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Development over the lifespan

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chapter 3 Development over the lifespan Overview Conception to year one Cognitive development Learning to be good Gender development Adolescence Adulthood The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Development over the lifespan


1
Development over the lifespan
chapter 3
2
Overview
chapter 3
  • Conception to year one
  • Cognitive development
  • Learning to be good
  • Gender development
  • Adolescence
  • Adulthood
  • The wellsprings of resilience

3
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4
Agents that cross the placenta
chapter 3
  • German measles
  • X-rays and other radiation
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Alcohol and other drugs

5
Physical abilities
chapter 3
  • Newborn reflexes
  • Rooting
  • Sucking
  • Swallowing
  • Moro (startle)
  • Babinski
  • Grasping
  • Stepping

6
Perceptual abilities
chapter 3
  • Visual abilities
  • Quickly develops beyond initial range of eight
    inches
  • Can distinguish contrasts, shadows, and edges
  • Other senses
  • Hearing
  • Touch
  • Olfaction

7
Culture and maturation
chapter 3
  • Many aspects of development depend on customs
  • Babys ability to sleep alone
  • Recommendation to have babies sleep on their back
    has caused many babies to skip crawling.

8
Attachment
chapter 3
  • A deep emotional bond that an infant develops
    with its primary caretaker
  • Contact comfort
  • In primates, the innate pleasure derived from
    close physical contact
  • The basis of the infants first attachment
  • Tested using strange situation
  • A parent-infant separation and reunion
    procedure that is staged in a laboratory to test
    the security of a childs attachment

9
Types of attachment
chapter 3
  • Secure
  • A parent-infant relationship in which the baby is
    secure when the parent is present, distressed by
    separation, and delighted by reunion.
  • Insecure
  • A parent-infant relationship in which the baby
    clings to the parent, cries at separation, and
    reacts with anger or apathy to reunion.

10
What causes insecure attachment?
chapter 3
  • Abandonment and deprivation in the first two
    years of life
  • Parenting that is abusive, neglectful, or erratic
  • Childs genetically influenced temperament
  • Stressful circumstances in the family

11
Language development
chapter 3
  • Acquisition of speech begins in the first few
    months.
  • Infants are responsive to pitch, intensity, and
    sound.
  • By 4-6 months of age children can recognize their
    names and repetitive words.
  • By 6-12 months they become familiar with sentence
    structure, start babbling.

12
Language development
chapter 3
  • By 11 months, infants use symbolic gestures.
  • About 12 months, infants use words to label
    objects.
  • 18-24 months, toddlers combine 2-3 words into
    telegraphic speech.

13
Innate capacity for language
chapter 3
  • Language too complex to be learned bit by bit
  • Sentences have surface and deep structures.
  • Surface structure the way a sentence is spoken
  • Deep structure how a sentence is to be
    understood
  • To transform surface sentence structures into
    deep ones, children must apply rules of grammar.

14
Language acquisition device
chapter 3
  • If we dont teach syntax to toddlers, the brain
    must contain a language acquisition device.
  • An innate module that allows young children to
    develop language if they are exposed to an
    adequate sampling of conversation
  • Children are born with universal grammar, a
    sensitivity to the core features common to all
    languages.
  • Nouns and verbs, subjects and objects, negatives

15
Evidence supporting the LAD
chapter 3
  • Children. . .
  • in different cultures go through similar stages
    of linguistic development.
  • combine words in ways adults never would.
  • learn to speak or sign correctly without adult
    correction.
  • not exposed to adult language may invent a
    language of their own.
  • as young as 7 months can derive simple linguistic
    rules from a string of sounds.

16
Evidence for learning and language
chapter 3
  • Children learn the probability that any given
    word or syllable will follow another.
  • Parents respond to childrens errors by restating
    or elaborating the phrase. Children imitate
    these adult recasts and expansions.

17
Thinking
chapter 3
  • According to Piaget, cognitive development
    consists of mental adaptations to new
    observations.
  • Two adaptive processes
  • Assimilation absorbing new information into
    existing cognitive structures
  • Accommodation modifying existing cognitive
    structures in response to new information

18
Your turn
chapter 3
  • At what age will children recognize that the two
    clay balls on the right have the same amount of
    clay as the two balls on the left?
  • 1. Ages 0-2
  • 2. Ages 2-7
  • 3. Ages 7-12
  • 4. Ages 12 and over

19
Sensorimotor stage
chapter 3
  • Birth2 years
  • Major accomplishment is object permanence.
  • The understanding that an object continues to
    exist even when you cannot see or touch it

20
Preoperational stage
chapter 3
  • Ages 27
  • Focused on limitations of childrens thinking.
  • Children at this age could not reason.
  • Unable to perform operations
  • Egocentric
  • Cannot grasp concept of conservation

21
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22
Concrete operations
chapter 3
  • Ages 712
  • Childrens thinking is still grounded in concrete
    experiences and concepts, but they can now
    understand conservation, reversibility, and
    causation.

23
Formal operations stage
chapter 3
  • Ages 12adulthood
  • Teenagers are capable of abstract reasoning
  • Can compare and classify ideas
  • Can reason about situations not personally
    experienced
  • Can think about the future
  • Can search systematically for solutions

24
Current views of cognitive development
chapter 3
  • Cognitive abilities develop in continuous,
    overlapping waves.
  • Preschoolers are not as egocentric as Piaget
    thought.
  • Children understand more than Piaget thought.
  • Cognitive development is spurred by growing speed
    and efficiency of information processing.
  • Cognitive development depends on the childs
    education and culture.

25
Moral reasoningKohlbergs theory
chapter 3
  • Preconventional level
  • Punishment and obedience
  • Instrumental relativism
  • Conventional level
  • Good boynice girl
  • Society-maintaining
  • Postconventional level
  • Social contract
  • Universal ethical principles

26
Teaching moral behavior
chapter 3
  • Power assertion
  • Parent uses punishment and authority to correct
    misbehavior.
  • Users tend to be authoritarian.
  • Induction
  • Parent appeals to childs own resources,
    abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings
    for others in correcting misbehavior.
  • Users tend to be authoritative.

27
Gender identity and typing
chapter 3
  • Gender identity
  • The fundamental sense of being male or female,
    independent of whether the person conforms to
    social and cultural rules of gender
  • Gender typing
  • Process by which children learn the abilities,
    interests, personality traits, and behaviors
    associated with being masculine or feminine in
    their culture

28
Influences on gender development
chapter 3
  • Biological factors
  • Biological researchers believe that early play
    and toy preferences have a basis in prenatal
    hormones, genes, or brain organization.
  • Cognitive factors
  • Cognitive psychologists suggest that toy
    preferences are based on gender schemas or the
    mental network of knowledge, beliefs, metaphors,
    and expectations about what it means to be male
    or female.
  • Learning factors
  • Gender appropriate play may be reinforced by
    parents, teachers, and peers.

29
Physiology of adolescence
chapter 3
  • Adolescence
  • Period of life from puberty until adulthood
  • Puberty
  • The age at which a person becomes capable of
    sexual reproduction
  • Menarche
  • A girls first menstrual period

30
Timing of puberty
chapter 3
  • Onset of puberty depends on genetic and
    environmental factors.
  • E.g., body fat triggers the hormonal changes
  • Early vs. late onset
  • Early maturing boys have more positive views of
    their bodies and are more likely to smoke, binge
    drink, and break the law.
  • Early maturing girls are usually socially popular
    but also regarded by peer group as precocious and
    sexually active. They are more likely to fight
    with parents, drop out of school, and have a
    negative body image.

31
Turmoil and adjustment
chapter 3
  • Extreme turmoil and problems with adjustment are
    the exception rather than the rule.
  • Three kinds of problems are more likely
  • Conflict with parents
  • Mood swings and depression
  • Higher rates of rule-breaking and risky behavior

32
Eriksons eight stages
chapter 3
  • Trust vs. mistrust
  • Infancy (birth-age 1)
  • Autonomy vs. shame doubt
  • Toddler (ages 1-2)
  • Initiative vs. guilt
  • Preschool (ages 3-5)
  • Industry vs. inferiority
  • Elementary school (ages 6-12)
  • Identity vs. role confusion
  • Adolescence (ages 13-19)
  • Intimacy vs. isolation
  • Young adulthood (ages 20-40)
  • Generativity vs. stagnation

33
Your turn
chapter 3
  • At what age, according to Erikson, are people
    likely to wrestle with whether they are able to
    deal with the tasks facing them in life?
  • 1. Age 4
  • 2. Age 7
  • 3. Age 15
  • 4. Age 25

34
Your turn
chapter 3
  • At what age, according to Erikson, are people
    likely to wrestle with whether they are able to
    deal with the tasks facing them in life?
  • 1. Age 4
  • 2. Age 7
  • 3. Age 15
  • 4. Age 25

35
The transitions of life
chapter 3
  • Emerging adulthood (ages 18-25)
  • Phase of life distinct from adolescence and
    adulthood
  • In some ways an adult, in some ways not
  • The middle years (ages 35-65)
  • Perceived by many as the prime of life
  • Menopause the cessation of menstruation and the
    production of ova, usually a gradual process
    lasting several years

36
Are you an adult yet?
chapter 3
37
Old age
chapter 3
  • Some types of thinking change, others stay the
    same.
  • Fluid intelligence the capacity for deductive
    reasoning and the ability to use new information
    to solve problems relatively independent of
    education, declines in old age
  • Crystallized intelligence cognitive skills and
    specific knowledge of information acquired over a
    lifetime depends heavily on education, remains
    stable over lifetime.

38
Lifespan intellectual changes
chapter 3
  • Some intellectual abilities dwindle with age.
  • Numerical and verbal abilities relatively stable.

39
The wellsprings of resilience
chapter 3
  • Research psychologists have questioned the
    psychodynamic assumption that childhood traumas
    have emotional effects that inevitably continue
    into adulthood.
  • Considerable evidence disputes this claim.

40
Challenging our assumptions
chapter 3
  • Recovery from war
  • Only 20 of WWII war orphans had problems after
    being adopted and moving to the US. Most of
    these eventually established happy lives.
  • Recovery from abusive or alcoholic parents
  • Their children are at-risk for developing these
    problems, but most do not.
  • Recovery from sexual abuse
  • More emotional and behavioral symptoms, but most
    adjust and recover.
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