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The Reproductive Systems


The Reproductive Systems The system of organs involved in producing offspring – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Reproductive Systems

The Reproductive Systems
  • The system of organs involved in producing

Male Reproductive System
Functions of the Male Reproductive System
  • Production and storage of sperm
  • Sperm the male reproductive cells
  • Transfer of sperm to females body during sexual
  • Production of testosterone
  • Initiates physical changes that signal maturity
  • Controls the production of sperm

  • Contain genetic information
  • Responsible for fertilizing the egg
  • Only one sperm out of 300 to 400 million
    fertilize the egg
  • Sperm swim at a rate of 1 to 4 mm per minute
  • How many millimeters would the sperm move in an
  • 60 to 240 mm

External Male Reproductive Organs
  • Testes (testicles)
  • Two small glands that produce sperm and make
  • Size of a robins egg
  • Produce several hundred million sperm each day
  • Scrotum
  • An external skin sac
  • House the testes
  • Small muscles in the scrotum move the testes
    closer or farther from the body help regulate
    temperature of sperm keep the temperature
    slightly below normal body temperature
  • Tight clothing can interfere with sperm production

External Male Reproductive Organs
  • Penis
  • A tube-shaped organ that extends from the trunk
    of the body just above the testes
  • Made of spongy tissue that contains many blood
  • Foreskin
  • A covering of thin loose skin over the tip of the
  • Circumcision removal of the foreskin
  • Urethra
  • The passageway though which both semen and urine
    leave the body

External Male Reproductive Organs
  • Penis
  • Stimulation causes increased blood flow which
    leads to erection
  • Ejaculation occurs when sperm and semen are
    released from the penis after sexual excitement
  • Nocturnal emissions ejaculations that occur
    when sperm is released during sleep
  • Normal functions releases the build up pressure
    as sperm begin to be produced at puberty
  • Fertilization the joining of a male sperm cell
    and a female egg cell
  • Can result if ejaculation occurs during

Internal Male Reproductive Organs
  • Epididymis
  • Located at outer surface of each testes
  • Tightly coiled tube where sperm mature and are
  • Vas Deferens
  • Connects epididymis to urethra
  • a long tube where sperm mix with fluids made by
    three accessory reproductive organs

Internal Male Reproductive Organs
  • Seminal Vesicle
  • Produce thick secretions that nourish the sperm
    and help sperm move easier
  • Prostate Gland
  • Encircles the urethra
  • Approximately the size of an almond
  • Secretes a thin, milky fluid that protects the
    sperm from acid in the female reproductive system
  • Cowpers Glands
  • Secretes a clear fluid that protects the sperm
    from acid in the male urethra

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The Path of Sperm
  • Made in the Testes
  • Move to the Epididymis to be stored and mature
  • Travel through the Vas Deferens where it mixes
    with semen
  • Semen is made in Seminal Vesicle, Prostate Gland,
    and Cowpers Gland
  • Through the Urethra
  • Exits the tip of the Penis

Care of the Male Reproductive System
  • Get regular checkups
  • Every 12-18 months
  • Bathe regularly
  • Wear protective equipment
  • Perform regular self-examinations
  • monthly
  • Practice abstinence

Problems of the Male Reproductive System
  • Inguinal Hernia
  • Separation of tissue that allows part of the
    intestine to push into the abdominal wall near
    the top of the scrotum
  • Caused by straining abdominal muscles or lifting
    heavy objects
  • Symptoms lump in the groin, pain in the groin,
    partial or complete blockage of the intestine
  • Surgery is usually needed to repair the opening

Problems of the Male Reproductive System
  • Sterility
  • The inability to reproduce
  • Results from
  • Too little sperm (less than 20 million per
    milliliter of seminal fluid)
  • Poor quality of sperm
  • Causes
  • Environmental hazards
  • Hormonal imbalance
  • Steroids
  • Disease
  • Drugs

Problems of the Male Reproductive System
  • Testicular Cancer
  • Occurs most often in males between the ages of
  • Factors that increase your risk
  • Undescended testicle, abnormal testicular
    development, family history of testicular cancer
  • Monthly self-exam
  • Seek health care if you notice any warning signs
  • Unusual lump, swelling, discomfort in a testicle
    or the scrotum

Problems of the Male Reproductive Organs
  • Problems of the Prostate
  • Enlarged prostate
  • Presses against the urethra and causes frequent
  • Prostate cancer
  • Screening is usually performed during regular
    medical checkups for men over 50

Female Reproductive System
Functions of the Female Reproductive System
  • Produces female sex hormones
  • Stores ova
  • Ova (eggs) female reproductive cells
  • Uterus nourishes and protects the fertilized ovum
    from conception until birth

Female Reproductive Organs
  • Ovaries
  • The female sex glands that store the ova and
    produce female sex hormones
  • Size of a robins egg
  • At birth contains all eggs (more than 400,000)
  • Ovum .135 mm (size of a very sharp pencil)
  • One ovum matures each month beginning at puberty
  • Ovulation
  • The process of releasing a mature ovum into the
    fallopian tube each month
  • Signaled by hormones

Female Reproductive Organs
  • Fallopian tubes
  • A pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that
    draw in the ovum
  • About 4 inches long and has a diameter of
    approximately two strands of hair.
  • Cilia (tiny hair-like structures) work along with
    muscular contractions to move the ovum through
    the tubes
  • This is where fertilization occurs!!!

Female Reproductive Organs
  • Uterus
  • A hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ inside a
    females body
  • Provides a place to support a developing human
  • Muscular cavity the size of a fist
  • Estrogen causes lining to thicken
  • Cervix where the uterus meets the vagina at its
    lower end

Female Reproductive Organs
  • Vagina
  • Birth Canal
  • Connects the outside of the body to the uterus
    and receives sperm during reproduction
  • Muscular elastic tube
  • Normally 3-5 inches long
  • Urethra above and separate from the Vagina
  • carries urine from the bladder to the outside of
    the body

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  • An ovum is released from an ovary
  • Ovum travels through the fallopian tube
  • Sperm cell unites with egg here
  • Fertilized egg zygote
  • Zygote leaves the fallopian tubes and attaches
    itself to the uterine wall
  • Developing fetus will stay in uterus until birth

Menstrual Cycle
  • Days 1-13
  • A new egg is maturing inside the ovary
  • Day 14
  • The mature egg is released into one of the
    fallopian tubes
  • Day 15-20
  • The egg travels through the fallopian tube to the
  • Days 21-28
  • After seven days, if the egg is not fertilized,
    menstruation begins

  • Every month the uterus prepares for possible
  • Endometrium tissue that lines the uterus
  • If no fertilization occurs endometrium breaks
    down in to blood, tissue, and fluids
  • Menstruation the shedding of the uterine lining
  • Lasts on average 5 to 7 days
  • Endocrine hormones control the cycle
  • Can be affected by poor nutrition, stress and

Care of the Female Reproductive System
  • Bathe regularly
  • Practice abstinence
  • Breast Self-Exam

Problems of the Female Reproductive System
  • Menstrual cramps
  • Sometimes occur at the beginning of a menstrual
  • Light exercise and applying a heat pad may reduce
  • Medication for pain relief may be used

Problems of the Female Reproductive System
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
  • A disorder caused by hormonal changes
  • Symptoms
  • Nervous tension, anxiety, irritability, bloating,
    weight gain, depression, mood swings, and fatigue
  • Regular physical activity and good nutrition may
    reduce severity of symptoms

Problems of the Female Reproductive System
  • Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)
  • Bacterial infection that affects the immune
    system and the liver can be fatal
  • To reduce risk use tampons with the lowest
    possible absorbency and change tampons often
  • Warning signs
  • Fever, vomiting, diarrhea, a sunburn-like rash
    red eyes, dizziness, and muscle aches

Problems Related to Infertility
  • Endometriosis
  • Painful, chronic disease
  • Occurs when tissue that lines the uterus migrates
    and grows in the ovaries, fallopian tubes, the
    uterus, or the lining of the pelvic cavity
  • Treatments
  • Medications, hormone therapy, and surgery

Problems Related to Infertility
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)
  • Infection of the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and
    surrounding areas of the pelvis
  • Caused by STDs
  • STDs
  • Most common causes of infertility

Other Female Reproductive Disorders
  • Vaginitis
  • Most common vaginal infection in women of
    childbearing age
  • Symptoms
  • Discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning
  • Blocked fallopian tubes
  • Leading cause of infertility
  • Causes
  • PID, abdominal surgery, STDs, or endometriosis

Other Female Reproductive Disorder
  • Ovarian cysts
  • Fluid-filled sacs on the ovary
  • Small cysts usually disappear on their own
  • Large cysts may require surgery
  • Cysts may rupture and cause intense pain
  • Cervical, uterine, and ovarian cancers
  • STDs are common causes of these cancers
  • Early detection is key!
  • Breast Self-Exam
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