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Title: Food,%20Soil,%20and%20Pest%20Management

Food, Soil, and Pest Management
  • Chapter 12

12-1 What Is Food Security and Why Is It
Difficult to Attain?
  • Concept 12-1A Many of the poor suffer health
    problems from chronic lack of food and poor
    nutrition, while many people in developed
    countries have health problems from eating too
    much food.
  • Concept 12-1B The greatest obstacles to
    providing enough food for everyone are poverty,
    political upheaval, corruption, war, and the
    harmful environmental effects of food production.

Many of the Poor Have Health Problems Because
They Do Not Get Enough to Eat
  • Food security means that every person in a
    given area has daily access to enough nutritious
    food to have an active and healthy life.
  • Global food production has stayed ahead of
    population growth.
  • However
  • One of six people in developing countries cannot
    grow or buy the food they need.
  • Food insecurity living with chronic hunger and
    poor nutrition.

Key Nutrients for a Healthy Human Life
  • We need large amounts of macronutrients
  • (protein, carbohydrates, and fats)
  • We also need smaller amounts of micronutrients
  • (vitamins such as A,C, and E and various minerals)

Many People Suffer from Chronic Hunger and
  • Some people cannot meet their basic energy needs
  • Chronic undernutrition or hunger
  • Others lack proteins and key nutrient needs
  • Chronic malnutrition
  • The root cause of hunger and malnutrition is
  • In 2006, 862 million were undernourished
  • A 2005 estimate says 6 million children die
    annually from undernutrition or nonfatal diseases
    made worse by their poor diet.

Many People Do No Get Enough Vitamins and
  • One in three people has a deficiency of one or
    more vitamins and minerals, especially
  • iron anemia
  • vitamin A blindness
  • iodine goiter or enlarged thyroid gland
  • Can lead to deafness
  • Famine a shortage of food in an area along with
    mass starvation, economic and social chaos
  • Usually caused by crop failures from drought,
    flooding, war, or other catastrophic events

Many People Have Health Problems from Eating Too
  • Overnutrition excess calories and lack of
    exercise can lead to reduced life quality, poor
    health, and premature deathsame as
  • A 2005 Boston University study
  • 60 of American adults are overweight
  • 33 are obese
  • Americans spend 42 billion a year
    trying to lose weight.
  • Estimates are that 24 billion per year would
    eliminate world hunger.

12-2 How Is Food Produced?
  • Concept 12-2A We have sharply increased crop
    production using a mix of industrialized and
    traditional agriculture.
  • Concept 12-2B We have used industrialized and
    traditional methods to greatly increase supplies
    of meat, fish, and shellfish.

Food Production Has Increased Dramatically
  • Wheat, rice, and corn provide more than half of
    the worlds consumed calories
  • Fish and shellfish are an important source of
    food for about 1 billion people mostly in Asia
  • Of all the biodiversity on the planet, only 14
    plant and 9 animal species make up 90 of the
    worlds consumed calories.

Food Production Has Increased Dramatically
  • Three systems produce most of our food
  • Grain from croplands 77
  • Meat from rangelands, pastures, and feedlots 16
  • Fish from fisheries/Aquaculture 7
  • Dramatic increase in global food production since
  • Why?
  • Technological advances
  • More sophisticated farming techniques
  • Expanded use of inorganic chemical fertilizers,
    irrigation, pesticides, high-yield crops
  • Intense farming methods, densely populated
    feedlots, breeding/growing pens, aquaculture
    ponds or ocean cages

Two Types of Agriculture
  • Industrial Agriculture (High Input Agriculture)
  • A relatively small group of farmers produce large
    quantities of a single crop or livestock
  • Mostly in developed countries
  • Traditional Agriculture (Low Input Agriculture)
  • Traditional subsistence agriculture
  • Produces enough crops or livestock to feed family
  • Traditional intensive agriculture
  • Produces enough crops or livestock to feed the
    farmers family and maybe some to sell
  • Mostly in developing countries

Industrialized Crop Production Relies on
High-Input Monocultures
  • About 80 of the worlds food supply is produced
    by industrialized agriculture.
  • Goal is to steadily increase crop yield
  • Uses large amounts of fossil fuel energy, water,
    commercial fertilizers, and pesticides to produce
  • Plantation agriculture primarily in tropical
    developing countries (bananas, coffee, sugarcane)
  • Cash crops crops intended for sale, not
    consumption or animals

Traditional Agriculture Often Relies on
Low-Input Polycultures
  • Many farmers in developing countries grow a
    variety of crops on the same plot of land
  • Polyculture different plants are grown together
  • Limited technology, limited equipment, limited
    impact on the environment
  • Slash-and-burn agriculture burning underbrush
    to provide nutrients to the soil

A Closer Look at Industrialized Crop Production
  • The Green Revolution represents the 88 increase
    in food production per unit of area since 1950.
  • Monocultures of high-yield key crops
  • Selectively breed or genetically engineered crops
  • Large inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, water
  • The Second Green Revolution involves fast growing
    rice/wheat bred for tropical regions.
  • Early in the century, one American farmer could
    produce food for 2.5 people.
  • By 1999, a single farmer could feed over 130

A Closer Look at Industrialized Crop Production
  • Since 1950, high-input agriculture has produced
    more crops per unit of land.
  • Grain production has tripled during this
  • Why has per Capita grain production gone down
    since the early 1980s?

Crossbreeding and Genetic Engineering Can Produce
New Crop Varieties
  • Gene Revolution increased crop yields, as a
    result of mixing organisms genes
  • Artificial selection has been used for centuries
    to develop genetically improved varieties of
  • Genetic engineering develops improved strains at
    an exponential pace compared to artificial
  • Add beneficial genes
  • Delete negative genes

Crossbreeding and Genetic Engineering Can Produce
New Crop Varieties
  • Age of Genetic Engineering
  • developing crops that are resistant to
  • Heat and cold
  • Herbicides
  • Insect pests
  • Viral diseases
  • Drought
  • Salty or acidic soil
  • Controversy has arisen over the use of
    genetically modified foods (GMFs).
  • Critics fear that we know too little about the
    long-term potential harm to human health and the

Meat Production and Consumption Have Grown
  • Meat production increased fourfold from 19612007
  • Industrialized livestock production
  • Densely populated feedlots are common
  • System uses a lot of energy and water and produce
    huge amounts of animal waste

Industrialized Meat Production Has Harmful
Environmental Consequences
Fish and Shellfish Production Have Increased
  • Aquaculture raising large numbers of fish and
    shellfish in ponds and cages
  • worlds fastest growing type of food production.
  • Fish farming involves cultivating fish in a
    controlled environment and harvesting them in

Producing Fish Through Aquaculture Can Harm
Aquatic Ecosystems
12-3 What Environmental Problems Arise from Food
  • Concept 12-3 Food production in the future may
    be limited by its serious environmental impacts,
    including soil erosion and degradation,
    desertification, water and air pollution,
    greenhouse gas emissions, and degradation and
    destruction of biodiversity.

Producing Food Has Major Environmental Impacts
  • Modern agriculture has a greater harmful
    environmental impact than any human activity.
  • Loss of biodiversity as a result of monocultures
  • Loss of genetic variability in crops and
  • High input of chemicals
  • Air, water pollution
  • Greater soil erosion

Producing Food Has Major Environmental Impacts
Topsoil Erosion Is a Serious Problem in Parts of
the World
  • Soil erosion is the movement of soil components,
    especially surface litter and topsoil, by wind or
  • Soil erosion increases through activities such as
    farming, logging, construction, overgrazing, and
    off-road vehicles.
  • Soil erosion lowers soil fertility and can
    overload nearby bodies of water with eroded

Topsoil Erosion Is a Serious Problem in Parts of
the World
  • Soil is eroding faster than it is forming on more
    than one-third of the worlds cropland.

Excessive Irrigation Has Serious Consequences
  • Irrigation problems
  • Salinization repeated irrigation can reduce
    crop yields by causing salt buildup in the soil
  • Waterlogging

Natural Capital Degradation Desertification of
Arid and Semiarid Lands
Industrialized Food Production Requires Huge
Inputs of Energy
  • Industrialized agriculture uses about 17 of all
    commercial energy in the U.S. and food travels an
    average 2,400 kilometers from farm to plate.

12-4 How Can We Protect Crops from Pests More
  • Concept 12-4 We can sharply cut pesticide use
    without decreasing crop yields by using a mix of
    cultivation techniques, biological pest controls,
    and small amounts of selected chemical pesticides
    as a last resort (integrated pest management).

We Use Pesticides to Try to Control Pest
  • What is a pest?
  • Only about 100 species of plants (weeds), animals
    (mostly insects), fungi, microbes cause the most
  • Chemists have developed hundreds of chemicals
    (pesticides) that can kill or repel pests.
  • Pesticides
  • Insecticides
  • Herbicides
  • Fungicides
  • Rodenticides
  • 2.6 million tons of pesticides (600 different
    active chemicals) used annually

We Use Pesticides to Try to Control Pest
  • First-generation pesticides
  • Natural chemicals derived from plants
  • Second-generation pesticides
  • Man-made chemicals from a laboratory
  • DDT was the first
  • Broad-spectrum agents
  • Toxic to many pest and non-pest species
  • Narrow-spectrum agents
  • Effective against a specific group of species
  • Pesticides vary in their persistence
  • How long they remain deadly in the environment

We Use Pesticides to Try to Control Pest
  • The ideal pest-killing chemical has these
  • Kill only target pest
  • Not cause genetic resistance in the target
  • Disappear/break down into harmless chemicals
    after doing its job
  • Be more cost-effective than doing nothing

Modern Synthetic Pesticides Have Several
  • Each year gt 250,000 people in the U.S. become ill
    from household pesticides

Laws and Treaties Can Help to Protect Us from the
Harmful Effects of Pesticides
  • The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the
    U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), and the
    Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulate the
    sale and use of pesticides under the Federal
    Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
  • The EPA has only evaluated the health effects of
    10 of the active ingredients of all pesticides.
  • Cite lack of funding for complex and lengthy
  • The Food Quality Protection Act strengthens FIFRA
    by reducing the allowable level of chemicals by a
    factor of 10 for which the health effects are
    still unknown.
  • Precautionary Principle

There are Alternatives to Using Pesticides
  • There are cultivation, biological, and ecological
    alternatives to conventional chemical pesticides.
  • Fool the pest through cultivation practices.
  • Biological pest control
  • Provide homes for the pest enemies.
  • Bring in natural enemies.
  • Use pheromones to lure pests into traps.
  • Use hormones to disrupt life cycles.
  • Implant genetic resistance into plants.

Both tomato plants were exposed to destructive
caterpillars. The genetically altered plant
(right) shows little damage.
Integrated Pest Management Is a Component of
Sustainable Agriculture
  • Integrated pest management (IPM)
  • Crops and pests are evaluated as parts of a
    larger ecosystem
  • Comprehensive plan including cultivation,
    biological controls, and chemical tools applied
    in a coordinated way

12-6 How Can We Produce Food More Sustainably?
  • Concept 12-6A Sustainable food production will
    require reducing topsoil erosion, eliminating
    overgrazing and overfishing, irrigating more
    efficiently, using integrated pest management,
    promoting agrobiodiversity, and providing
    government subsidies for more sustainable
    farming, fishing, and aquaculture.
  • Concept 12-6B Producing enough food to feed the
    rapidly growing human population will require
    growing crops in a mix of monocultures and
    polycultures and decreasing the enormous
    environmental impacts of industrialized food

Soil Conservation Methods
  • There are many different soil conservation
    techniques that can be employed to reduce soil

Contour planting
Soil Conservation Methods
Alley cropping
Strip cropping
No-till or minimum tillage
Restore Soil Fertility
  • Fertilizers can help restore soil nutrients, but
    runoff of inorganic fertilizers can cause water
  • Organic fertilizers From plant and animal
  • Animal manure
  • Green manure freshly cut vegetation plowed into
  • Compost broken-down organic matter
  • Commercial inorganic fertilizers
  • Made from minerals
  • Active ingredients contain nitrogen (N),
    phosphorous (P), and potassium (K) and other
    trace nutrients

Shift to More Sustainable Agriculture
  • Three main ways to reduce hunger and malnutrition
    and the harmful effects of agriculture
  • Slow population growth
  • Sharply reduce poverty
  • Develop and phase in systems of more sustainable,
    low input agriculture over the next few decades
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