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Safe Food Handling


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Title: Safe Food Handling

Safe Food Handling
  • Its Our job!

Presenter Michael A. Pfaff, R.S. Allegany
County Health Department
Leave Me Alone!!!!!!!
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Temperature Control
  • Cold foods at or below 41F.
  • Frozen Foods at or below 0F.
  • Hot foods held at or above 135F.
  • Seared Rare Roast Beef cooked to 145F for 15
  • Pork products and other Beef cooked to 130F
    for 112 min.
  • Reheat all Leftovers to at least 165F.
  • Poultry Stuffing products cooked to 165F for
    15 sec.
  • Fish Shellfish at or above 145F for 15 sec.
  • Fresh Shell Eggs at or above 145F for 15 sec.
  • Hamburger Patties at or above 155F for 15 sec.

Danger Zone
Limit Time Food Is In The Danger Zone
  • (between 41F and 135 F)
  • Thawing
  • Prep Time
  • Cooling
  • Reheating

No more than a combined total of 6 hours for all
Factors Affecting Bacterial Growth
  • Temperature
  • pH
  • Water Activity
  • Chemical Inhibitors

Critical Limits
  • Time
  • Time and Temperature work together to be the
    time bombs of foodborne illness. In the most
    favorable conditions, bacteria can double every
    20 minutes. Controlling time in the danger zone
    is a very effective Control Limit.
  • Temperature
  • Temperature is one of the factors that can be
    used to manage the number of organisms that
    may be present in a food product. Temperature
    is a well known management tool to keep bacteria
    levels low.

Critical Limits cont.
  • pH
  • The pH of a food product is a measure of its
    acidity or alkalinity.
  • A solution with a pH of 7.0 is considered
    neutral. As the product pH moves below or
    above the pH that is ideal for a particular
    organism, the bacteria takes longer to adjust to
    its surroundings and the microorganisms grow
    more slowly.
  • Many foods are naturally acidic, that is the pH
    is below 7.0. Some foods are quite acidic and
    have a pH below 4.6. Examples are vinegar,
    mayonnaise, fruits, pickles, and yogurt.
  • At or below 4.6, disease causing organisms do
    not grow or grow so slowly that they are not a
    food safety problem. Spoilage organisms may
    grow at these low pH values and can slowly
    change a foods taste and appearance.
  • Water Activity
  • Microorganisms need water to grow. Since
    bacteria cannot take their food in a solid form,
    they must receive their nutrients in some kind of
    water solution. This solution is described as
    water activity which means the amount of water
    available for growth. Solutes (salts and
    sugars) as well as drying, decreases the
    available water and can reduce growth.

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Microorganisms and pH
pH Values of Some Foods
Water activity tables
Water Activity for Select Foods
Water Activity Limits for Growth
Potentially Hazardous Foods
  • Foods that consist in whole or part
  • Milk or milk products
  • Eggs
  • Meat, poultry, fish
  • Shellfish or edible crustacean
  • In a form capable of supporting rapid growth
  • and progressive growth of infectious or toxigenic
  • microorganisms

Potentially Hazardous Foods
  • Beans/Rice/Pasta
  • Pies/Pastries/Eggs
  • Potatoes/Seed Sprouts
  • Soy Protein/Meats
  • Cheese/Whipped Butter
  • Chicken/Shellfish
  • Dairy/Non-Dairy Agents

Critical Items
  • Personal hygiene ----
  • ---- Time/temperature
  • Cooking, cooling, reheating, holding ----
  • ---- Preparation ahead of time
  • Cross contamination ----

Drown a germ
Wash your Hands
Critical Items
  • Personal hygiene ----
  • ---- Time/temperature
  • Cooking, cooling, reheating, holding ----
  • ---- Preparation ahead of time
  • Cross contamination ----

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To Cool Potentially Hazardous Foods From 135
Degrees to 41F Within 6 Hours
  • 1. Place food uncovered in a refrigerator or
    freezer (on top shelf) in a shallow pan with a
    food depth not exceeding 3 inches.
  • 2. Quick-chill in an ice water bath. Stir and
    cool to 41 F before putting in refrigerator.

Possible Cooling Solutions (cont.)
  • 3. Use shallow metal pans (3 or less) before
    storing on the upper shelf of cooler. Leave
    uncovered stirring every hour if possible until
    product reaches
  • 41F.
  • 4. Purchase a blast chiller.

Possible Cooling Solutions
  • 5. Use more cook and serve (prepare and
    immediately serve)
  • 6. Reduce large quantities of heated foods to
    smaller portions.

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Rapid Cooling Considerations
  • Cooling containers for foods
  • Aluminum Excellent
  • Stainless Steel Good
  • Plastic/Glass - Poor

Rapid Cooling Considerations
  • Cooling is more important than covering

Cooling example
Im not listening, Nope, NOT LISTENING!
4 Safe Ways of Thawing Frozen Foods
  • Refrigerator (41 F.)
  • Cold running water
  • Cooking Process
  • Microwave Oven

Proper Handling of Prepared Foods
  • Label foods with their preparation date and time
  • Rapidly cool in 3 shallow metal pans to 41 F.
    or lower within four hours.

Proper Handling of Prepared Foods
  • When cooling Never stack shallow pans one on
    top the other. Allow air to circulate around
    foods to be chilled.
  • Separate hot foods from cold foods.

Proper Handling of Prepared Foods
  • Always cover leftovers after they are cooled
  • Never mix leftovers with fresh product.

Proper Handling of Prepared Foods
  • Rapidly reheat to 165 F within two hours.
  • Never use hot food holding equipment (chafers and
    steam tables) to reheat foods or cold holding
    equipment to cool down foods (thermal holding

Proper Handling of Prepared Foods
  • Use sanitized thermometers to monitor
  • Never reuse foods that have been previously
    served to customers, including breads, butter,
    sauces, dressings and chips.

Control Factors Which Contribute to Foodborne
Illness Outbreaks
  • Preventing contamination
  • Removal of microorganisms
  • Retarding or inhibiting growth
  • Destroying contaminants
  • Personal hygiene

Factors Which Contribute to Foodborne Disease
  • Failure to properly refrigerate foods
  • Failure to thoroughly heat, process, or cook
  • Infected employees practicing poor personal

Factors Which Contribute to Foodborne Disease
Outbreaks (cont.)
  • Preparing foods a day or more before serving
  • Incorporating raw (contaminated) ingredients into
    foods that receive little or no cooking

Factors Which Contribute to Foodborne Disease
Outbreaks (cont.)
  • Allowing foods to remain at warm (bacterial
    incubating) temperatures
  • Failure to reheat cooked foods to proper

Factors Which Contribute to Foodborne Disease
Outbreaks (cont.)
  • Cross contamination
  • Failure to clean and disinfect kitchen or
    processing equipment

Estimates of Foodborne Illness
  • 40 million to 81 million cases per year
  • 8,000 to 12,000 deaths per year

Foodborne outbreaks
Food Poisoning
  • 88 - Bacteria
  • 4 - Chemical
  • 5 - Viruses
  • (Doesnt grow in food but transferred by food)
    2-6 weeks from exposure time

Bacterial Growth
  • Bacteria require certain conditions in order to
    multiply rapidly. It is the rapid bacterial
    multiplication that often causes problems with
    regard to the safety of a food product. Under
    ideal conditions rapid growth can mean that an
    organism has a generation time of as little as 20

Bacterial Growth (contd.)
  • Example Assume that a food contains 1,000
    organisms per gram (not an uncommon finding if
    cooking is inadequate or if cross contamination
    has occurred). Assume ideal growth conditions.

Bacterial Growth (contd.)
  • Time /number of organisms/gm
  • 1 hr later 4,000
  • 2 hrs 16,000
  • 3 hrs. 64,000
  • 4 hrs. 256,000
  • 5 hrs. 1,024,000

Bacteria which cause foodborne illness
Thank You!
  • Allegany County Health Department
  • Environmental Health Division of the Allegany
    County Health Department www.alleganyenvironment
  • Center for Disease Control
  • Maryland Division of Food Control -
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