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Development Over the Lifespan (Chapter 14)


Development Over the Lifespan (Chapter 14) Lecture Outline: Parenting and temperament Adolescence and other transitions – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Development Over the Lifespan (Chapter 14)

Development Over the Lifespan (Chapter 14)
  • Lecture Outline
  • Parenting and temperament
  • Adolescence and other transitions

The Self
  • Self concept
  • What am I
  • Physical, active, social, psychological
    components are related to progression across ages
  • Self-esteem
  • Evaluative component
  • How valued am I?
  • People internalize the evaluative judgements made
    by others

How we see ourselves is related to how we think
others see us, but not always how they actually
see us.
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Parental Styles
  • Authoritarian Firm, punitive, unsympathetic,
    and negative
  • Children can learn to be sneaky and externally
    controlled with low self-esteem
  • Permissive Freedom, no rules or discipline
  • Children can learn to be impulsive, get in
  • Authoritative Firm but understanding
  • Children help make the rules, high self-esteem

  • Disposition, intensity, and duration of emotional
  • Easy Playful, adaptable, regular in sleep and
    eating cycles
  • Difficult Fusy, irregular, unadaptable to new
  • Slow-to-warm up Avoid/ shy with novelty
  • Temperamental assessment
  • Behavioral observations
  • Physiological reactivity

Goodness-of-fit person X environment interaction
Irritable Baby
Parenting Stable Unstable
Baby More Fussy Less Fussy
Parent Poor coping Good coping
Toddler Negative Happy
Fussy Calm
Physiology of adolescence
  • 1987, Dr. Marcia E. Herman-Giddens and colleagues
    described the results of physical examinations of
    17,077 American girls.
  • Caucasian girls were showing bodily signs of
    sexual maturity an average of one year earlier
    than previous studies had indicated, and
    Black-American girls two years earlier. On the
    average, breast development was notable before
    age 10 in white girls and before age 9 in black
    girls, and the growth of pubic hair generally
    occurred about a year later. But even at age 7,
    27 percent of black girls and nearly 7 percent of
    white girls had begun to grow breasts, pubic hair
    or both.
  • Boys go through puberty earlier, but menarche
    makes this easier to study in girls.
  • Why? Nutrition? Body fat content? Family
    stress? What is the impact on self concept? Do
    early maturers get in more trouble?

Growing Autonomy of Teenagers
  • Conflicts with parents
  • Negotiation and enforcement of rules
  • Manipulating parents, Individuation
  • Mood swings and depression
  • Shy, withdrawn, unattractive, rejection by peers
  • Risk-taking behavior
  • Drugs, alcohol, sexuality, gangs, weapons, law
  • Ethnic identity (Own) and acculturation (Dominant
  • Can be high a low in each, problems when you are
    low in both

Erik Erikson and Personality Development
  • Trust vs. mistrust Birth to 1 year
  • Autonomy vs. Shame and doubt (1-3)
  • Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)
  • Industry vs. Inferiority (6-12)
  • Identity vs. Role confusion (adolescence)
  • Intimacy vs. Isolation (early adulthood)
  • Generativity vs. Stagnation (middle adult)
  • Integrity vs. Despair (old age)

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Life transitions and social clock
  • Anticipated transitions Everyone does these at
    the same time
  • Examples go to school, drive a car, vote,
    serious relationship, children, retirement
  • Unanticipated transitions You do something early
  • Children (teen parenthood), retirement (forced
    early but outs), get a job (financial need)
  • Non-event transitions Something expected does
    not happen
  • Children (late birth-timing), Work (career
    advancement is slow), Solitude (not in serious
    relationship or marriage when you thought you
    would be)

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Cattells (1971) Two Subfactors of Intelligence
  • Fluid intelligence
  • Understanding abstract and new information
  • Deductive reasoning and analogies
  • Creative relationships
  • Crystallized Intelligence
  • Accumulation of knowledge
  • Vocabulary and general information
  • Knowing lots of stuff

Cognition in later years
  • Decrease in fluid and increase in crystallized
    intelligence, e.g., Lost in Boston
  • Overall changes in information processing, but no
    net deficits
  • Wisdom Insight into human development and life
  • Greater awareness of what you do
  • not know
  • Neural plasticity after strokes
  • Degeneration in Alzheimers