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An Introduction to the History of Career or Vocational Guidance

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Title: An Introduction to the History of Career or Vocational Guidance


1
An Introduction to the History of Career or
Vocational Guidance
By David Agnew Arkansas State University
2
Which is Correct?
Career Guidance or Vocational Guidance
Either, But it depends on who you are talking to
and when (Vocational is used less today)
3
Career Guidance
  • Career Guidance Developed in parallel to
    Counseling.
  • Vocational Guidance came first
  • Counseling grew out of Vocational Guidance
  • Counseling is more than or career vocational
    guidance.
  • People in Counseling tend to like the term
    Career Guidance more than Vocational
    Guidance.
  • The word vocational has even lost favor with the
    professionals in Vo Ed.
  • One of the divisions of ACTE is Guidance

4
Objectives
  • Describe the historical development of career
    education.
  • Identify the key people associated with career
    education.
  • Identify the guiding principles of career
    selection or guidance and how they have evolved.
  • State the purposes or goals of career education
    in Arkansas.

5
Thinking about Historical Events from the
Standpoint of
  • Their impact on labor demands and trends
  • Societys need for more and different workers
  • Development of new Technology
  • The Values of the society
  • Mobility
  • Education and the need to systematically approach
    career education

6
Career Education Before 1900s
  • Not much help was available for someone wanting
    to look at various careers.
  • Knowledge of what opportunities existed resulted
    from contact with family, friends, church,
    community, and school.
  • Very little literature on the subject.
  • No organized effort to help people except thru
    some schools after education was completed.
  • Our history was really more like of a cast
    society in 1800s. Ex. Slaves, the wealthy could
    afford school for their children to enter the
    professions.
  • Education was seen by Horace Mann as the great
    equalizer to mankind. It broke the old cycle.

7
Related and Significant Historical Events
  • Sabbath Schools for children to learn to read in
    the early 1800s who were being over worked by
    factories. Held on Sunday, sponsored by y
    churches, wealthy people, in some cases taxes,
    but mostly in larger cities Taught mostly 3 Rs
  • Population moving from rural to urban (agrarian
    to industrial society), resulting in more diverse
    work opportunities.
  • Worker unions became fairly common in the second
    half of 1800s
  • Electricity of the 1880s led to lighted factories
    and night schools.
  • 1872 National Labor Reform Party formed
  • 1878 Socialist Labor Party founded
  • Child labor laws begin to emerge mid to late 1800s

8
Labor day becomes a HolidayFirst Monday of
September
  • Research seems to support the contention that
    Matthew Maguire, later the secretary of Local 344
    of the International Association of Machinists in
    Paterson, N.J., proposed the holiday in 1882
    while serving as secretary of the Central Labor
    Union in New York
  • Samuel Gompers, -- founder and longtime president
    of the American Federation of Labor said. "All
    other holidays are in a more or less degree
    connected with conflicts and battles of man's
    prowess over man, of strife and discord for greed
    and power, of glories achieved by one nation over
    another. Labor Day...is devoted to no man, living
    or dead, to no sect, race, or nation."

9
More on Labor Day
  • The first Labor Day holiday was celebrated on
    Tuesday, September 5, 1882, in New York City.
  • In l884 the first Monday in September was
    selected as the holiday, as originally proposed,
    and the Central Labor Union urged similar
    organizations in other cities to follow the
    example of New York and celebrate a "workingmen's
    holiday" on that date.
  • In 1894, the federal government made Labor Day
    (the first Monday in September) a federal public
    holiday.
  • http//www.infinet.com/dzimmerm/Ld/links.html
  • http//sea-man.com/laborday.html
  • http//www.ptialaska.net/nstanley/LaborDay.htm

10
MORE Significant Historical Events
  • Immigration from Europe and other Countries
  • Elimination of poverty
  • Improving living conditions
  • Living conditions and depersonalization during
    industrial revolution
  • Concentration on children

11
Movement toward education for purpose and
assessment
  • 1890 James Cattell publishes article in which he
    referred to mental tests as measures of
    individual differences
  • John Dewey calls for social reform in education -
    lead to more focus on individual motivations,
    interests, and development

12
VOCATIONAL GUIDANCE MOVEMENT
  • 1907 Jesse Davis -- Started first Voc. Guid.
    Program in schools (Grand Rapids Michigan) - not
    very systematic.
  • 1907 Frank Parsons -- Credited with first system
    or theory of career guidance, consistent with
    social reform at time. Known as the founding
    father to Vocational Guidance.

13
Parsons Background
  • Born in 1854, died in 1908.
  • Trained in Civil Engineering at Cornell.
  • Later taught Mathmatics, history, and French in
    public schools.
  • Was on Faculty at Kansas State University in
    1897-1899.
  • Later on faculty at Boston University.

14
Frank Parsons-- founding fatherof Vocational
Guidance
  • In 1908 Parsons opened the Vocational Bureau of
    Boston with the purpose of helping people learn
    of careers.
  • Wrote book called Choosing a Vocation. First
    published in 1909. New York Agatha Press
    (reprinted 1967).

15
Parsons Motivation
  • Parsons believed that immigration constituted a
    drag on the advancement of society industrially.
    Parsons and others observed that too many
    individuals, especially European immigrants, were
    being economically and socially wasted due to
    the failure of the overly academic school system
    to come to terms with the new industrial society,
    which caused students to drop out into the world
    of work. This not only hurt the individual, but
    also made the factory inefficient.
  • From 1894 to 1904 parsons devoted much of his
    effort to reforming industries, in terms of
    occupational conditions. During this time period
    he did not focus on the individuals vocational
    needs.
  • He gained a positive view of vocational education
    when he was professor at Kansas State University
    (1897 and 99).
  • In 1905 Parsons turned from the reform of the
    industry to the reform of the individuals who
    worked within industry.

16
Parsons Motivation continued.
  • Parsons developed a scientific procedure for
    helping people choose a vocation by helping them
    become more aware of their needs, aptitudes, and
    the demands of certain occupations.
  • Following self study, with the help of a
    vocational counselor, people could make rational
    and free decisions about the work for which they
    were best suited and the education then needed.
  • Parsons argued that this approach would ensure
    efficiency for both factory and the individual
    and thus improve society.

17
Vocational Bureau of Boston
  • Formed in 1908, the Bureau was organized to deal
    with occupational adjustment problems of youth
    and adults.
  • Parsons found that people were greatly interested
    in seeking advice on occupations. In time
    individual counseling gave way to group
    instruction about career options.
  • Parsons was the first to use the term "Vocational
    Guidance" in his first report on the work of the
    Bureau.

18
National Conference on Guidance
  • 1910 first National Conference on Guidance
    sponsored by the Vocational Bureau of Boston, an
    outgrowth of Parsons work.
  • At the 3rd National Conference (1913) the
    National Association of Guidance was formed.

19
PARSONS Book
  • 1909 Frank Parsons publishes "Choosing a
    Vocation
  • Printed after he died in 1908
  • Reprinted in 1967 by Agatha Press
  • Still in use today
  • Example ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY
    CPY 644 Psychology of Careers
  • Required and Supplemental Readings,
    Fall 1996
  • Class 1, Historical Perspectives
    (8/26) Parsons, F. (1909).
  • Excerpts from Choosing a vocation.
    New York Agatha Press
  • (reprinted 1967).

20
In Parsons Book he Reveals 10 Principles
  • It is better to choose a vocation than merely to
    hunt a job
  • No one should choose a vocational without careful
    self-analysis, that is thorough, honest, and
    under guidance
  • The youth should have a large survey of the field
    of vocations and not simply drop into the
    convenient or accidental position
  • Expert advice (from persons having studied
    vocations) must be better and safer for a young
    person than the absence of it
  • Process the information on paper

21
Parsons Principles continued.
  • No person should decide for another what
    occupation he should choose In the choice of
    vocations, consider (1) understanding of self,
    (2) knowledge of the requirements of the work,
    and (3) true reasoning on the relations among
    these two
  • Counselor should be frank and honest
  • Special effort is made to develop analytic power
  • One who would be a vocational counselor should
    familiarize himself with a high degree of
    industrial knowledge

22
Three main points that have not changed much
since then.
  • Awareness of self and personal strengths and
    weaknesses
  • Awareness of the requirements of different kinds
    of jobs/occupations
  • Making informed choices / matches of self with a
    job.

23
Current Goals of Career Education in Arkansas
  • Provide students with an opportunity for
    self-analysis.
  • Provide students with experiences which allow
    tentative selection of a career.
  • Provide students with a general knowledge of
    careers.
  • Develop understanding of what is required to
    enter a career.
  • Develop a plan of how to achieve that goal.

24
Parsons Work is Sited
  • At the beginning of the century, Parsons
    emphasized the importance of helping young people
    transition from school to work. After more than
    eight decades, half of the nation's student
    population is still beset with circumstances that
    limit their prospects for a good life.
  • Original Source The William T. Grant Foundation
    Commission on Work, Family, and Citizenship,
    1988.
  • Secondary Source Career Guidance and
    Counseling Recent Legislation Office of Special
    Populations' Brief Volume 6, Number 3 (January,
    1995)

25
Choosing a Vocation Parsons, 1909, p. 4.
  • There is no part of life where the need for
    guidance is more empathic than in transition from
    school to work--the choice of a vocation,
    adequate preparation for it, and the attainment
    of efficiency and success. The building of a
    career is quite as difficult a problem as the
    building of a house, yet few ever sit down with
    pencil and paper, with expert information and
    counsel, to plan a working career and deal with
    the life problem scientifically, as they would
    deal with the problem of building a house, taking
    the advice of an architect to help them.
  • Secondary Source Career Guidance and
    Counseling Recent Legislation Office of Special
    Populations' Brief Volume 6, Number 3 (January,
    1995)

26
Charles Prosser and his Doctrine of Social
Efficiency
  • Click on the address below to see these theorems.
  • http//www.clt.astate.edu/dagnew/charles_prosser_T
    heorems.htm

27
Relevant Events of the Times
  • Smith Lever Act, 1914
  • WW I - military in need of placement specialists.
    Focus shifts toward assessment
  • Smith Hughes Act, Vocational Education Act of
    1917
  • Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 1918
  • Agricultural advancements (Mechanical, Chemical)
    released workers from the farms.
  • The Great Depression 1930s
  • 1938 Congress passes the Fair Labor Standards
    Act, which establishes the forty-hour work week,
    the minimum wage, and bans child labor in
    interstate commerce

28
Time Marched On!
  • EK Strong - tried to upgrade interest assessment
    to level of Binets IQ assessment
  • 1920s -- Minn. Mech. Abilities Project (later to
    become Minn. Employment Stabilization Research
    Institute)
  • 1927 -- Strong Vocational Interest Blank for Boys
  • 1939 -- First Dictionary of Occupational Titles
  • 1941 -- WWII, Gave us the GI Bill, and brought
    women in large numbers out of the home and into
    the factories.

29
CHANGES IN THE EMPHASIS IN COUNSELING AFTER THE
1950'S
  • It shifted away from an occupational choice to..
  • An analysis of why and how a person chooses a
    particular occupation.

30
Time Marched On!
  • More women in the work force
  • Veterans training programs
  • Fewer farmers needed
  • Level of skill needed to work in industry was
    increasing
  • More people were going to college
  • Some states began building technical schools

31
Related Historical Events
  • 1954 -- Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.
    The Supreme Court unanimously agrees that
    segregated schools are "inherently unequal" and
    must be abolished.
  • 1955 -- The Vietnam War begins
  • 1957 --Soviet Union launches Sputnik, a satellite
  • 1958 -- National Defense Education Act - provided
    assistance to state and local school systems for
    strengthening instruction in science,
    mathematics, foreign languages, and other
    critical subjects improvement of state
    statistical services guidance, counseling, and
    testing services and training institutes higher
    education student loans and fellowships
    experimentation and dissemination of information
    on more effective use of television motion
    picture, and related media for education
    purposes and vocational education for technical
    occupations, such as data processing, necessary
    to the national defense.

32
Career Related GamesMilton Bradley -- 1955
33
"WHAT SHALL I BE" GAME EXCITING GAME OF CAREERS
FOR GIRLS 1966 Selchow Righter co.
34
Time Marched On! continued.
  • 1963 -- Manpower Development and Training Act -
    provided training in new and improved skills for
    the unemployed and underemployed.
  • 1963 -- Vocational Education Acts of 1963 -
    increased federal support of vocational
    education, including support of residential
    vocational schools, vocational work study
    programs, and research, training, and
    demonstrations in vocational education.

35
Time Marched On! continued
  • 1963 -- Higher Education Facilities Act -
    authorized grants and loans for classrooms and
    laboratories in public community colleges and
    technical institutes as well as for
    undergraduate and graduate facilities in other
    institutions of higher education.
  • 1964 -- Economic Opportunity Act - authorized
    grants for college work-study programs for
    students of low income families established a
    Job Corps program and authorized support for work
    training programs to provide education and
    vocational training and work experience for
    unemployed youth provided training and work
    experience opportunities in welfare programs
    authorized support of education and training
    activities and community action programs
    including Head Start, Follow Through, Upward
    Bound authorized the establishment of the
    Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA).

36
Remember!
  • Career Education is a sub-category of Vocational
    Education (Career and Technical Education).
  • As Vocational Education grows so does Career
    Education, but it is only a small part of the
    total vocational program, Until

37
Sidney J. Marland (Commissioner of
Education-1971)
  • He proposed an emphasis on career education
  • In a 1971 address to the convention of the
    National Association of Secondary School
    Principals, he proposed that persons completing
    school programs at grade 12 would be ready to
    enter higher education or to enter useful and
    rewarding employment.

38
MARLINS Four-Fold Planfor Career Development,
Components 1 and 2
  • Major improvements and updating of occupational
    education emphasizing newer vocational fields and
    sound educational base underlying all specific
    skills training
  • More flexible options for high school graduates
    to continue on to higher education or to enter
    the world of work

39
MARLINS Plan, Continued Components 3 and 4
  • A closer liaison of vocational education and
    people from business, industry, and organized
    labor with more work experience opportunities for
    students
  • A new commitment at all levels -- federal, state,
    and local -- toward developing leadership and
    commitment to the concept of career education

40
Experimental models for career education
developed by the U.S. Office of Education
  • Four models
  • School Based Model
  • Employee-Experience-Based Model
  • Rural-Residential-Based Model
  • Home-Community-Based Model
  • 1971
  • 15 million

41
School Based Model
  • The object of Model 1 was to develop and test a
    career education system (K-12) in six school
    systems (representing varying sizes, geographic
    locations, and cultural ethnic populations) that
    would help students to develop (a) a
    comprehensive awareness of career options (b) a
    concept of self that is in keeping with a
    work-oriented society, including positive
    attitudes about work, school, and society, and a
    sense of satisfaction resulting from successful
    experience in these areas (c) personal
    characteristics, such as self-respect,
    initiative, and resourcefulness (d) a realistic
    understanding of the relationships between the
    work of work and education to assist individuals
    in becoming contributing members of society and
    (e) the ability to enter employment in a selected
    occupational area and/or to go on for further
    education.

42
Employee-Experience-Based Model
  • The objectives of Model 2, the employer-based
    model (also called experience-based) (17), were
    (a) to provide an alternative educational program
    for students, aged 13-18, in an employer-based
    setting (b) to unify the positive elements of
    academic, general, and vocational curricula into
    a comprehensive career education program (c) to
    increase the relevance of education to the world
    of work and (d) to broaden the base of community
    participation, particularly by involving public
    and private employers more directly in education.

43
Rural-Residential-Based Model
  • This experimental demonstration activity involved
    various individuals, agencies, and other
    resources in preparing adults and children of
    rural unemployed and underemployed families in
    Wyoming, Montana, Idaho, North Dakota, South
    Dakota, and Nebraska for rewarding employment.
  • Goals (a) contribute to their own growth and to
    the growth of their society and (b) make prudent
    use of their personal as well as their society's
    resources and energies. The ultimate goal of the
    residential-based model was to determine whether
    low-income rural residents could develop career
    roles through specially adapted in-house
    experiences.

44
Home-Community-Based Model
  • The fourth model, a home-community effort, used
    television and radio programming to encourage
    unemployed or underemployed adults to take
    advantage of local retraining programs. Through
    the use of the home-based model, the U.S. Office
    of Education hoped to (a) enhance the quality of
    the home as a learning center, (b) develop
    educational delivery systems into the home and
    community, (c) provide new career education
    programs for adults, (d) establish a guidance and
    career placement system to assist individuals in
    occupational and related roles, and (e) develop
    more competent workers

45
Time Marched On! continued
  • 1973 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act -
    consolidated previous labor and public service
    programs authorized funds for employment
    counseling, supportive services, classroom
    training, training on the job, work experience,
    and public service employment incorporated
    essential principles of revenue sharing, giving
    state and local governments more control over use
    of funds and determination of programs.

46
Terrel Bell was First Commissioner of Education
After MarlandNote President Carter make this a
Cabinet level position
  • He continued the push for career education.
  • Section 406, Title IV, Public Law 93-380
    (Educational Amendments of 1974), made career
    education a law of the land, establishing a
    National Advisory Council on Career Education.

47
Three Main Provisions of Title IV, Section 406
of P.L. 93-380 (1974)
  • Every child should, by the time he has completed
    secondary school, be prepared for gainful or
    maximum employment and for full participation in
    our society according to his or her ability.

48
Provision 2
  • It is the obligation of each local educational
    agency to provide that preparation for all
    children (including handicapped children and all
    other children who are educationally
    disadvantaged) within the school district of such
    agency and

49
Provision 3
  • Each State and local educational agency should
    carry out a program of career education options
    which are designed to prepare each child for
    maximum employment and participation in our
    society according to his or her ability.

50
THE CAREER EDUCATION INCENTIVE ACT 95-207 (1977)
  • Purpose of the Act
  • to assist states and local educational agencies
    and institutions of postsecondary education,
    including collaborative arrangements with the
    appropriate agencies and organizations, in making
    education as preparation for work, and as a means
    of relating work values to other life roles and
    choices (such as family life), a major goal of
    all who teach and all who learn by increasing the
    emphasis they place on career awareness,
    exploration, decision making, and planning, and
    to do so in a manner which will promote equal
    opportunity in making career choices through the
    elimination of bias and stereotyping in such
    activities, including bias and stereotyping on
    account of race, sex, age, economic status, or
    handicap.

51
Career Opportunities Act
  • 1998 -- Federal Legislation
  • More on this later in semester

52
CHANGES IN THEORIES UNDERLYING VOCATIONAL
GUIDANCE SINCE THE TURN OF THE CENTURYas noted
by Calhoun and Finch
  • Once is not enough
  • The single occupational-choice-at-a-point-in time
    focus of the early practitioners of career
    guidance has given way to a broader, more
    comprehensive view of the individual and his or
    her development over the life span.

53
Age focus is out the window
  • The specific age focus of traditional career
    guidance is not valid. Instead of the notion
    that a permanent occupational choice is made at
    some point, usually during late adolescence, we
    now understand that occupational choice is a
    process which takes place over a period of time
    and is a result of a combination of
    interacting determinants.

54
Work to understand who you are
  • People at work are no longer seen only as objects
    through which occupations are analyzed and
    classified. Rather we now understand that a work
    setting can be used as a medium to help people
    better understand themselves.

55
Continuous Process, Cradle to Grave
  • Career guidance activities are important over the
    life span of the individual therefore,
    educational personnel at all level, kindergarten
    through adult, have a part to play. When viewed
    as a continuous process, career guidance is a
    program in the mainstream of education rather
    than an ancillary service.

56
Human Development
  • Career guidance is more than a simple process of
    matching people to jobs it is a complex process
    of human development and should be treated as a
    major educational goal.

57
Career Education in Arkansas
  • Since the mid 1970s (ASU involved from the start)
  • Workshops/Projects developing Objectives
    Curriculum
  • Workshops and projects to develop Materials to
    support the teacher (posters, materials for
    hands-on activities).
  • ACOTA Arkansas Career Orientation Teachers
    Association.
  • 1991 -- AR adopted a statewide text for the
    course (Your Career Adventure)
  • Threat to CO as a course 1996, but survived with
    great support.
  • 1998 -- AR dropped the text for the course

58
In Summary
  • Describe the historical development of career
    education.
  • Who were the key people associated with career
    education?
  • What are the guiding principles of career
    selection or guidance and how have they have
    evolved?
  • State the purposes of career education in
    Arkansas.

59
Review of Parsons Principles
  • It is better to choose a vocation than merely to
    _____ for a job
  • No one should choose a vocational without careful
    _____ -____, and with guidance
  • The youth should have a large survey of the field
    of vocations and not simply drop into the
    __________ or accidental position
  • Expert advice (from persons having studied
    vocations) must be better and _____ for a young
    person than the absence of it
  • Process the information on ______.

60
Review of Parsons Principles Cont..
  • No person should decide for _____ what occupation
    he should choose
  • In the choice of vocations, consider (1)
    understanding of self, (2) knowledge of the
    requirements of the work, and (3) true reasoning
    on the ________ among these two
  • Counselor should be frank and __________.
  • Special effort is made to develop analytic power
  • One who would be a vocational counselor should
    ____________ himself with a high degree of
    industrial knowledge

61
Time Marches On...
Any Questions?
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