ceremonialism of a
    complex religious dominated life.
  • Powerful class of priests and aristocrats stood
    at top of society
  • Most important tradition of priestly leadership
    and religious devotion that became a basic part
    of later Middle American civilization.
  • Did not build true cities built ceremonial
    centers made of pyramid shaped temples and other

  • People came for nearby farming villages to work
    on the temples or attend religious ceremonies
  • Through trade, Olmec influence spread over a wide
  • Great carvers of jade and traded or conquered to
    get it.

  • Know one knows what happened to cause their
    decline mystery.
  • Some scholars think they are ancestors to the
    great Maya civilizations that followed.

Andean World
  • From the coast to the Andes Mountains
  • Potatoes and maize grown grazing for llamas and

  • 850 BCE built a huge temple complex stone
    carving and pottery show the Chavin people
    worshipped a god that was a part jaguar and part
    human with grinning catlike features
  • Artisans worked in ceramics, textiles, and gold
  • Used animals as decorations, often along scenes
    of war and violence.

  • Some similarities with Olmecs (possible Amazonian
    lowland origin for both)
  • Warfare seems to indicate a general process
    with the development of agriculture and a limited
    amount of arable land, it becomes necessary to
    organize irrigation and create political
    authority and eventually states that could
    mobilize to protect or expand the available land.
  • Influenced later peoples of Peru

  • By 300 BCE Chavin in decline
  • Andean world became characterized by regional
    centers without political unity but great art.
  • Wide variety of crops, domestication of the llama
    and related animals, dense populations, and
    hierarchal societies could be found in many

  • Weavers
  • Great figures of various animals, which cover
    100s of feet and can be seen only from the air
  • Also great straight lines or paths that cut
    across plains and seem to go towards mountains or
    celestial points no one know why they were

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  • Skilled farmers developing terracing, irrigation,
    and fertilization of the soil
  • Leaders built roads and organized networks of
    relay runners to carry messages
  • To build one temple had to produce 130 million
  • Textile, goldworking, woodcarving
  • Potters decorated with scenes of everyday life
    including battle, music, and textile produced on
    small looms.

Han Dynasty
Han Dynasty
  • Strongest and longest dynasty
  • Expansionist Empire
  • Postal system
  • Roads
  • Defensive fortifications
  • Had to protect the expanding borders some that
    encouraged trade along the silk road
  • Silk road brought bandits that threatened the
    outer borders of the Han dynasty

Silk Road
Han Decline
  • 100 CE
  • Nomadic tribes topple Han China
  • Central government control diminished and corrupt
  • Local landlords took up the slack by ruling their
    own neighborhoods
  • People heavily taxed
  • Increased social unrest

Han Decline
  • Daoist revolutionary effort 184 CE Yellow
    Turbans promised a golden age that would come
    via divine magic
  • 30,000 students demonstrated against decline of
    government morality
  • Failed BUT decline continued into civil war.

Factors of the Han Decline
  • Political ineffectiveness
  • Spread of devastating epidemic - killed ½ of
    population leading to three centuries of chaos

  • Aryans
  • Nomadic Group invaded India
  • Earliest Europeans
  • Conquered the Dravidians (Dark Skinned Indians)
  • Established Warrior Aristocracy
  • Established Sanskrit
  • Vedic Era and Early Hindu faith
  • Dont forget about the Caste System!!!

Mauryan Empire
India Continued
  • India is Region
  • 600BCE 16 Regional Empires
  • Mauryan empire 322BCE
  • Began by Chandragupta Maurya
  • Ashoka famous Emperor
  • Extended control to Southern tip of India
  • Converted to Buddhism
  • Collapsed from outside attacks

Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
  • 320 CE
  • Greatest period of political stability
  • Negotiated with local princes, intermarry with
    their families and expand influence w/o constant

Gupta Empire
  • Created a demanding taxation system
  • No bureaucracy and allowed regional leaders to
    maintain control
  • There was a Gupta rep. at each local princes
    court to ensure loyalty
  • Promoted Sanskrit
  • Uniform law codes
  • Golden Age

Gupta Empire Political Culture
  • Not elaborate
  • Regional
  • Buddhism provides ethnic code
  • Tightly knit villages
  • Caste system provided a way for conquered and
    conquerors to live together
  • Caste system limited political development b/c of
    strict social rules loyalty to caste above all

Decline of Gupta Empire
  • Between 200 and 600 CE suffered outside invasions
  • Gupta overthrown by Huns b/c hadnt solved
    tendency to dissolve into political fragmentation
  • Emperors having trouble controlling local princes
    since 5th century

Gupta Decline
  • N. India affected by constant nomadic invasions
  • Eventually push further into central India
    destroying the empire
  • Nomads became integrated into the warrior caste
    and regional control resumed

Societal comparison
  • China's society featured less rigid structure,
    slightly more opportunity for mobility although
    there was some mobility within castes
  • different rules and cultural enforcements
  • Law of Manu vrs. Confucianism
  • different regard for merchants and specific
    contrasts in the definition and function of "mean
    people" versus untouchables.
  • Dharma encouraged merchants in Gupta
  • Merchants brought outside cultures and were not
    socially accepted

Environmental Determinism
  • India was more open to contact and invasion and
    less internally coherent (interior mountains
    etc), which helps explain the differences in
    openness to influence, and political stability
  • India absorbed other cultures while China remains
    ethnically homogeneous (90 of all Chinese
    trace their ancestry back to the Han dynasty)

Post Classical Middle Ages 600-1450
  • Americas
  • East to West
  • Mongolians
  • Connections

The Bookends
  • 600- great classical empires have fallen.
  • 632- Coming of Islam
  • 1000- trade increases both by land and sea.
  • 1450- Fall of Constantinople and decline of Silk
  • 1450- Europe looks westward toward the Atlantic

  • Peru
  • 1400s-1535

Inca Government
  • Government emperor is the Inca god-king owned
    all the land, herds, mines, and people
  • Nobles ruled the provinces along with local
    chieftains whom the Inca had conquered
  • Below them officials carried out taxes and laws

  • Own language and religion
  • Great road system -12,000 miles, bridges, steps
    (more impressive than Romes)
  • It moved armies and news using relay runners to
    carry messages
  • Kept soldiers at outposts to crush rebels

Inca capital
  • Cuzco - Capital
  • Temple of the Sun (no mortar, survived
    earthquakes) is there

Inca Daily Life
  • Farming - terraces
  • Metalworking
  • Medical advances antiseptics and anesthesia
  • Religion
  • polytheistic linked to nature
  • Inti Chief god - Sun god

  • Influenced by the Olmec
  • Yucatan in Mexico through much of Central America
  • 600- 900

  • Farming cleared rainforest and built raised
    fields and channels to drain excess water grew
    corn and other crops
  • Temples and palaces - Very tall used for
    sacrifices to gods carvings recorded history

  • Social classes each city had own ruling chief
  • Nobles military and officials (collected taxes,
    enforced laws)
  • Women occasionally governed on own or in name of
  • Priests great power only they could conduct
    religious ceremonies
  • Farmers corn, beans, squash, fruit, cotton,
    flowers paid taxes in food and helped build

  • Hieroglyphic writing style scribes
  • Expert mathematicians and astronomers
  • 365-day calendar
  • Numbering system and understood concept of zero

Maya decline
  • Around 900 CE, abandoned cities to be swallowed
    up by jungles
  • Why??? Possibly warfare, overpopulation led to
    soil exhaustion, revolts

  • Toltecs 1000 1200
  • In 1200s, band of nomadic people (the ancestors
    to the Aztecs) migrated into the Valley of Mexico
    from the north and destroyed Toltecs
  • Settled at Lake Texcoco due to legend (eagle on
    a cactus with a snake in beak)
  • Aztecs 1200s-1521

  • Shifted from hunting to farming and built
    Tenochititlan (Mexico City)
  • used military and ideological force to dominate a
    large part of ancient Mexico
  • actually multiethnic 
  • The Aztecs had a highly centralized, tribute
    state based on the extraction of labor and goods
    from conquered populations

  • Aztecs continue the culture of the classical
    Mesoamerican civilization and the Toltecs
  • Toltecs considered givers of civilization
  • shared same language
  • use of human sacrifice
  • establishment of empire centered on central
  • militarism of society
  • concept of nobility tied to Toltec lineage
  • use of city-state organization
  • temple complexes associated with state many
    deities of pantheon of gods
  • tribute based on sedentary agricultural system
  • cyclical view of history and calendar system

  • Farming built chinampas artificial islands
    that are anchored to the lake bed. Floating
    gardens - corn, squash, and beans
  • Filled in parts of lake and made canals for

  • Urban commercial center
  • Central zone of palaces and temples surrounded by
    residential districts, smaller palaces, and
  • Heart of the empire and drew tribute and support
    from allies and dependants

  • 1400s, greatly expanded territory through war and
  • By 1500 30 million people

Aztec Government
  • Single Ruler chosen by a council of nobles and
  • Nobles served as officials, judges, and governors
  • Warriors rise to noble status by killing or
    capturing enemy soldiers
  • Commoners who farmed
  • Slaves criminals or prisoners of war

Aztec Religion
  • Priests are a class apart
  • Performed rituals for gods to keep away droughts
  • Chief God sun god
  • To give sun strength to rise massive human
  • Warfare is used to get sacrificial victims

Aztec Human Sacrifices
  • To give sun strength to rise massive human
  • greatly exaggerated by the Spanish as a means of
    validating European conquest and cultural
  • religious act essential to the grant of rain,
    sun, and other blessings of the gods
  • an intentional use of a widespread practice to
    terrorize their neighbors and to keep the lower
    classes subordinate
  • form of population control to lower population
  • response to a lack of protein and the absence of
    large mammals associated with animal sacrifice.

Aztec Learning
  • Priests keepers of knowledge
  • Ran schools for sons of nobles
  • Accurate calendar
  • Herbs and medicines

  • 1519 Spanish reached Tenochtitlan with Cortes
  • Allies from conquered people
  • Defeated by Spanish

Incas and Aztec Empires Political Structures
  • Similarities
  • each had emperor supported by nobility that
    served as personnel of state
  • both based on tribute system with imperial
    redistribution of goods
  • both were militaristic
  • each recognized indigenous rulers in return for
    recognition of imperial sovereignty
  • Differences
  • Inca empire more integrated
  • Aztec empire based more on concept of city-states
  • Aztec empire more open to trade
  • Inca empire almost entirely relied on state
    redistribution of goods
  • Aztec use of human sacrifice as weapon of
    political terror

East Asia
  • Era of Division (6 Dynasties Period)
  • dominated by political division among many small
    warring states often ruled by nomadic invaders
  • period of Buddhist dominance
  • growth of monastic movement
  • loss of imperial centralization
  • loss of dominance of scholar-gentry in favor of
    militarized aristocracy (dark age).

  • return to centralized administration, unified
  • reconstruction of bureaucracy
  • reconstruction of Confucian scholar-gentry at
    expense of both Buddhists and aristocracy
  • restoration of Confucianism as central ideology
    of state

Tang and Song Dynasties
Tang and Song China (Chinas Golden Age)
  • Restoration of imperial government implied
    strengthening of traditional schools of
    Confucianism and resuscitation of scholar-gentry
  • Confucians attacked Buddhism as a foreign
    innovation in China
  • convinced emperors that monastic control of land
    represented an economic threat
  • persecution of Buddhists introduced in 840s.

Elements of Tang-Song economic prosperity
  • The full incorporation of southern China into the
    economy as a major food-producing region, center
    of trade
  • commercial expansion with West, southern Asia,
    southeast Asia
  • establishment of Chinese merchant marine
  • development of new commercial organization and
    credit per acre
  • expanded urbanization throughout China

Satellite Cultures of China
  • Why was China unable to assimilate the Vietnamese
    despite direct rule for almost a millennium?
  • Vietnamese culturally different from the outset
  • different language
  • tradition of local authority inherent in village
  • emphasis on nuclear family rather than typically
    Chinese extended families
  • higher status accorded to women

Satellite Cultures of China
  • Chinese able to exert some influence on
  • introduction of central administration based on
    Confucian exam system
  • some introduction of extended family and ancestor
  • use of Chinese military organization
  • ultimate failure based on inability to impact
    Vietnamese peasantry who remained significant on
    local level
  • only Buddhism impacted peasantry

  • Chinese culture in relation to its satellite
  • Chinese culture extended only within semi-closed
    East Asian cultural system
  • unlike Islam that spread from the Middle East to
    Africa and to South and Southeast Asia
  • unlike common cultural exchanges between Islam
    and post-classical West
  • East Asian cultural exchange occurred in
    semi-isolation from other global cultures.

The Mongolian Empire
Mongol expansion
  • Khanates
  • Ghengis
  • brought all the nomadic tribes of Mongolia under
    the rule of himself and his family
  • rigidly disciplined military state
  • turned his attention toward the settled peoples
    beyond the borders of his nomadic realm
  • began the series of campaigns of plunder and
    conquest that eventually led to the establishment
    of the great Mongol Empire.

Mongol expansion
  • The four most significant legacies of Chinggis
    Khan are
  • tolerance of many religions
  • creation of the Mongols' first script
  • support for trade and crafts
  • creation of a legal code specific to the Mongols'
    pastoral-nomadic way of life

  • Khubilai
  • Conquest of China Yuan Dynasty
  • Grandson of Chinggis Khan
  • Khubilai Khan was an important transitional
    figure in Mongol history
  • sought to rule and not merely conquer the
    vast domains that the Mongols had subjugated

  • Mongol Advances
  • Stirrup
  • A special wood-and-leather saddle allowed the
    horses to bear the weight of their riders for
    long periods
  • permitted the riders to retain a firm seat
  • a sturdy stirrup enabled horsemen to be sturdier
    and thus more accurate in shooting when mounted
  • Advance horse warfare
  • the horses were fast and flexible
  • Used hit-and-run raids
  • The Mongols had developed a composite bow made
    out of sinew and horn and were skilled at
    shooting it while riding
  • gave them the upper hand against ordinary foot
  • range of more than 350 yards, the bow was
    superior to the contemporaneous English longbow,
    whose range was only 250 yards

  • Inclusion of conquered peoples
  • Included Muslim scholars in their courts
  • Willingness to rely on advisers particularly
    those who had worked with the Chinese
  • Fall of Mongols
  • Became too Chinese and sedentaryremoved from
    nomadic traditions
  • Tried to invade Japan--failed
  • Golden Horde and Il Khan (Persia)
  • Conflict over religion
  • Islam the majority religion oppressed by the
    Buddhist leaders
  • Eventually will convert to Islam

  • Mongol dynasty of China (the Yuan) attempt to
    alter the traditional Chinese social structure
  • refused to reinstate the Confucian examination
    system-- attempt to destroy the social and
    political dominance of the scholar-gentry
  • seconded by dividing the Chinese social structure
  • Mongols and Islamic allies on top
  • northern Chinese second
  • ethnic Chinese and minorities at bottom
  • in addition Mongols promoted social advance of
    artisans and merchants, who had been
    discriminated against in traditional Chinese

  • political impact of the Mongol conquests of
    Russia and the Islamic heartland similarities
  • traditional political structure was removed and
    the path was smoothed for new political
    organization to take place
  • In Russia, Kievan superiority was forever
    destroyed and Moscow was able to achieve
    political dominance among the petty kingdoms
    through its control of tribute and by becoming
    the seat of Russian Orthodoxy
  • In Islam, the Abbasid dynasty was ended and the
    Seljuk Turks who had ruled through its additions
    was devastated opening the way for the rise of
    the Mameluks in Egypt and the Ottoman Turks in
    Asia Minor.

  • Territorial extent of the Mongol empire at its
    largest. How did this affect inter-cultural
  • permitted free exchange of goods and ideas
    between global cultures along traditional routes
    of trade.

Renaissance Entrance into Modern World 1300 - 1600
  • Cultural Developments
  • Humanism
  • Scientific Revolution

Humanism vs. Enlightenment 1280ish to late 1600s
vs. 1650 to 1750ish
  • Humanism (Age of Questioning)
  • Emphasis on individual
  • Classical works
  • Centered in N. Italian city-states and traveled
    throughout world
  • Elements include voluntary participation in civic
  • Spurred questioning attitude cultural
    advancements, scientific revolution, age of
    exploration, reformation

  • Enlightenment (application of humanism) Age of
  • Belief in human perfectibility,
  • application of scientific discoveries to
    improvement of human condition
  • reason was key to truth, while religion was
    afflicted with superstition
  • changes in economy reflected in mass consumerism
  • growth of reading clubs, coffee houses, and
    popular entertainment.
  • Voltaire father of Enlightenment

Islamic Empires
  • Ottoman Empire
  • Major leader, Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent
  • Took over Constantinople
  • Long decline
  • Safavid Empire
  • Persia
  • Shiite Muslim
  • Mughal Empire
  • India
  • Hindu Majority ruled by Muslims
  • All Three Gunpowder Empires came from

Japan From Gempei Wars to Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Gempei Wars - culmination of a decades-long
    conflict between the two clans over dominance of
    the Imperial court
  • marked dominance of provincial military
    aristocracy over imperial court
  • Minamoto family established first dominance with
    military government (or Bakufu) at Kamakura
  • decline of central administration and
  • Hojo family dominated Bakufu

Japan From Gempei Wars to Tokugawa Shogunate
  • finally Kamakura government overthrown by
    Ashikaga Shogunate
  • all central authority dissipated during Onin War
    from 1467-1477
  • initiated a long, drawn-out struggle for
    domination by individual daimyo, resulting in a
    mass power-struggle between the various houses to
    dominate the whole of Japan
  • country divided up into 300 small kingdoms ruled
    by daimyos.
  • Introduction of Portuguese in 1400s

Japanese Shogunate
  • Japanese feudalism
  • Shogun (leader)
  • Daimyo (powerful lordsshogun usually chosen
    from this group)
  • Samurai (warriors)
  • Bushido (feudal law)
  • Shogunates
  • Most Famous is Tokugawa Shogunate
  • Dictatorship, Highly centralized government
  • Confucian Ideas
  • Closed Ports to trade caused economic collapse

  • Japanese Contact with West
  • First step taken was persecution of Christians,
    then banning of Christianity in 1614
  • after 1616 foreign merchants limited to few ports
  • by 1640s, only Dutch and Chinese admitted at
    Deshima (Nagasaki Bay)

  • in eighteenth century Neo-Confucian philosophy
    abandoned in favor of school of "National
    Learning" based on indigenous Japanese culture
  • differed from Chinese in adopting European
    technological developments.

East Asian Exploration and Isolation (Xenophobic)
  • Ming
  • returned to use of Neo-Confucian philosophy as
    basis of culture
  • restored position of scholar-gentry
  • reinstituted examination system as basis of civil
  • Early emperors attempted to curtail power of
  • potential rivals to succession exiled to
  • greatest economic reform was Zhenghe voyages to
    distant markets

  • Different status for Elite and Working women
  • Think noble versus serf/peasant

  • During middle ages, new limits on the conditions
    of women
  • In some respects, women in the west had higher
    status than their sisters in Islam
  • Less segregated in religious services (although
    could not lead them)
  • Less confined to the household

  • Still womens voices in the family may have
    declined in the Middle Ages
  • Urban women played important roles in local
    commerce and even operated some craft guilds, but
    found themselves increasingly hemmed in by
    male-dominated organizations
  • Patriarchal structures take deeper root.

World Economy
  • During the postclassical millennium, 45-1450 CE,
    a few areas contributed raw materials (including
    labor power slaves) to more advanced societies
    China and the Islamic world.
  • The supply areas included western Europe and
    parts of Africa and southeast Asia

World Economy
  • Although economic relationships were unequal,
    they did not affect the societies that produced
    raw material too much since international trade
    was not sufficient to do so.

World Economy Middle Ages
  • Population growth encouraged further economic
    innovation new people new markets
  • Towns expanded and agriculture increased
  • Crusades exposed west to new cultural and
    economic influence from the Middle East. This
    included a thirst for trade.

East meets west
  • Three major manufacturing zones
  • Arab producing carpets, tapestry, glass
  • Indian producing cotton textiles
  • China producing porcelain, paper, silks.

  • No central control of Indian Ocean trade system,
    no use of military force.
  • Portuguese brought use of military force into
  • added new routes including route around Cape of
    Good Hope to Europe
  • introduction of concept of sea power and military
  • introduction of Christianity, tribute kingdoms

Other Trade Routes
  • Bantu peoples moved along Congo River and further
    south and east in Africa. (Evidence-Bantu
  • Vikings moved along rivers and oceans into Europe
    and even the new world. (Viking ships horses of
    other nomads)
  • Turks and Mongols moved southward and westward
    from the steps of Asia bringing bubonic plague to
    China and Europe.

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Global trade and core and peripheral nations
  • Core areas were those areas of the world economy
    typified by production of manufactured goods,
    control of shipping, monopoly of banking and
    commercial services.
  • Core areas were located primarily in northwestern
    Europe Britain, France, and Holland.
  • Dependent zones (peripheral) were regions
    typified by production of raw materials, supply
    of bullion, plantation agriculture of cash crops
    produced by coercive labor systems.
  • Dependent zones surrounded the European core
    including southern and eastern Europe, Asia, and
    the colonial discoveries of the European

Global Network
  • East Asia, particularly China and Japan remained
    outside of global trade network
  • Mughal India only minimally involved
  • Ottoman Empire restricted trade to European
    enclaves in cities
  • Russia also remained outside system outside of
    slave regions, Africa not involved.
  • After 1600, India increasingly dominated by
    France and England
  • Eastern Europe brought into system as supplier of
    grain to West.

Changes and Continuities
  • Change Classic empires have fallen and new ones
    have been created.
  • Change Migrations of nomadic peoples cause major
    international changes and diffusion of ideas and
  • Continuity Religion continues to be important
    and continues to spread.
  • Continuity Trade routes continue to grow in
  • Continuity Societies continue to be Patriarchal

  • European Atlantic Empires
  • West becomes dominant
  • Gunpowder
  • Mughals
  • Ottomans
  • Neo-Confucianism
  • African Contributions

  • 1450- Beginning of European Atlantic empires
  • 1450-Beginning of Global trade
  • 1492- End of Islam in Europe
  • 1433- end of Chinese treasure ship expeditions
  • 1750- beginning of industrialization
  • 1750-western hemisphere colonization peaks

Six things to Remember
  • Americas are included in world trade for the
    first time.
  • Improvements in shipping and gunpowder technology
  • Populations are in transition
  • New social structures emerge based on race and
  • Traditional beliefs are threatened in Europe but
    reinforced in China
  • Empires are both land-based and cross oceanic

Changes in Weaponry
  • Changes
  • Calvary/mounted knights infantry
  • Lance ? arquebus (portable long barreled gun
    fired by a wheel and lock) and pike ? musket with
  • Calvary charge ? rows/columns of uniformed
  • Simple medieval wall with gates and towers ?
    elaborate fortification systems designed to stop
    canon fire
  • Military leaders as battle chiefs ? management
  • Performance learned on a drill field

Knights and Guns
  • Infantry had already proven to be more successful
    than cavalry
  • Ex. 1415 Agincourtlong bows mow down knights of
    France on horseback

Origin of the Gun
  • Chinese and Arabs used gunpowder since 8th
  • Mongols 13th century (1240) Poland and Hungary
    1st experience gunfire
  • Ironworks in Europe soon learned how to make a
  • Iron tube in which gunpowder is exploded to fire
    a missile

  • 1400 Ottomans construct cannons to forge through
    the Balkans
  • 1453 helped to take out Constantinople
  • Gun becomes premiere tool for explorers,
    conquerors and merchants
  • Knights couldnt withstand heavier armor to
    survive gun shotdeath of knighthood
  • New formations and mass, unison, precise gunfire
    could halt a charging army

Big Guns
  • Smaller at first inaccurate and bad for long
  • Big gunscannons better for breaking down walls
  • Beasts of burden used to bring them to
    town/castle walls to fire cannon after cannon to
    break defenses
  • Soldiers then raped and pillaged town/castle
  • 1st done by France Charles VII in 1450

  • Problem siege tactics cost many innocent lives
    therefore, new type of fortification
  • Bastionsthicker walls that protected people and
    town within
  • Very expensive to buildMichelangelo and da
    Vinci some of the first designers
  • Advent of professional armiesItaly, Sweden
    Switzerland, England, France, Prussia

Changes in War
  • Wars no longer a test of strength, to be decided
    by mere battles, rather they depend on losing
    or gaining friends and allies, and it is to this
    end that good states men turn all their attention
    and energy
  • Rise of Diplomacy
  • Ambassadors develop out of medieval heralds
    and/or messengers
  • Enjoyed personal security from both parties
  • Authorized to conduct negotiations, i.e. diplomacy

  • Expense
  • Cost is hugeruler provided equipment
    (ammunition, amour, weapons)
  • Wives and children, spare horses
  • Armies sometimes 1600 strong
  • Warfare on ships (river or sea)
  • Cannons prove to be very effective on ships

Mughal Rulers
  • all fabulously wealthy
  • empire covered 2/3 of present-day India
  • Babur 1526-1530
  • Charismatic leader
  • Related to Gengis Khan and Tamerlaine
  • Took over Afghanistan
  • Builder of gardens
  • Brought the Persian culture to India
  • Brought first cannons to India- helped him to
    successfully invade

  • Humayan 1530-1556
  • Underachiever, son of Babur
  • Superstitious
  • Loved books
  • Spent entire reign consolidating the empire
  • Akbar 1556-1605
  • Statesman
  • Encouraged religious tolerance
  • Brought Muslim culture to India
  • Married a Hindu princess
  • Ran the country with a good infrastructure
  • Came to power at 13 general who was loyal kept
    the empire in tact for him until of age

  • Jahangir 1605-1627
  • Drunkard
  • Loved precious jewelsit was an obsession
  • Hunter boasted about hunting abilities and
    number of kills
  • Shah Jehan 1627-1658
  • most famous to western world
  • built Taj Mahal, Red Fort, and Friday Mosque
    (largest in India)
  • ruthlesskilled male heirs of extended family
  • imprisoned the last 9 years by his son

Taj Mahal
Friday Mosque
Red Fort
  • Auranzeb 1658-1707
  • religious fanatic required all to be Muslims
  • enforced Muslim law which begins to break up the
    empireHindus upset with the law
  • Eleven more rulers to follow, yet the empire
    continues to decline

Mughal Architecture
  • formed from the Persian and Indian style of art
  • consisted of archs, domes, towers, indentures,
    and carvings
  • To show the greatness of the Mughal architecture,
    the buildings tended to be tall and enormous.

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The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
  • Founded by Osman Bey in 1289, who led Muslim
    religious warriors (ghazi)
  • Ottoman expansion into Byzantine empire
  • Seized city of Bursa, then into the Balkans
  • Organized ghazi into formidable military machine
  • Central role of the Janissaries (slave troops)
  • Effective use of gunpowder in battles and sieges

Ottoman Empire (1289-1923)
  • Mehmed the Conqueror (reigned 1451-1481)
  • Captured Constantinople in 1453 it became
    Istanbul, the Ottoman capital
  • Absolute monarchy-- centralized state
  • Expanded to Serbia, Greece,
    Albania attacked Italy

Tokapi Palacemain residence in Istanbul
Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
  • Suleyman the Magnificent (1520-1566)
  • Sultan Selim the Grim (1512-1520) occupied Syria
    and Egypt
  • Suleyman the Magnificent expanded into southwest
    Asia and central Europe
  • Suleyman also built a navy powerful enough to
    challenge European fleets

Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
  • Dynasty endured for more than 600 years
  • Too large to be maintained
  • the empire's communication technology was not
    developed enough to reach all territories
  • the circumstances surrounding the Ottoman
    Empire's fall closely paralleled those
    surrounding the fall of the Roman Empire
  • ongoing tensions between the empire's different
    ethnic groups
  • various governments' inability to deal with these
  • Built on war and steady territorial expansion
  • Possibilities for new lands ran out and lands
    began to be lost to enemies
  • Means to maintain oversized bureaucracy and army

Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
  • Decline in effectiveness of the administrative
    system corruption among officials
  • Poor regulated central govt allowed local
    officials to be corrupt which sparked rebellions
    further drain on resources
  • Other issue ?successors were not prepared to
    ruled instead basically imprisoned weak rulers
  • Civil strife increased and the discipline and
    leadership of the armies deteriorated

Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
  • Began to lose on the battle field (change to
    light field artillery by European powers)
  • Not dominate on the sea (defeated by Spanish and
    Italian navies at Battle of Lepanto)
  • Goods not going to Europe through Muslim trading
    centers lost revenue for Ottoman Empire
  • Inflation caused by Spanish silver into Ottoman

Ottoman empire (1289-1923)
  • Long standing belief that little of what happened
    in Europe was important not take seriously the
    changes that transformed Europe
  • Ends up being Sick Man
  • Independence movements in Balkans
  • Defeated in 1918 and divided between Britain and

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  • the revival of the various strands of Confucian
    philosophy and political culture that began in
    the middle of the 9th Century and reached new
    levels of intellectual and social creativity in
    the 11th Century in the Northern Song Dynasty.
  • movement included speculative philosophers,
    painters, poets, doctors, social ethicists,
    political theorists, historians, local reformers
    and government civil servants.

  • 14th C.--the teaching of the way or the teaching
    of principle, became the standard curriculum for
    the imperial civil service examination system
  • dominance of the civil service continued until
    the whole system was abolished in 1905.
  • In the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) there was a
    further reaction against the speculative
    philosophy of the learning of Han arose to
    combat what were taken to be the grave mistakes
  • also know as the school of evidential research
    because of its commitment to historical and
    philological research in contradistinction to
    the Song and Ming fascination with speculative
    metaphysics and personal moral self-cultivation.

  • Neo-Confucian masters where also teachers of
    various forms of personal moral self-cultivation
  • sought to promote a unified vision of humane
    flourishing that would end with a person becoming
    a sage or worthy by means of various forms of
  • became an international movement and spread to
    Korea, Japan, and Vietnam

African Contributions to the Cultures of America
  • Slavery
  • Music Jazz gospel
  • Religion - While the dominant religions on the
    Caribbean islands are all variants of
    Christianity, a few religions are the result of
    African slaves combining their spiritual
    practices with the beliefs of their captors. Most
    common are voodoo and Santería.

Changes and Continuities
  • Change The Americas are added to world trade
  • Change Europe becomes a Maritime area
  • Continuity Trade is really important
  • Continuity Religions continue to adapt to new
    times, but very important
  • Continuity Diffusion of ideas and diseases as
    people come into contact with each other.

Age of Revolution 1750-1914
  • Mexican, Haitian, and Chinese Revolutions

Three Things to Remember
  • Industrialization caused true world-wide
    interdependence. Intensification of
    core-periphery concept
  • Populations grew and people moved from the
    country into the cities to work in factories.
  • Women gained some economic opportunities with the
    rise of factory work, but they did not gain
    political or economic parity.

Three more things to Remember
  • Western culture influenced Asia and Africa,
    especially because of imperialism
  • Rise of the Proletariat as a social force
  • Revolutions were inspired because of the
    Enlightenment ideals of the social contract and
    natural rights.

The Bookends
  • 1750- beginning of industrialization with the
    water frame in Manchester England
  • 1776-First enlightenment revolution.
  • 1800s nationalism
  • 1800s Imperialism
  • 1860 Emancipation of serfs and slaves
  • 1914 Eve of World War I

Classic Revolutions
  • Haitian Revolution-August 22, 1791 - 1804
  • Mexican Revolution -September 16, 1810 1821
  • 2nd Revolution 1908
  • Greek Revolution - 1821 - 1829
  • French Revolution -1789-1799
  • American Revolution 1775-1781 (how was this
    revolution different)
  • Russian Revolution 1917-1921
  • Chinese Revolution 1911 1921
  • 2nd Revolution and civil war 1949

Latin American Independence
  • Sources of Discontent
  • 1. Discontent among social hierarchy
  • Peninsulars
  • Creoles
  • Mestizos
  • Mulattoes
  • Native Americans
  • Enslaved Africans

Latin American Independence
  • Sources of Discontent
  • Enlightenment ideas
  • - read workers
  • - North America creoles read Dec. of
    Independence and Constitution
  • - Women hosted salon (tertulias) where
    independence and revolution were discussed

Latin American Independence
  • 3. Napoleons invasion of Spain
  • Joseph on throne
  • Latin American leaders saw Spains weakness as an
    opportunity to get rid of them.

Mexican Independence
  • Mexican Revolution -September 16, 1810 1821
  • Creole Priest, Father Miguel Hidalgo raised cry
    for freedom (Sept. 15, 1810)
  • Speech el Grito e Delores the cry of
  • It called Mexican to fight for independence and

Mexican Independence
  • Ragged army of mestizos and Native Americans
    marched to outskirts of Mexico City
  • 1st creoles supported but soon rejected his call
    to end slavery and reforms for NA
  • Less than a year, Hidalgo was captured and

Mexican Independence
  • Father Jose Morelos mestizo called for wide
    ranging social and political reform- improve
    conditions, abolish slavery, give vote to all men
  • For 4 years, led forces then captured and shot.

Mexican Independence
  • Agustin de Iturbide conservative Creole who
    fought revolutionaries worried about new
    Spanish government in 1820
  • In 1821, backed by creoles, mestizos, and Native
    Americans, he overthrow the Spanish viceroy
  • Mexico independent
  • Iturbide took title Emperor Agustin I
  • Toppled and set up Republic of Mexico

Mexican Independence
  • New government but for most little changed
  • Military leaders dominated government
  • Next 100 years contains struggles to improve
    conditions for Mexicans

Mexican Revolution 2
  • Dictator Porfiro Diaz ruled for almost 35 years
    winning as president again and again
  • Prosperity for wealthy landowners, businessmen,
    and foreign investors but most Mexicans were
    peasants who lived in poverty
  • Factory workers, miners, and middle class
    liberals opposed him.

  • Francisco Madero demanded free elections in
  • He was imprisoned and by Diaz and then began
    encouraging revolt
  • Diaz resigned in 1911
  • Madero became president but was murdered within
    2 years.

  • Several leaders emerged including
  • North -Francisco Pancho Villa personal power
  • South - Emiliano Zapata peasant revolt
  • Decade of fighting
  • Women soldiers called soldaderas cooked, tended
    wounded and even fought.

  • 1917 Venustiano elected and approved a
    constitution (today's)
  • Land broke up large estates, restricted
    foreigners owning land and allowed
    nationalization of natural resources
  • Religion Church land made the property of the
  • Labor min. wage and protected right of workers
    to strike
  • Suffrage only to men but gave women some
    protection (equal pay, married women to draw up
    contracts, take part in legal suits, equal
    authority with men in spending family funds)

Mexican Independence 2
  • 1920s after government restored order finally
  • Helped some Indian communities regain land
  • Supported labor unions
  • Schools and libraries set up
  • Teachers spread ideas of nationalism
  • Mexico became first LA to pursue reforms

Revolutions in Haiti
  • Slave Revolt
  • Toussaint LOuverture

The Louisiana Territory and Napoleons Empire
Balanced Precariously on an ex-slave
  • Slave revolt because of brutal slave system
  • St. Dominique (Haiti) whites decided to fight for
    freedom from France b/c of a law passed that gave
    all those of color with 2 free parents their
  • 1793 Toussaint joined fight
  • National Convention abolished slavery in St.
  • 1794 Frances National Assembly abolished slavery
    in colonies

  • After war with Britain and Spain, Toussaint
    supported French govt
  • Toussaint was made lieutenant governor of St.
  • He distrusted all foreigners, believing only
    black leadership could assure autonomous St.
  • Toussaint made commander-in-chief of island by
    French Convention
  • Resolved to quickly establish autonomous black
  • After defeat of Spanish British began moving
    toward independence from France
  • Wanted to be on equal footing with France and
    other major powers

  • Toussaint was inspired by French US revolutions
  • Some of his officers had fought with French army
    in US War for Independence
  • 1799 Napoleons coup detat in France
  • Wanted Toussaint out
  • Wanted to reestablish slavery
  • 1800 Toussaint became military dictator
  • Re-imposed plantation system

  • Constitution gave Napoleon a reason for sending
    French troops to take over
  • Technically a French colony, acting as an
    independent state
  • Toussaint liberated St. Dominique from French
  • Toussaint never formally severed its bond with
  • Toussaint defeated and sent to prison in France
  • 1804 Toussaints successor (one of his
    lieutenants) declared St. Dominique the
    independent country of Haiti

1911 Revolution in China
  • Last emperor Pi Yu abdicates the throne
  • Mutiny by imperial soldiers
  • Scattered secret society upheavals
  • Organized plots, etc.
  • Republic 1912-1949
  • January 1, 1912 is the first official day of the
    Republic of China
  • Provisional president is Sun Yat-sen
  • He is soon pushed aside which begins a 15 year
    period of military strongmen designated as
    Presidentwarlord period
  • Politically it resembled the last few years of
    the Qing rule

Meji Restoration
  • Japanese Modernization
  • New Constitution based on US
  • Parliament formed (Diet)
  • Mostly an Oligarchy
  • Zaibatsu
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