Male and Female Reproductive Systems - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Male and Female Reproductive Systems

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Title: Male and Female Reproductive Systems


1
Male and Female Reproductive Systems
2
Male Reproductive System
  • It includes both internal and external organs
  • Two main functions
  • Production and storage of sperm
  • The male reproductive cells
  • And the transfer of sperm to the females body
    during sexual intercourse.

3
Male Reproductive System
  • Early teen years (12-15 years old), the male
    reproductive reaches maturity.
  • Testosterone
  • The male sex hormone
  • Produced in the pituitary gland

4
Testosterone
  • Initiates physical changes that signal maturity
  • Broadening of the shoulders
  • Development of muscles
  • Facial and body hair
  • Deepening of the voice
  • Controls the production of sperm

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6
External Male Reproductive Organs
  • Testes (singular, testis)
  • Scrotum
  • Penis

7
Testis
  • Divided into tiny tubules in which sperm are
    formed
  • Part of both the reproductive and endocrine
    system
  • Produce male sex hormones (testosterone)
  • Temperature regulation Ideal right below body
    temperature
  • Cremasteric muscle and reflex
  • When this muscle contracts, the spermatic cord is
    shortened and the testicle is moved closer up
    toward the body, which provides slightly more
    warmth to maintain optimal testicular
    temperature.
  • When cooling is required, the cremasteric muscle
    relaxes and the testicle is lowered away from the
    warm body and is able to cool.
  • Located in the scrotum

8
Scrotum
  • Skin and muscle containing the testicles
  • It is an extension of the abdomen
  • An external skin sac

9
Penis
  • Tube-shaped organ that extends from the trunk of
    the body just above the testes.
  • Composed of spongy tissue that contains many
    blood vessels.
  • When blood flow to the penis increases, it
    becomes enlarged and erect.
  • Also called an erection

10
Semen
  • Released by the penis
  • It is a thick fluid containing sperm and other
    secretions from the male reproductive system.

11
Internal Male Reproductive Organs
  • Vas deferens
  • Urethra
  • Seminal vesicles
  • Prostate gland
  • Cowpers gland

12
Vas Deferens
  • Tubes that extend from each epididymis to the
    urethra
  • During ejaculation smooth muscle walls contract
  • Propel sperm to urethra

13
Urethra
  • Passageway which both semen and urine leave the
    male body

14
Seminal Vesicle
  • Provides nourishing fluid for sperm
  • Fluid eventually creates semen
  • Fluid is high in proteins, enzymes, fructose,
    mucus, vitamin C
  • The high fructose concentrations provide nutrient
    energy for the spermatozoa

15
Prostate Gland
  • To store and secrete a clear, slightly alkaline
    fluid that constitutes 10-30 of the volume of
    the seminal fluid
  • Rest of the seminal fluid is produced by the two
    seminal vesicles
  • The alkalinity of seminal fluid helps neutralize
    the acidity of the vaginal tract, prolonging the
    lifespan of sperm.
  • Contain smooth muscles that help expel semen
    during ejaculation.
  • A healthy human prostate is slightly larger than
    a walnut
  • It surrounds the urethra just below the urinary
    bladder and can be felt during a rectal exam.

16
Cowpers Glands
  • Bulbourethral gland
  • During sexual arousal each gland produces a clear
    secretion known as pre-ejaculate.
  • Fluid helps to lubricate the urethra for
    spermatozoa to pass through
  • Helps flush out any residual urine or foreign
    matter

17
Epididymis
  • Where sperm mature and are stored
  • They lack the ability to swim forward (motility)
    and to fertilize an egg

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19
Female Reproductive System
  • Produces female sex hormones
  • Stores female reproductive cells
  • Ova (singular, ovum)

20
Ovaries
  • Female sex gland
  • Produce female sex hormones
  • Store ova (egg)
  • 400,000 at birth
  • 1 matures each month
  • Ovulation process of releasing a mature ovum
    into the fallopian tube each month
  • The right ovary will release a mature ovum one
    month, and the left ovary will release one the
    next month.

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23
Fallopian Tubes
  • A pair of tubes with fingerlike projections that
    draw in the ovum
  • Eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus via
    the fallopian tubes
  • Tiny hair-like structures called cilia line the
    tubes and move egg along
  • Ectopic pregnancy

24
Vagina
  • A muscular, elastic passageway that extends from
    the uterus to the outside of the body
  • Sperm from the male enter the female reproductive
    system through here.

25
Fertilization
  • If sperm are present in the fallopian tubes, a
    sperm cell may unite with an ovum.
  • Fertilization of an egg by a sperm is called a
    zygote.
  • When the zygote leaves the fallopian tube, it
    enters the uterus.
  • Attaches itself to the uterine wall and begins to
    grow.

26
Uterus
  • Hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ
  • Nourishes and protects the fertilized egg

27
Menstruation
  • Each month the uterus prepares for possible
    pregnancy
  • If pregnancy doesnt occur, the thickened lining
    of the uterus, called the endometrium, isnt
    needed, and it breaks down into blood, tissue,
    and fluids.
  • These materials pass through the cervix and into
    the vagina.

28
Cervix
  • Opening of the uterus
  • The lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it
    joins with the top end of the vagina
  • Its a cylindrical shape
  • During menstruation the cervix stretches open
    slightly to allow the endometrium to be shed
  • During childbirth, contractions of the uterus
    will dilate the cervix up to 10 cm in diameter to
    allow the fetus to pass through.

29
Endometrium
  • Tissue that lines the uterus
  • Menstrual cycle
  • Day 1-8 after seven days, if the egg is not
    fertilized, menstruation begins
  • Day 9-23 A new egg is maturing inside the ovary
  • Day 24 The mature egg is released into one of
    the fallopian tubes
  • Day 25-28 The egg travels through the fallopian
    tube to the uterus.

30
Vulva
  • The region of the external genital organs of the
    female, including the
  • labia majora
  • labia minora
  • clitoris
  • vaginal orifice

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