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HUMAN SYSTEMS

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HUMAN SYSTEMS CHAPTERS 35-40 SKELETAL SYSTEM Includes bones and their associated tissues -- cartilage, tendons and ligaments make up the skeletal system Bones are a ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HUMAN SYSTEMS


1
HUMAN SYSTEMS
  • CHAPTERS 35-40

2
SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • Includes bones and their associated tissues --
    cartilage, tendons and ligaments make up the
    skeletal system
  • Bones are a solid network of living cells and
    fibers supported by deposits of calcium salts
  • See picture of the skeleton pg. 922 of your
    Biology book

3
FUNCTIONS OF THE SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • 1. Support and shape the body -- without it the
    body would collapse
  • 2. Protect delicate organs ex. Cranium forms
    shell around the brain
  • 3. Bones are site of blood-cell formation and
    they store minerals
  • 4. Anchors muscles and helps in movement

4
SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • Many bones are formed from connective tissue
    called cartilage cartilage can support some
    weight, but it is extremely flexible
  • Ex. Bones of a newborn baby
  • Ossification - process of replacing cartilage
    with bone
  • In adults, cartilage is found in ears, tip of
    nose, etc.

5
SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • Joints - where two bones meet to allow the body
    to move
  • TYPES OF JOINTS
  • 1. Immovable fixed (cannot move)
  • Ex. Skull
  • 2. Slightly movable small amount of restricted
  • movement
  • Ex. 2 bones of the lower leg, vertebrae
  • 3. Freely movable permits movement in one
  • or more directions

6
Types of Freely Movable Joints
  • 1. Ball-and-Socket widest range of movement
  • Ex. Shoulder, hip
  • 2. Hinge back and forth movement
  • Ex. Elbow, knee, fingers
  • 3. Pivot one bone rotates around another
  • Ex. Lower arm (ulna and radius)
  • 4. Saddle one bone slides in 2 directions
  • Ex. thumb

7
SKELETAL SYSTEM
  • ASSOCIATED TISSUES
  • 1. Cartilage - serves as a cushion between
    bones supports weight
  • 2. Ligament - connects bone to bone
  • 3. Tendon - connects muscle to bone

8
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
  • Includes skin and all accessory organs - hair,
    nails and a variety of glands (sweat and oil)
    single largest organ in the body
  • FUNCTIONS
  • 1. Protection - most important function
    especially from ultraviolet radiation
  • 2. Regulate body temperature
  • 3. Remove wastes from the body
  • 4. Barrier against infection and injury

9
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
  • Skin is composed of two MAIN layers
  • 1. Epidermis - outermost cells of skin undergo
    rapid cell division (mitosis)
  • 2. Dermis - inner layer of skin contains blood
    vessels, nerve endings, glands, sense organs,
    smooth muscle and hair follicles
  • 3. Hypodermis - below the dermis (layer of fat
    and connective tissue) not a main layer

10
INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM
  • ACCESSORY ORGANS
  • 1. Hair - produced by cells at base of hair
    follicle used for protection and warmth
  • 2. Nails - grow from nail root located near tip
    of fingers and toes for protection
  • 3. Sweat/Oil Glands - sweat glands - regulate
    body temperature and remove wastes oil glands
    - keeps skin flexible and waterproof

11
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
  • The job of the muscular system is to move the
    skeletal system. It is composed of muscle tissue
    that is highly specialized and able to contract
    (shorten) when stimulated.

12
MUSCULAR SYSTEM
  • THREE TYPES OF MUSCLES
  • 1. Skeletal attached to bone at work every
    time we lift a finger, wink, chew and run
  • appear STRIATED (striped) Voluntary
  • 2. Smooth Involuntary not striated contract
    without us thinking about it found in Internal
    organs (stomach, blood vessels,
  • intestines)
  • 3. Cardiac only found in the heart striated
    Involuntary (dont think about it)

13
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • Made up of blood, the heart, blood vessels
  • The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that
    contracts at regular intervals it can be thought
    of as two pumps sitting side by side
  • The two pumps are separated by a SEPTUM
  • Each pump is divided into two chambers
  • The upper chambers are called ATRIA (receive
    blood)
  • The lower chambers are VENTRICLES (pump blood out)

14
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • The right side of the heart pumps blood from the
    body into the lungs where oxygen-poor
    (deoxygenated) blood gives up carbon dioxide and
    picks up oxygen
  • The left side of the heart pumps oxygen-rich
    (oxygenated) blood from the lungs to the rest of
    the body

15
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • BLOOD VESSELS
  • 1. Arteries - carry blood away from the heart
    to all tissues of the body the largest artery
    is the AORTA
  • 2. Capillaries - only one cell thick making
    diffusion of oxygen and nutrients easy
  • 3. Veins - collect blood and return it back to
    the heart

16
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD
  • 1. Transports nutrients, dissolved gases,
    enzymes, hormones and waste products
  • 2. Regulates body temperature, pH and
    electrolytes
  • 3. Protects body from invaders
  • 4. Restricts loss of fluid

17
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
  • COMPONENTS OF BLOOD
  • 1. Plasma liquid portion of blood that
    contains water, dissolved fats, salts, sugars and
    proteins
  • 2. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) transport
    oxygen
  • 3. White blood cells (leukocytes) protect body
    against invasion by foreign cells or substances
  • 4. Platelets responsible for the clotting of
    blood

18
Lymphatic System
  • Network of vessels, nodes and organs
  • Collects the fluid that is lost by the blood and
    returns it back to the circulatory system
  • The fluid is known as lymph

19
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  • Consists of the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea,
    bronchi and lungs
  • Function is to bring about the exchange of oxygen
    and carbon dioxide between the blood, the air and
    the tissues
  • FLOW OF AIR Air enters NOSE --gt pharynx OR
    enters MOUTH --gt pharynx after pharynx ---gt
    larynx (top of trachea) --gt trachea (windpipe)
    --gt to left or right bronchi ---gt bronchioles --gt
    alveoli

20
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  • BREATHING
  • Inhalation pulling of air into lungs
  • Exhalation pushing of air out of lungs
  • Diaphragm Located along the bottom of the rib
    cage it is the large flat muscle responsible for
    inhalation and exhalation

21
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  • The alveoli is where gas exchange occurs
  • When blood enters the lung it has a lot of carbon
    dioxide and a low oxygen content, but the alveoli
    are filled with fresh oxygen-rich inhaled air
  • Carbon dioxide diffuses out of the blood into the
    alveoli and oxygen diffuses into the blood from
    the alveoli

22
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  • Includes mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach,
    small intestine and large intestine several
    major glands add their secretions, including the
    salivary glands, the pancreas and the liver
  • Digestion is the breakdown of food into simpler
    molecules that can be absorbed and used by the
    cells of the body

23
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  • THE PROCESS OF DIGESTION
  • 1. Mouth - teeth break up food in a process
    called mechanical digestion also salivary glands
    secrete the first digestive enzymes (amylase and
    mucous)
  • 2. Pharynx - the top part of the throat no
    digestion takes place here
  • 3. Esophagus - the muscles of the esophagus
    begin to contract in waves, pushing food toward
    the stomach this is called peristalsis

24
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  • 4. Stomach - three secretions combine to form
    the gastric fluid
  • Mucous - keeps food lubricated and protects
    walls of the stomach
  • Hydrochloric acid - helps break down food
  • Pepsin - mixes with hydrochloric acid to begin
    digesting proteins
  • The food is churned for several hours becoming a
    pasty mixture known as chyme

25
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  • 5. Small Intestine - the chyme is flooded with
    enzymes from three sources
  • Duodenum (1st part of small intestine) - releases
    enzymes that continue digesting
  • Pancreas - releases pancreatic fluid that digests
    carbohydrates, proteins and fats
  • Liver - secretes bile, which is stored in the
    gallbladder, which breaks down fats further

26
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM
  • 5. Small Intestine - the now mostly digested
    food passes through the rest of the small
    intestine where nutrients are absorbed into the
    bloodstream when it leaves the s.i., the food is
    nutrient free
  • 6. Large Intestine (Colon) - main job is to
    remove water from undigested materials passing
    through it

27
Excretory System
  • Consists of kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder,
    urethra
  • Eliminates waste products from the body in ways
    that maintain homeostasis
  • Kidneys remove waste products from the blood,
    maintain blood pH and regulate the water content
    of the blood

28
Endocrine System
  • Consists of the glands that release their
    products (hormones) into the bloodstream
  • These products deliver messages throughout the
    body
  • Hormones chemicals released in one part of the
    body that affect the activities of cells in other
    parts of the body

29
Endocrine System
  • Types of Glands
  • 1. Pituitary secretes 9 hormones that regulate
    many body functions
  • 2. Hypothalamus controls secretions of the
    pituitary
  • 3. Thyroid regulates the bodys metabolism
  • 4. Parathyroid works with thyroid to maintain
    homeostasis of calcium levels in blood

30
Endocrine System
  • Types of Glands
  • 5. Adrenal releases hormones that help the
    body prepare for and deal with stress
  • 6. Pancreas helps maintain blood sugar levels
  • 7. Reproductive Glands ovaries in females
    testes in males

31
Nervous System
  • Controls and coordinates functions throughout the
    body and responds to internal and external
    stimuli
  • Neurons cells that transmit the signals
    (impulses)
  • 2 Divisions of the Nervous System
  • 1. Central Nervous System
  • 2. Peripheral Nervous System

32
Nervous System
  • 1. Central Nervous System
  • Consists of the brain and spinal cord
  • Relays messages, processes information and
    analyzes information
  • 2. Peripheral Nervous System
  • Consists of all the nerves and cells not part of
    the brain and spinal cord
  • Transmits impulses from sense organs to the
    central nervous system
  • Transmits impulses from the central nervous
    system to muscles or glands

33
Immune System
  • Fights infection through the production of cells
    that inactivate foreign substances or cells
  • White blood cells are an important part of the
    immune system they attack and fight off the
    infection

34
Reproductive System
  • Consists of testes, urethra and penis for males
  • Consists of ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus and
    vagina for females
  • Produces reproductive cells (sperm and egg)
  • In females, the uterus nurtures and protects the
    developing embryo
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