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Vocational Education Since 1900


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Title: Vocational Education Since 1900

Vocational Education Since 1900
The Need
  • The public was disenchanted with the school
    system in the early 1900s.
  • Schools were out-of-touch with the realities of
    the real world
  • There was a need for a different type of

Another Need
  • Farmers needed systematic help to fight their
    problems (such as the boll weevil)
  • The once a year Farmers Institute was not enough
  • The competing programs offered by state boards of
    agriculture, the General Education Board,
    universities and agricultural societies was
    merely a hodge podge of activity
  • Simply put, there was a need for something like
    the Extension Service.

First stirrings.extension
  • Farm Demonstration Work in the South to fight the
    boll weevil and the subsequent hiring of county
    agents by the General Education Board was the
    start of extension.

Early Efforts to Organize Support
  • Governor Douglas of Massachusetts appointed a
    commission to study schools in that state.
  • In 1906 the Douglas Commission recommended that
    vocational education be added to the school

Precursors to the Smith Acts
  • Burkett-Pollard Bill (NE) (1906)
  • sought federal aid for the teaching of
    agriculture in normal (teacher training) schools
  • Clay-Livingston Bill (GA) - 1907
  • sought federal aid to establish an agricultural
    high school in each congressional district in the
    United States

  • Nelson Amendment (1907)
  • Amendment to the Morrill Act of 1890
  • provided 5,000 for five years, 25,000 annually
    after five year to land-grant colleges for
    general support.
  • One special provision of the amendment opened
    the door to prepare teachers of agriculture . .

Nelson Amendment
  • money could be used for providing courses for
    the special preparation of instructors for
    teaching the elements of agriculture and the
    mechanical arts.
  • summer school sessions for teachers were utilized
    extensively (especially elementary teachers)
  • some 4 year teacher training in agriculture

  • Davis Bill (MN) (1907)
  • sought federal support for secondary school
    instruction in agriculture, home economics and
    the mechanical arts and branch experiment

  • McLaughlin Bill (1909)
  • sought federal support for extension work
  • Dolliver (IA)-Davis (MN) Bill (1910)
  • sought federal support for extension work and
    secondary vocational education (Dolliver
    submitted two bills one for extension, one for
    vocational education but they were combined by
    the Senate Ag Committee. Things looked good for
    the bill but Dolliver unexpectedly died)

  • Page Bill (1911, 1912, 1913)
  • sought federal support for extension work, branch
    experiment stations and secondary vocational
    education (this was basically the Dolliver bill)
  • The bill never passed for a variety of reasons
  • bills tried to accomplish too much, which divided
    the support
  • Some folks supported extension but not vocational
    education and vice versa
  • Page was not very skilled as a legislator

The Incompetent Senator!
  • Carroll S. Page (VT)

Senator Page
The Morrill Act has proven to be the beginning
for really carrying vocational education to the
masses of our people.
  • Smith-Lever Bill (1912)
  • goal was to establish the extension service
  • This competed with the Page Bill
  • The Great Compromise
  • The supporters of vocational education would
    support the Smith-Lever Bill. In return, a
    Commission on National Aid to Vocational
    Education would be created to study the need for
    federal funding for vocational education.

  • Smith-Lever Act (1914)
  • established the extension service

Commission on National Aid to Vocational Education
  • As part of the compromise, the Commission was
    stacked with supporters of Vocational Education
  • The Commission collected data and held hearings
  • The Commission reported there was a need for
    vocational education in the schools and that it
    should be federally funded.
  • It took some time for the bill they drafted to
    pass because of issues surrounding World War I.
    (Charles Prosser, a committee member wrote the
    legislation. Smith and Hughes didnt)

  • Smith-Hughes Act (1917)
  • provided federal funds to support vocational
    education in the public schools

The Smith Acts
Smith-Lever Provisions
  • there may be inaugurated in connection with the
    (land-grant) college or colleges...agricultural
    extension work which shall be carried on in
    cooperation with the United States Department of

Smith-Lever Provisions
  • ...in any State in which two or more such
    colleges have been or hereafter may be
    established, the appropriations hereinafter made
    to such State shall be administered by such
    college or colleges as the legislature of such
    State may direct

Smith-Lever Provisions
  • That cooperative agricultural extension work
    shall consist of the giving of instruction and
    practical demonstrations in agriculture and home
    economics to persons not attending or resident in
    said colleges in the several communities, and
    imparting to such persons information on said
    subjects through field demonstrations,
    publications, and otherwise

Smith-Lever Provisions
  • Each state was to receive ...10,000 of which
    shall be paid annually
  • Additional funds were to be disbursed to states
    on the basis of the rural population of each
    State bears to the total rural population of all
    the States
  • Note Legislators in the Midwest wanted the act
    to say farm population. The South had a much
    larger rural population than farm population.

Smith-Lever Provisions
  • A state could not receive the additional funds
    ...until an equal sum has been appropriated for
    that year by the legislature of such State, or
    provided by State, county, college, local
    authority, or individual contributions from
    within the State, for the maintenance of the
    cooperative agricultural extension work provided
    for in this Act.

Smith-Lever Provisions
  • That before the funds herein appropriated shall
    become available to any college for any fiscal
    year, plans for the work to be carried on under
    this Act shall be submitted by the proper
    officials of each college and approved by the
    Secretary of Agriculture

Smith-Lever Provisions
  • ...no portion of said moneys shall be applied,
    directly or indirectly, to the purchase,
    erection, preservation, or repair of any building
    or buildings, or the purchase or rental of land,
    or in college-course teaching, lectures in
    colleges, promoting agricultural trains, or any
    other purpose not specified in this Act

Smith-Hughes Provisions
  • The first paragraph of the Smith-Hughes Act
    contained four statements
  • 1. to provide for the promotion of vocational
  • The word promotion is misleading, a more
    correct word would be establishment.

Tidbit Since the person (Charles Prosser) who
wrote the bill was Director of the National
Society for the Promotion of Industrial
Education, the word promotion might allude to
this organization
Smith-Hughes Provisions
  • 2. to provide for cooperation with the States in
    the promotion of such education in agriculture
    and the trades and industries
  • This statement defined what made up vocational
    education. Why is home economics not mentioned?
    The word home economics appears 17 other times in
    the Act. It is believed by some that home
    economics was not included in the earlier drafts
    of the bills. Legend has it that Prossers wife
    made him include home economics. The fact that it
    is missing here gives credence to that legend.
  • Trades and industries covered a broad range of

Smith-Hughes Provisions
  • 3. to provide for cooperation with the States in
    the preparation of teachers of vocational
  • There was much concern over the supply of
    qualified teachers. Two different paths were
    taken in regards to vocational teacher training
  • Agriculture and Home Economics went with a 4 year
    college degree as a requirement. At that point in
    time, few public school teachers had four year
    degrees. This was designed to assure a quality,
    well-educated teacher and enhance the status of
    of the field.
  • Trade and Industries chose to pull teachers out
    of industry. The belief was the master craftsman
    made the best teacher.

Smith-Hughes Provisions
  • 4. and to appropriate money and regulate its
  • This wording as to the purpose of an act is a
    little strange. It should be self evident.

Smith-Hughes Funds
  • Provided money to pay salaries of
  • teachers, supervisors, and directors of
    agricultural subjects
  • Tidbit Director is an unusual word until one
    notes that agricultural schools had been
    established prior to Smith-Hughes in
    Massachusetts. The person in charge of these
    schools was a Director. Since Prosser had been
    associate superintendent for vocational education
    in Massachusetts, this wording isnt that strange
    at all.

Smith-Hughes Funds
  • Provided money to pay salaries of
  • teachers of trade, home economics and industrial
    subjects (but no more than 20 of the total money
    allocated for this purpose could be spent in the
    area of home economics)
  • Question Why could Smith-Hughes funds be used to
    pay salaries of supervisors and directors in
    agriculture but not in home economics or trades
    and industries?
  • Question 2 Why was home economics limited to

  • Tidbit Teachers who received their salaries from
    the Smith-Hughes Act were often called
    Smith-Hughes teachers to distinguish them from
    teachers in schools not receiving Smith-Hughes
    funding. Agriculture and home economics was
    taught in many other schools but not all schools
    received Smith-Hughes monies because of limited

Smith-Hughes Funds
  • Providing money for teacher training

Tidbit State supervisors of each vocational
subject were given authority over the teacher
trainers. Federal level supervisors checked the
qualifications and approved of the hiring of
teacher educators. Many universities became very
dependent upon federal funds to pay vocational
teacher educators. When this funding was
abolished it created shock waves in many states
and institutions of higher education.
Smith-Hughes Funds
  • The states did not have to use all the provisions
    of the act. For example, if there were no
    agriculture programs, it didnt have to ask for
    the agriculture money. However
  • Before a state could receive monies for salaries
    for any vocational teacher, it must first accept
    the teacher training monies. This indicates the
    federal government was serious about training

Smith-Hughes Funding
  • Specific amounts of money were allocated to each
    vocational discipline
  • Agricultural appropriations were based on each
    states rural population
  • Home economics appropriations were based on each
    states urban population
  • Trade and industrial appropriations were based on
    each states urban population
  • There was to be a 50-50 federal-state match on
    all salaries

Smith-Hughes Act - Agriculture
  • ...under public supervision or control...
  • ...controlling purpose...shall be to fit for
    useful employment
  • ...shall be of less than college grade
  • ...meet the needs of persons over fourteen years
    of age who have entered upon or who are preparing
    to enter upon the work of the farm or of the farm
  • Question Does the previous phrase also mean
    adult education?

Smith-Hughes - Agriculture
  • ...that such schools shall provide for directed
    or supervised practice in agriculture, either on
    a farm provided for by the school or other farm,
    for at least six months per year
  • This was interpreted to mean that each student
    (including adults) is to have a project (crops
    or livestock).
  • If the teacher is to supervise it, then the
    teacher will need to be employed during the
    summer. This is the basis for 12 month employment
    of agriculture teachers.

Smith-Hughes Funds
  • Provided money to create a Federal Board for
    Vocational Education for the administration of
    this act and for the purpose of making studies,
    investigations, and reports to aid in the
    organization and conduct of vocational education
  • Question Why did Congress create a special board
    to administer vocational education?
  • Answer They were afraid to turn vocational
    education over to the entrenched education
    bureaucrats who had been classically educated
    (remember what happened at UNC.)

Federal Board for Vocational Education
  • The Board Consisted of
  • Secretary of Agriculture
  • Secretary of Commerce
  • Secretary of Labor
  • Commissioner of Education
  • Three citizens appointed by the President
  • agriculture
  • manufacturing and commerce
  • labor

Federal Board
  • The Commissioner of Education may make such
    recommendations to the Board relative to the
    administration of this act as he may from time to
    time deem advisable.
  • It shall be the duty of the chairman of the
    board to carry out the rules, regulations, and
    decisions which the board may adopt.

Federal Board
  • The Federal Board hired a staff to handle the
    daily operations and do the real work.
  • Charles Prosser was hired as the Executive
  • Federal supervisors were hired in the areas of
  • Agriculture (N7)
  • Trades and Industries (N7)
  • Home Economics (N3)
  • Commercial Subjects (N3) (see next slide)
  • Research (3)

Federal Board
  • Tidbit One of the areas of investigation the
    Federal Board could pursue (as specifically
    mentioned in the act) was commercial education.
    Also, a division of commercial education was
    established with three federal supervisors, but
    no Smith-Hughes money was allocated to salaries
    of teachers of Commercial Education. A little
  • Today we would call Commercial Education
    Marketing Education and Business Education.

Original Federal Regions
North Atlantic
West Central
North Central
Ag and TI had regional offices.Two Ag
supervisors worked the South one was for Black
Federal Regions -1920
North Atlantic
North Central
In 1920 one region was eliminated and all the
regional people moved to Washington.
Federal Board
  • Because of the depression, the federal government
    was restructured in the 1930s.
  • In 1933 the administrative responsibilities and
    staff of the Federal Board were transferred to
    the Department of the Interior, Office of
  • The Federal Board continued to operate as an
    advisory board until 1946 when it was abolished.
    (Clarence Poe was a member)

Memorandum of Understanding
  • In 1918 a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) was
    established between federal officials responsible
    for vocational agriculture and for extension.
  • This MOU was revised from time to time.
  • A brief description of each program was provided,
    then specific duties of each were outlined.

Memorandum of Understanding
  • Unless the activity is specifically related to
    classes taught, the agriculture teacher is not to
    do extension activities. However, it is
    recognized there may be isolated instances where
    the agricultural teacher is called upon by
    farmers in the school district. This should
    represent a small and incidental part of the

Memorandum of Understanding
  • Teachers of vocational agriculture or
    representatives of vocational agricultural work
    should be invited to participate in all meetings
    conducted by the extension service for the
    formulation of county and State agricultural

Memorandum of Understanding
  • The extension service should not enroll
    vocational agriculture students in 4-H.
  • Services should not overlap.

America at War
The War Years (WWI)
Acres in crop production
The War Years (WWI)
Food Production Act -1917
  • Signed into law on August 10, 1917
  • This is the sleeper extension act

Food Production Act Provisions
  • Livestock Production (885,000)
  • Disease and pest control, enlargement of
    livestock production, conservation and
    utilization of meat

Food Production Act Provisions
  • Seed Production (2,500,000)
  • Procuring, storingand furnishing seeds

Food Production Act Provisions
  • Crop Production (441,000)
  • Prevention, control and eradication of insects
    and plant diseases

Food Production Act Provisions
  • Extension (4,348,400)
  • Increase food production and eliminate waste
    through educational and demonstration methods
    through county, district and urban agents and

Impact on Extension
  • By the end of October 1,600 emergency
    demonstration agents were hired
  • Act was to terminate at the end of the War

Increase in Extension Agents 1917 to 1918
Extension Staff 1918
Yearbook of Agriculture, 1918
  • Report of the Secretary of Agriculture
  • The emergency through which the Nation has
    passed only served to emphasize the supreme
    importance of the Cooperative Agricultural
    Extension Service. It has become increasingly
    clear that no more important piece of education
    extension machinery has ever been created. It
    has been amply demonstrated that the most
    effective means of getting information to the
    farmers and their families is through the direct
    touch of well-trained men and women.

Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1918
  • What had just happened to prompt this legislation?

The Roaring 20s (for whom?)
Good times soon followed
The Roaring 20s??
  • Agricultural Prices dropped 33 from 1919 to
  • Agricultural Prices dropped 54 from 1920 to

Plumbing in the 1920s
  • 1 out of 10 farm homes had water indoors
  • 1 out of 2 farm homes had sinks
  • 1 out of 64 farm homes had a water closet, the
    rest had outhouses
  • Most laundry was done outside

Identifying the Problem
  • Joint Commission of Agricultural Inquiry -1921
  • National Agricultural Conference -1922
  • Agricultural Conference of 1925
  • Nothing much was accomplished by any of the

The Farm Bloc
  • A group of 12 senators who organized themselves
    in 1921 to promote and support agricultural
    legislation ranks eventually grew to include 22
  • Non-partisan
  • Similar group, though less effective, was formed
    in the House

Capper-Volstead Act - 1922
  • Enabled the development of agricultural

Clark-McNary Act - 1924
  • Section 5 of the act provided for cooperative
    farm-forestry work

Purnell Act - 1925
  • Authorized funds for economic research in
    agricultural experiment stations (this has
    implications down the road for extension)

Capper-Ketchum Act - 1928
  • Providing additional funding for extension
  • Specified 80 of the funds were to be used for
    salaries of extension agents
  • Identified youth activities as being part of
  • Equal number of men and women to be appointed as
  • Money could support agriculture trains

Capper-Ketchum Act
  • Gladys Bull, a 4-H member who was attending the
    national 4-H camp, testified before Congress in
    support of the Capper-Ketchum bill.
  • Her testimony was powerful and showed the value
    of 4-H club work.

Subsequent Vocational Education Acts
  • George-Reed Act --1929-1934
  • George-Ellzey Act --1934 -1937
  • George-Deen Act -- 1936 (1938)
  • increased (14.5 million total)
  • also funded distributive education (1.2 million)
  • 1st to U.S. Territories
  • Distributive Education funded
  • George-Barden Act (1946)
  • increased (28.8 mil)
  • provided for veterans training

George-Reed Act - 1929
  • Provide additional financial support for
    vocational education
  • Money was equally divided between agriculture
    and home economics
  • Ag money based on farm population
  • Home economics money based on rural population
  • Funds were used to hire subject matter
    specialists in agriculture at the federal level

The Great Depression - 1930s
The Great Depression
  • Gross Farm Income in 1932 was 1/2 of that of
  • Net income per farm in 1932 was estimated by
    USDA at 230
  • Between 1920-1933 15,000 banks suspended
  • (The NC FFA lost 350 in a bank closure in 1931)
  • 4,000 banks alone closed in 1933

Era of Farm Legislation
  • Agricultural Adjustment Act - 1933
  • Farmers agreed to reduce acreage in surplus crops
    in return for benefit payments
  • Farm Credit Administration - 1933
  • Soil Conservation Act - 1935
  • Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act -
  • Rural Electrification Act - 1936

Electricity in the 1930s
George-Elzy Act (1934)
  • Provided additional funding for vocational
  • Money was evenly divided between
  • agriculture
  • home economics
  • trade and industrial education (amount determined
    by non-farm population)

Bankhead-Jones Act -1935
  • Title 1 - More money for basic agricultural
  • Title 2 - Further Development of Cooperative
  • 8 million the first year
  • 2 million each year until 12 million is

George-Deen Act (1936)
  • More for vocational education.
  • Recognized Distributive Education as a part of
    vocational education.
  • Federal funds could be used to support travel of
    vocational teachers.
  • President Roosevelt was reluctant to sign the
    bill because general education needed help also.

During the Depression
  • Extension affected the most
  • Agents typically held 1-3 educational meetings
    in each township to explain AAA rules and

Depression years
  • Extension
  • Assisted in making Federal Emergency Relief
    Administration feed and seed loans
  • Tried to convince farmers to reduce acreage (buy
    into the government programs)
  • Convinced farmers that electricity would not
    make the cows go dry

Depression Years
  • Lost employees (in 1938)
  • SCS - 159
  • Farm Security Administration - 154
  • AAA - 97

Ag Ed Enrollments
Homemaking Enrollments
Agricultural and Vocational Education
  • From the Depression to Sputnik

The 1940s
World War II
  • 4-H and FFA
  • Collected scrap metal, rubber, burlap, rags and
  • Sold war bonds
  • Grew victory gardens (Feed a Fighter was the
    1943 4-H theme)
  • Repaired and built farm machinery in the Ag
    Shop. Tractor and farm implement manufacturers
    were concentrating on war equipment.

Virginia FFA Activities
  • 4-Hers sold old phonograph records in order to
    buy ambulances for the war effort.

4-H Victory Pins
WW II Posters
FFA Chapters sold War Bonds
  • Many high school agricultural programs
    established food preservation centers
  • They still exist in Georgia and Louisiana
  • Primary emphasis was canning vegetables
  • Some had slaughtering facilities also
  • A number of schools in NC had these food
    preservation centers

  • Served as Victory Farm Volunteers
  • FFA considered buying a bomber but eventually
    decided not to
  • National FFA Convention limited attendance to
    official delegates and award winners because of
    war time travel restrictions

A metal won by a 4-H member
  • 4-H members across the nation gathered scrap
    metal to build ships to transport war supplies
    and food to Europe. If members in a state raised
    enough funds, they could name the ship (called
    liberty ships)
  • NC 4-H christens two liberty ships USS Tyrrell
    and the USS Cassius Hudson

(No Transcript)
4-H Scrap Drive
  • After the war vocational agriculture launched
    major educational programs for servicemen under
    the provisions of the GI Bill of Rights
  • Most agriculture teachers taught 3-4 night
    classes on farming to returning veterans to help
    them get back into farming and to learn shop
  • Teachers received extra pay and schools received
    substantial funds to buy equipment for classes.

GI Bill of Rights
  • The benefits of this act were later extended to
  • Korean conflict veterans
  • Viet Nam Vets
  • Agricultural teachers conducted night classes for
    these vets also

Bankhead-Flannigan Act - 1945
  • Increase funding for extension
  • No more than 2 could be spent in the USDA

George-Barden Act (1946)
  • Increased funding for vocational education
  • Indicated federal funds could be used to support
    travel associated with the Future Farmers of
    America and the New Farmers of America (this
    provides the legal basis for the position that
    FFA is an integral part of agricultural
  • Money could be used on vocational guidance

Agricultural Marketing Act (1946)
  • Authorized extension programs in marketing,
    transportation, and distribution of agricultural
    products (starting to move outside of the just
    farming and farm homemaker mentality for

Joint Committee Report on Extension Programs,
Policies, Goals (1948)
  • During the 1930s and 40s the extension service
    was called on to perform various duties for the
    national interest.
  • During the depression extension was charged with
    teaching people about the various government
    programs and encouraging farmers to participate.
  • In the 40s the mission changed to winning the

Joint Committee Report
  • Now that peace was at hand and there was no
    longer a depression, what should the extension
    service do?
  • Another factor was that many of the extension
    employees were new.
  • There was also some questions about the
    relationship of the extension service and farm
  • (in some states extension was working out of the
    Farm Bureau office. In some states each was
    viewed as competition )

Joint Committee Report
  • A joint committee appointed by the Secretary of
    Agriculture and the National Association of State
    Universities and Land Grant Colleges was
    appointed to study the mission of the extension
  • The 10 person panel examined the mission and
    goals of the extension service.
  • No public hearings were held but the committee
    consulted with government agency heads and
    leaders of farm organization.

Joint Committee Report
  • Their report is sometimes called the Kepner
    report because P. V. Kepner of the Federal
    Extension Service was assigned to assist the
    committee and compiled the final report.

Joint Committee Report
  • Some of the key points/impacts of the report
  • Agriculture, home economics and 4-H groups are
    the primary audience for extension. However, it
    was noted that urban audiences could not be
  • Continued emphasis on the importance of
    one-on-one contacts, meetings, and
  • Changed/improved relationships with farm
  • Established stronger tie between CES to academic
    base (specialists assigned to academic department
    instead of being housed in extension

Clarke-McNary Amendment (1949)
  • Authorized USDA to cooperate with land-grant
    colleges in aiding farmers through advice,
    education, demonstration, etc. in establishing,
    renewing, protecting and managing wood lots and
    in harvesting, utilizing, and marketing the
    products thereof.

Smith-Lever Act Amendment (1953)
  • Consolidated all the previous extension
  • Inserted the words and subjects relating
    thereto after agriculture and home economics
  • What are the implications of this?
  • Established a new funding formula based on
    rural/urban population

A Look Back
  • In 1892 the Supreme Court established the
    doctrine that "separate but equal" was a valid
    way to handle race relationships (Plessy vs.
  • The court case involving railroad cars in
    Louisiana. The races could be segregated as long
    as each race was treated equally.
  • This decision impacted the operation of schools
    and the extension service until the 1960s.

Brown vs. Board of Education - Topeka (1954)
  • This Supreme Court ruling overturned Plessy vs.
    Ferguson. "Separate but equal" was ruled
  • The case dealt with equal access to educational
  • Over the next few years, this would have
    implications for extension and vocational

Smith-Lever Amendment (1955)
  • Authorized work with disadvantaged farms and farm

Russians launch Sputnik (1957)
  • In 1957 the Russians launched Sputnik. This event
    sent shock waves through out America. Perhaps
    American education was falling behind.
  • We needed to put more emphasis on science,
    mathematics, foreign language and technology in
    order to catch up.

National Defense Education Act (1958)
  • This act was passed because of Sputnik
  • The Congress finds that an educational emergency
    exists and requires action by the federal
    government. Assistance will come from Washington
    to help develop as rapidly as possible those
    skills essential to the national defense.
  • A major purpose of the act was strengthen the
    teaching of mathematics, sciences and modern
    foreign languages

National Defense Education Act (1958)
  • Established a student loan program for college
  • The George-Barden Act of 1946 was amended
  • Area Vocational Schools were to be built to train
    technicians skilled in math and science
  • Many of these schools offered agricultural
  • 15 million dollars for the next five years was
    authorized for this purpose
  • Health Occupations Education was recognized as a
    part of vocational education

Link to a Summary of the NDEA Act
A Statement of Scope and Responsibility (A Guide
to Extension Programs in the Future) (1958)
  • The Russians had launched Sputnik.
  • There were farm surpluses and low prices
  • It had been 10 years since the last study of
  • A committee of ECOP (Extension Committee on
    Organization and Policy) was appointed to study
    the future of extension (ECOP is a committee
    within NASULGC).

A Statement of Scope and Responsibility
  • This group appointed nine task forces in the
    following areas
  • Production
  • Marketing
  • Resources
  • Management
  • Family
  • Youth
  • Leadership
  • Community
  • Public Affairs

A Statement of Scope and Responsibility
  • The task forces were composed of various leaders
    in extension. The report, commonly called the
    Scope Report, "represents the best thinking of
    leading Extension workers on how, where, what and
    with whom the Cooperative Extension Service will
    be working for many years to come."

The Scope Report
  • The primary outcome of the report was to broaden
    the scope of extension by emphasizing management,
    marketing and public policy. Each task force had
    specific suggestions about subject matter,
    clientele, methodology, training, and
    relationships. Several broad recommendations/obse
    rvations were found in the report.

Selected Scope Report Recommendations
  • There will be new programs which cannot be
    handled by traditional methods of staffing and
  • There will be programs for new "publics"
  • There will be programs that cross departmental or
    organizational lines
  • The extension staff of the future will have more
    specialized personnel at every level.
  • Regular training at the post-graduate level will
    be expected of virtually all Extension workers.

Selected Scope Report Recommendations
  • Training must go beyond technical subject matter
    for the expanded job of adult education that
    Extension must be prepared to do.
  • Training must be continuous.
  • Some "re-training" will be needed to give
    certain Extension workers new skills or knowledge
    to handle specific changes in their job.

Selected Scope Report Recommendations
  • One goal of every training program must be to
    get the individual Extension worker to re-examine
    and re-define frequently his own job the scope of
    his responsibilities, and relationship to
  • Sound program planning procedures will strengthen
    every aspect of Extension work.
  • Research has been, is, and will continue to be
    the basic resource on which all our programs draw.

Selected Scope Report Recommendations
  • The teaching methods used will need to be
    tailored to specific jobs to be done.
  • All teaching procedures must be continuously
    evaluated and improvements made in light of the
  • In its work with mass media, Extension will need
    to maintain a highly competitive level of
    professional performance.

Selected Scope Report Recommendations
  • With the growing complexity of problems with
    which it deals, Extension must provide adequate
    materials and support for local leaders.

The Scope Report
  • This report is often referred to by the
    old-timers in extension as a major report.
  • It clearly showed that extension was in an era of
  • High school agriculture would soon change also.

Panel of Consultants on Vocational Education
  • After John Kennedy became president, he
    requested that a special panel be convened to
    study vocational education. Vocational education
    was still operating under the provisions of the
    Smith-Hughes Act but America had changed

Panel of Consultants
  • The panel was composed of people from the
    education profession, labor, industry,
    agriculture as well as the lay public and
    representatives from the Departments of
    Agriculture and Labor.
  • The panel was appointed in 1961 and issued their
    report, "Education for a Changing World of Work"
    in 1962.
  • The panel recommended that vocational offerings
    be expanded, updated, and be made available to
    all people. (more later when we look at the
    Vocational Education Act of 1963)

End of an Era
  • The launching of the Sputnik by the Russians and
    the ensuing events of the 1960s heralded a new
    era in agricultural education and extension
  • The times, they are changing.
  • We are about ready to leave the sow, cow, plow
    and the stitching and stirring era.
  • We will see what happened in future lessons

The County Agent Will Change!
4-H work will change!
So will FFA and Ag. Ed.
Federal Legislation Impacting Vocational
Education 1950 - on
Post Sputnik Legislation
  • Legislation affecting Vo. Ed. After the 1950s was
    more complex and convoluted than earlier
  • We will discuss only the parts of the acts
    impacting Vo. Ed., even though the act may have
    numerous other components.

National Defense Education Act (1958)
  • This act was passed because of Sputnik
  • The Congress finds that an educational emergency
    exists and requires actionby the federal
    government. Assistance will come from Washington
    to help develop as rapidly as possible those
    skills essential to the national defense.
  • A major purpose of the act was strengthen the
    teaching of mathematics, sciences and modern
    foreign languages

National Defense Education Act (1958)
  • Established a student loan program for college
  • The George-Barden Act of 1946 was amended
  • Area Vocational Schools were to be built to train
    technicians skilled in math and science
  • 15 million dollars for the next five years was
    authorized for this purpose

Vocational Education Act of 1963
  • This was a MAJOR piece of federal legislation. It
    replaced the Smith-Hughes Act.
  • Categorical funding for specific vocational
    disciplines such as agricultural education was
  • Funding went to states on the basis of their
    population in certain age categories
  • States decided how to spend the money

Vocational Education Act of 1963
  • Expanded the scope of agricultural education to
    include all areas of agriculture, not just
  • No longer required supervised practice on a
    farm. The idea was to expand the scope of SAE,
    not do away with it, but that is what some states
  • Expanded the scope of home economics education to
    include all areas of home economics, not just

Vocational Education Act of 1963
  • Established work study programs for vocational
    students to provide financial support
  • States had to submit plans for what they planned
    to do
  • Eliminated federal supervision/control of
    vocational programs
  • Funding for vocational education was
    substantially increased

Educational Amendments (1968)
  • Amended the 1963 Vocational Education Act
  • Increased funding for vocational education
  • Funds could be used for high school programs,
    people who have left school, retraining, special
    needs students, construction of area vocational
    schools, vocational guidance, contracting
    vocational education with private institutions,
    ancillary services (research, teacher training)
    and administering the state plan.

Educational Amendments (1968)
  • Did not categorically fund specific vocational
    programs, with one exception
  • Specifically allocated money to Consumer and
    Homemaking Education
  • Of the general appropriations to each state
  • 25 had to be spent on disadvantaged populations
  • 25 had to be spent on out-of-schoolindividuals
    seeking employment
  • 10 had to be spent on handicappedindividuals

Educational Amendments (1968)
  • Authorized money for
  • Curriculum development (this is the only place
    agricultural education is mentioned in the act)
  • Residential vocational schools (schools with
  • Research (National Center for Vocational
    Education Research was established)
  • Leadership development (selected vocational
    leaders could get advanced degrees)

Educational Amendments (1976)
  • The Educational Amendments of 1976 have five
    Titles, Title II is concerned with vocational
  • Authorized more money for vocational education
  • Purpose of the act was to
  • extend, improve and maintain programs
  • overcome come sex discrimination/bias
  • develop new programs

Educational Amendments (1976)
  • Monies could be spent on vocational education
    programs, work study, energy education, area
    school facilities, support sex equity positions,
    placement services, Industrial Arts (now
    Technology Education), support services for
    females in non-traditional programs, day
    careservices, displaced homemakers, residential
    vocational centers.

Educational Amendments (1976)
  • There were special appropriations for the
  • Consumer and Homemaking received special funding
  • Every vocational program had to be evaluated
    every five years

Carl Perkins Act (1984)
  • This was the most significant rewrite of
    vocational education legislation since 1963.
  • Two broad themes
  • Accessibility to all persons
  • Improve the quality

Carl Perkins Act (1984)
  • Fifty-seven (57) percent of state funds were
    allocated to special populations - vocational
    education was to be accessible to everyone
  • handicapped (10)
  • disadvantaged (10)
  • adult retraining (12)
  • single parents homemakers (8 1/2)
  • sex bias stereotyping (3 1/2)
  • incarcerated (1)

Carl Perkins Act (1984)
  • Forty-three (43) percent of state funds were
    allocated for program improvement
  • funds were not to be used to maintain existing
  • Consumer and Homemaking received special funding
    but 1/3 had to be spent in economically depressed
  • There will be a full time sex equity coordinator
    and 60,000 is allocated to that

Perkins II (1990)
  • The Carl Perkins Act is rewritten
  • Special populations is still a major focus,
  • Money can be used to support existing programs
  • Academic and vocational education was to be
  • Articulation between secondary and post-secondary

School-to-Work Opportunities Act (1994)
  • A variety of programs were established for
    students to get them more involved with the world
    of work and post-secondary education
  • Grants were given to some states to develop
  • This is for all students
  • Funding is temporary

Perkins III (1998)
  • This is the legislation vocational education is
    currently operating under
  • The purpose of this Act is to develop more fully
    the academic, vocational, and technical skills of
    secondary students and post-secondary students
    who elect to enroll in vocational and technical
    education programs (little emphasis on special

Perkins III (1998)
  • At the local levels funds can be spent on
  • strengthening the academic, and vocational and
    technical skills of students
  • providing students with strong experience in and
    understanding of all aspects of an industry
  • developing, improving, or expanding the use of
    technology in vocational and technical education
  • providing professional development programs to
    teachers, counselors, and administrators

Perkins III (1998)
  • conducting evaluations of the vocational and
    technical education programs ...including how the
    needs of special populations are being met
  • initiating, improving, expanding, and modernizing
    quality vocational and technical education
  • linking secondary vocational and technical
    education and post-secondary vocational and
    technical education, including implementing
    tech-prep programs.

Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA P.L.
  • Reforms Federal employment, adult education, and
    vocational rehabilitation programs to create an
    integrated, "onestop" system of workforce
    investment and education activities for adults
    and youth. Entities that carry out post-secondary
    vocational and technical education activities
    assisted under the Perkins Vocational and
    Technical Education Act are mandatory partners in
    this onestop delivery system.
  • Title I of WIA authorizes workforce investment
    programs and activities that are administered by
    the Employment and Training Administration of the
    U.S. Department of Labor. Learn more about the
    implementation of Title I of

  • Legislation for Vocational Education during the
    past 50 years has been influenced greatly by
    changing societal and environmental concerns.
  • Federal legislation has often mandated what we
    are to do.
  • The focus has shifted to helping certain groups
    of people.

Key Legislation
  • Vocational Education Act of 1963
  • Educational Amendments 1968 and 1976
  • Carl Perkins Act I (1984)
  • Carl Perkins Act II (1990)
  • School-to-Work, Opportunities Act (1994)
  • Carl Perkins Act III (1998)

The end..
Legislative Mandates for Extension
  • Natural-resource-based economic development

Legislative Mandates for Extension
  • Agricultural telecommunications
  • youth-at-risk
  • Renewable resources
  • Subsistence farming on Native American
  • Establish and operate centers of rural technology
  • Outreach and assistance for socially
    disadvantaged farmers
  • Rural health and safety education
  • Nutrition education and consumer education
  • 1890 extension work

Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act
  • Expanded EFNEP
  • Established five regional aquaculture centers
    for research and Extension activities
  • Repealed previous solar energy provisions

Legislative Mandates for Extension
Various minor amendments and laws have mandated
that Extension work in the following areas
  • Pesticide impact assessment
  • Groundwater quality
  • Financially stressed and/or dislocated farmers
  • Food safety
  • Nutrition and family education
  • Urban gardening
  • Pest management
  • Farm safety and rural health
  • Rural development

Food and Agriculture Act (1977)
  • A Major Farm Bill
  • Authorized 260 million for Extension
  • Authorized agricultural and forestry extension
    activities at 1890 institutions
  • 4 of Smith-Lever Funds must go to 1890
  • Extension leaders of 1862 and 1890 institutions
    are to develop a comprehensive state-wide plan
    for extension

Food and Agriculture Act (1977)
  • Added the use of solar energy with respect to
    agriculture and solar energy demonstration
  • Established a national food and human nutrition
    research and education program
  • Required the secretary of agriculture to evaluate
    the Extension Service by 1979

Food and Agriculture Act (1977)
  • Directed the secretary to assist the Agency for
    International Development (AID) with
    agricultural research and extension in
    developing countries
  • Established a National Agricultural Research and
    Extension Users Advisory Board

Renewable Resources Extension Act (1978)
  • Provided for educational programs concentrating
    on renewable resources, which includes fish and
    wildlife management, range management, timber
    management, and watershed management, as well as
    forest and range-based outdoor recreation,
    trees and forests in urban areas, and trees and
    shrubs in shelter belts.

Food Security Act (1985)
  • A major farm bill
  • Provided grants to upgrade 1890 institutions
    extension facilities
  • Made several technical amendments to fine tune
    past farm bills

Agriculture and Food Act (1981)
  • A Major Farm Bill
  • Authorized appropriations for Extension programs
    (including 1890 programs)
  • Provided for the employment and training of
    professionals and paraprofessional aides to
    engage in nutrition education of low-income

Agriculture and Food Act (1981)
  • Authorized aquaculture extension work
  • Authorized rural development programs and small
    farm extension programs
  • Authorized the secretary of agriculture to
    conduct an annual evaluation of agricultural
    research, extension and teaching programs.

Sea Grant Program (1966)
  • The National Sea Grant Collegeand Program Act
  • Established a program (under the Dept. of
    Commerce) to provide for applied research, formal
    education and extension for development of marine
    and Great Lake resources. About 2/3 of the states
    involved have incorporated these activities in
    the extension service.

FAIR Act (1996)
  • Our current farm bill is titled the Federal
    Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act.
  • Some people call it the Freedom to Farm Act.
  • Title VIII contains provisions for Research,
    Extension, and Education
  • However, because other sections of the bill were
    so controversial little attention was paid to
    this section of the bill. Most extension related
    items were merely extended. However, there were a
    few new twists.
  • It contains provisions for extension, but for the
    first time has language for secondary
    agricultural education.

FAIR Act (1996)
  • Authority for secondary and 2-year post secondary
    education in agriscience and agribusiness are
    added to the Secretary's food and agricultural
    education authorities
  • This was an attempt to transfer national
    leadership for secondary agricultural education
    to USDA from USDE
  • It partially succeeded, language is present in
    the bill authorizing it--but there is no money to
    do it, so nothing has happened

FAIR Act (1996)
  • Even though the national leadership for
    agricultural education did not move (one
    representative in the house effectively blocked
    the move) a 500,000 challenge grant program to
    improve secondary agricultural education has been
    established under authority of the USDA.
  • USDE provides national leadership for
    agricultural education but USDA is providing
    funds to improve the program

FAIR Act (1996)
  • A National Research, Education, and Economics
    Advisory Board is established. (This 30-member
    advisory board replaces three separate advisory

FAIR Act (1996)
  • There were provisions in the act related to
  • Native American extension programs
  • 1890 extension programs
  • Appropriations for the Extension Service
  • Other provisions of the Act contain language
    reducing price supports for many agricultural
  • The Fund for Rural America was created to enhance
    community development

Smith-Lever Amendment (1980)
  • Inserted references to rural energy in Section 2.

Smith-Lever Amendment (1985)
  • Added language that the Extension Service give
    instruction and practical demonstrations of
    existing or improved practices or technologies.
  • Authorized Extension to enter into agreements
    with private organizations and individuals. (in
    other words extension could accept money from the
    private sector)
  • Improve 1890s extension facilities

Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act
  • A major farm bill
  • Directed the Extension Service to catalogue the
    federal, state, and local laws and regulations
    that govern the handling of unused or unwanted
    agricultural chemicals and agricultural chemical
  • Educational materials regarding this were to be

Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act
  • Charged the Extension Service with teaching
  • Expanded natural resources educational programs
  • Established a water quality coordination program
  • Provided for the assistance for the control of
    weeds and pests

National Forest Dependent Rural Communities
Economic Diversification Act (1990)
  • Directed the Extension Service to provide
    training and educational programs in rural
    communities that are economically dependent upon
    forest resources in an attempt to diversify the
    economic base of the community.

Rural Development Act (1972)
  • Title V impacted Extension
  • Authorized rural developmentand small-farm
    extension programs
  • Administration of programs to be part of
  • Established State Rural Development Advisory

National Agricultural Research, Extension and
Teaching Act (1994)
  • Established extension education programs on
    Native American reservations
  • Provided technical assistance and training in
    subsistence agriculture to Native Americans and
    Alaskan natives
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