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Male and Female Reproductive Systems

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Male and Female Reproductive Systems Female Disorders/Conditions Ovarian Cysts May cause pelvic or abdominal pain or bleeding if rupture Most commonly benign but ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Male and Female Reproductive Systems


1
Male and Female Reproductive Systems
2
Did you know?
  • The reproductive system is the only system not
    designed for the survival of the individual, but
    the survival of the species
  • The female egg cell is the largest human cell
  • 500 million sperm are produced per day in a
    mature male
  • The ovaries of a newborn girl have about 600,000
    eggs
  • A female is capable of giving birth to about 35
    children in her lifetime

3
Male Reproductive systemMale External Organs
  • Scrotum penis
  • Male scrotum is outside the body to keep sperm
    just outside body. Sperm viable just below body
    temp.
  • When temperature is too low, scrotum retracts
    towards the body
  • When too hot, scrotum distends further away from
    the body
  • Both are covered by skin

4
Penis
  • Urethra-
  • Carries urine or semen
  • 2 Corpora Cavernosa
  • The erectile tissue with many small cavities fill
    with blood to form erection
  • Glans- head of penis
  • Corona- posterior border of glans

5
Male Reproductive System
6
Internally divided into many lobules Each lobule
contains a seminiferous tubule Spermatogenesis
takes place here Interstitial cells near septa
that separate lobules Secrete testosterone
Testes
7
Testosterone
  • The masculinizing hormone
  • Responsible for change in voice
  • Stimulates protein anabolism ? males usually
    more muscular /stronger
  • Changes size and shape of bones
  • Produces body and facial hair
  • Maintains development of male accessory organs

8
Spermatogenesis-10 Weeks to Development2N
diploid ? N haploid
9
Haploid package of genes Acrosome contains
enzymes to penetrate the egg Middle section
packed with mitochondria Flagella to swim
Sperm
With enzymes that help break through Zona
pellucida that surrounds egg.
flagellum
10
Sperm Facts
  • Average of 180 million released at a time, can be
    up to 400 million
  • Sperm count less than 60 million is considered
    clinically infertile
  • Die in fresh water
  • Die as they dry out
  • Sperm can live in a female for up to 7 days

11
Accessory Ducts Glands
  • Seminal Vesicle- produces about 60 of seminal
    fluid.
  • Proteins, enzymes, mucous, vitamin C, fructose
  • Prostate Gland- produces a slightly basic fluid
    (7.3 pH) to help neutralize acidity of vagina to
    preserve sperm. 10-30 of seminal fluid
  • Bulbourethral Gland (Cowpers Gland)- produces
    clear pre-ejaculate to lubricate urethra and
    neutralize urine residue
  • Ejaculatory Duct- Semen passes through during
    ejaculation

12
Male Fertility Testing
  • Sperm counts
  • Fructose levels
  • Motility
  • Structure

13
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14
Disorders of Male Reproductive
  • Testicular Cancer-
  • Most common cancer in males under 40
  • Male teens should learn testicular examinations
    to feel for tumor growth
  • Hernia-
  • Portion of intestines breaks through abdominal
    wall into scrotum
  • Prostate Cancer
  • Prostate grows with age, and can become cancerous
  • Rare under 40
  • Pain passing urine or slow passage
  • Highly treatable if detected early
  • STDs

15
Circumcision
16
Vasectomy
Post Vasectomy Sperm Counts to ensure successful
17
Female Reproductive SystemFemale External
Genitalia- Vulva
18
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20
Ovaries
  • Made of several thousand ovarian follicles
  • Each contains an ovum
  • Produce one mature ovum per month
  • Produce sex cells hormones
  • Estrogen Progesterone

21
Female Reproductive System
22
Ovum Development
  • Each ovum is in a follicle
  • Each follicle goes through a cycle of development
    each month releasing estrogen
  • When egg is released from mature follicle,
    ovulation occurs
  • Corpus Luteum- follicle without egg that produces
    progesterone, necessary to maintain pregnancy

23
Fallopian Tubes
  • Not connected to ovary
  • Eggs are discharged into abdomen and find their
    way to fallopian tubes
  • Lined with cilia to help move egg towards uterus

24
Uterus
  • About the size of a pear
  • Lies behind bladder
  • Late stages of pregnancy moves up and can push on
    diaphragm
  • Almost all muscle
  • Grows considerably to hold baby fluid
  • Cervix is lower narrow section

25
Functions of Uterus
  • Three functions
  • Menstruation
  • Low levels of hormones after 14 days after
    ovulation trigger shedding of endometrium
  • Repairs itself after in preparation for pregnancy
  • Pregnancy
  • Labor

26
Vagina
  • Made of smooth muscle
  • Lined with a mucous membrane
  • Organ that sperm enters
  • Organ baby exits

27
Breasts
  • Lies over pectoral muscles
  • Mostly fatty tissue
  • 15-20 radially arranged lobes containing several
    lobules
  • Lobules contain milk-secreting cells
  • Cells arranged in grape-like clusters called
    alveoli
  • Alveoli drain into lactiferous ducts that head
    towards nipple
  • Areolar colored region around nipple
  • Turns from pink to brown in early pregnancy

28
Menstrual Cycle
  • Typically 28 days
  • Three phases
  • Menstruation
  • Postmenstrual
  • Premenstrual
  • One ovum matures per month for 30-40 years
  • Consists of changes in
  • Breasts
  • Uterus
  • Ovaries
  • Vagina
  • Anterior Pituitary secretion of hormones

29
Ovulation
  • 1st day of period is 1st day of cycle
  • Ovulation occurs 14 days before next period
  • Cycle may vary in length of days
  • Ovum only lives short time after it is ejected

30
Hormones Involved
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)- stimulates
    ovarian follicle to start growing and secreting
    estrogen
  • Estrogen- Responsible for breast growth,
    thickening of endometrium
  • Leteinizing Hormone (LH)- triggered by elevated
    blood estrogen. Causes maturation of ovum
    follicle, ovulation, and formation of corpus
    luteum
  • Progesterone- secreted by corpus luteum and helps
    maintain pregnancy. If pregnant, placenta
    maintains level, if not, levels drop and
    menstruation occurs

31
Cycling of Hormones
32
Menstrual Cycle
33
How does The Pill work?
  • A 21 day combination of estrogen progesterone
  • Suppresses FSH prevents ovulation
  • Last 7 pills are placebo to maintain practice of
    pill taking
  • Antibiotics, anti-seizure, migrane medicine
    reduce effectiveness of pill
  • Does NOT protect against STDs

34
Female Disorders/Conditions
  • Endometriosis
  • Endometrial lining grows outside of the uterus
  • Very painful periods
  • Abnormal bleeding
  • Could cause infertility
  • Fibroids
  • Benign tumors
  • Pain, heaviness in abdomen
  • Menopause
  • Mechanisms of menstruation cease to function due
    to age
  • Ovarian Cysts
  • May cause pelvic or abdominal pain or bleeding if
    rupture
  • Most commonly benign but should be investigated
  • Result of follicles growing too large
  • Many go away on their own
  • HPV STDs

35
Ectopic Pregnancy
36
Tubal Ligation
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