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Lifespan Development

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Chapter 2 Lifespan Development Prenatal Brain Development Fetal Alcohol Syndrome A series of physical and cognitive abnormalities in children due to their mother ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Lifespan Development


1
Chapter 2
  • Lifespan Development

2
Prenatal Development
  • Prenatal defined as before birth
  • Prenatal stage begins at conception and ends with
    the birth of the child.
  • Zygote
  • A newly fertilized egg
  • The first two weeks are a period of rapid cell
    division.
  • Attaches to the mothers uterine wall
  • At the end of 14 days becomes an embryo

3
Prenatal Development
4
Prenatal Development
  • Embryo
  • Developing human from about 14 days until the end
    of the eight week
  • Most of the major organs are formed during this
    time.
  • At the end of the eighth week the fetal period
    begins.
  • Fetal Period
  • The period between the beginning of the ninth
    week until birth

5
Prenatal Development
  • Placenta
  • A cushion of cells in the mother by which the
    fetus receives oxygen and nutrition
  • Acts as a filter to screen out substances that
    could harm the fetus

6
Prenatal Development
  • Play Teratogens and Their Effects on the
    Developing Brain and Mind (1244) Segment 12
    from The Mind Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd
    edition)

7
Prenatal Development
  • Teratogens
  • Substances that pass through the placentas
    screen and prevent the fetus from developing
    normally
  • Includes radiation, toxic chemicals, viruses,
    drugs, alcohol, nicotine, etc.

8
Prenatal Brain Development
  • Play The Effects of Hormones and the Environment
    on Brain Development (650) Module 2 from The
    Brain Teaching Modules (2nd edition)

9
Prenatal Brain Development
  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • A series of physical and cognitive abnormalities
    in children due to their mother drinking large
    amounts of alcohol during pregnancy
  • Symptoms include
  • Distinctive facial features, including small
    eyes, thin upper lip, a short, upturned nose and
    a smooth skin surface between the nose and upper
    lip
  • Heart defects
  • Deformities of joints, limbs and fingers
  • Slow physical growth before and after birth
  • Vision difficulties or hearing problems
  • Small head circumference and brain size Poor
    coordination
  • Sleep problems
  • Mental retardation and delayed development
  • Learning disorders
  • Abnormal behavior, such as a short attention
    span, hyperactivity, poor impulse control,
    extreme nervousness and anxiety

10
The Beginnings of Life The Newborn
  • Rooting Reflex
  • Infants tendency, when touched on the cheek, to
    move their face in the direction of the touch and
    open their mouth
  • Is an automatic, unlearned response
  • Child is looking for nourishment.
  • Temperament
  • A persons characteristic emotional reactivity
    and intensity
  • A child might be
  • An easy or difficult baby
  • Temperament shown in infancy appears to carry
    through a persons life.

11
The Beginnings of Life The Newborn
  • Rooting Reflex Video

12
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
  • Infant, Toddler, Child
  • Infant First year
  • Toddler From about 1 year to 3 years of age
  • Child Span between toddler and teen

13
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
The Developing Brain
  • Neural Development
  • Maturation
  • Biological growth processes that enable orderly
    changes in behavior

14
Physical Development in Infancy and Childhood
Motor Development
  • Includes all physical skills and muscular
    coordination

15
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
  • Cognition
  • All the mental activities associated with
    thinking, knowing, and remembering
  • Children think differently than adults do
  • Jean Piaget
  • Developmental psychologist who introduced a stage
    theory of cognitive development
  • Proposed a theory consisting of four stages of
    cognitive development

16
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
  • Schemas
  • Concepts or mental frameworks that people use to
    organize and interpret information
  • Sometimes called schemes
  • A persons picture of the world
  • Assimilation
  • Interpreting a new experience within the context
    of ones existing schemas
  • The new experience is similar to other previous
    experiences

17
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
  • Accommodation
  • Interpreting a new experience by adapting or
    changing ones existing schemas
  • The new experience is so novel the persons
    schemata must be changed to accommodate it

18
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
  • Sensorimotor Stage
  • Piagets first stage of cognitive development
  • From birth to about age two
  • Child gathers information about the world through
    senses and motor functions
  • Child learns object permanence
  • Object Permanence
  • The awareness that things continue to exist even
    when they cannot be sensed
  • Out of sight, out of mind

19
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
  • Object Permanence Video

20
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
  • Preoperational Stage
  • Piagets second stage of cognitive development
  • From about age 2 to age 6 or 7
  • Children can understand language but not logic
  • Egocentrism
  • The childs inability to take another persons
    point of view
  • Includes a childs inability to understand that
    symbols can represent other objects

21
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
  • Egocentrism Video

22
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
  • Concrete Operational Stage
  • Piagets third stage of cognitive development
  • From about age 7 to 11
  • Child learns to think logically and understands
    conservation
  • Conservation
  • An understanding that certain properties remain
    constant despite changes in their form
  • The properties can include mass, volume, and
    numbers.

23
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
24
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Piagets Cognitive Stages
  • Formal Operational Stage
  • Piagets fourth and last stage of cognitive
    development
  • Child can think logically and in the abstract
  • About age 12 on up
  • Can solve hypothetical problems (What if.
    problems)
  • Play Infant Cognitive Development (714)
    Segment 14 from The Mind Psychology Teaching
    Modules (2nd edition)

25
Cognitive Development in Infancy and Childhood
Assessing Piaget
  • Piaget underestimated the childs ability at
    various ages.
  • Piagets theory doesnt take into account culture
    and social differences.

26
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
  • Play Social Development in Infancy (644)
    Segment 15 from The Mind Psychology Teaching
    Modules (2nd edition)
  • Stranger Anxiety
  • The fear of strangers an infant displays around 8
    months of age

27
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Attachment
  • Attachment
  • An emotional tie with another person resulting in
    seeking closeness
  • Children develop strong attachments to their
    parents and caregivers.
  • Body contact, familiarity, and responsiveness all
    contribute to attachment.

28
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Attachment
  • Harry Harlow
  • Did research with infant monkeys on how body
    contact relates to attachment
  • The monkeys had to chose between a cloth mother
    or a wire mother that provided food.
  • The monkeys spent most of their time by the cloth
    mother.

29
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Attachment
  • Harry Harlow Video

30
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Attachment
  • Familiarity
  • Sense of contentment with that which is already
    known
  • Infants are familiar with their parents and
    caregivers.
  • Imprinting and Critical Period
  • A process by which certain animals, early in
    life, form attachments
  • The imprinted behavior develops within a critical
    period-- an optimal period when the organisms
    exposure to certain stimuli produce the imprinted
    behavior.

31
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Attachment
  • Konrad Lorenz studied imprinting
  • Goslings are imprinted to follow the first large
    moving object they see.

32
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Parenting Patterns
  • Responsiveness
  • Responsive parents are aware of what their
    children are doing.
  • Unresponsive parents ignore their
    childrenhelping only when they want to
  • Securely or Insecurely attached
  • Securely attached children will explore their
    environment when primary caregiver is present
  • Insecurely attached children will appear
    distressed and cry when caregiver leaves. W
    ill cling to them when they return

33
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Parenting Patterns
  • Effects of Attachment
  • Secure attachment predicts social competence.
  • Deprivation of attachment is linked to negative
    outcome.
  • A responsive environment helps most infants
    recover from attachment disruption.
  • Parental Patterns
  • Daumrinds three main parenting styles
  • Authoritarian parenting
  • Permissive parenting
  • Authoritative parenting

34
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Parenting Patterns
  • Authoritarian Parenting
  • Low in warmth
  • Discipline is strict and sometimes physical.
  • Communication high from parent to child and low
    from child to parent
  • Maturity expectations are high.
  • Permissive Parenting
  • High in warmth but rarely discipline
  • Communication is low from parent to child but
    high from child to parent.
  • Expectations of maturity are low.

35
Social Development in Infancy and Childhood
Parenting Patterns
  • Authoritative Parenting
  • High in warmth with moderate discipline
  • High in communication and negotiating
  • Parents set and explain rules.
  • Maturity expectations are moderate.

36
Adolescence
  • Adolescence
  • The period between childhood and adulthood
  • From puberty (the start of sexual maturation) to
    independence from parents
  • Puberty
  • The period of sexual maturation where the person
    becomes capable of reproducing
  • Starts at approximately age 11 in females and age
    13 in males
  • Major growth spurt

37
Cognitive Development in Adolescence Morality
  • Lawrence Kohlberg
  • Author of a three-stage theory on how moral
    reasoning develops
  • 1. Preconventional Moral Reasoning
  • Characterized by the desire to avoid punishment
    or gain reward
  • Typically children under the age of 9
  • 2. . Conventional Moral Reasoning
  • Primary concern is to fit in and play the role of
    a good citizen
  • People have a strong desire to follow the rules
    and laws.
  • Typical of most adults

38
Cognitive Development in Adolescence Morality
  • 3. . Postconventional Moral Reasoning
  • Characterized by references to universal ethical
    principles that represent the rights or
    obligations of all people
  • Most adults do not reach this level.

39
Social Development in Adolescence
  • Erik Erikson
  • Constructed an 8 stage theory of social
    development
  • Each stage has its own psychosocial,
    developmental task.

40
Social Development in Adolescence
41
Social Development in Adolescence Identity
  • Identity
  • A strong, consistent sense of who and what a
    person is
  • Identity search includes the following
    characteristics
  • Experimentation
  • Rebellion
  • Self- ishness
  • Optimism and energy

42
Social Development in Adolescence Independence
from Family
  • Continuity and Stages
  • How much of behavior is continuous and how much
    follows a more stage like development?
  • Stability and Change
  • Which developmental traits remain stable over
    time, and which change?
  • Nature and Nurture
  • How much of our behavior is due to nature and how
    much is due to nurture?
  • How do nature and nurture interact in
    development?

43
Early Adulthood Transitions and the Social Clock
  • Social clock
  • The culturally (societys) preferred timing of
    social events such as marriage, parenthood, and
    retirement
  • The best timing for certain life events
  • The timing varies from culture to culture.
  • Emerging Adulthood
  • Developmental period between adolescence and
    adulthood

44
Physical Changes and Transitions Middle and
Later Adulthood
  • Middle Adulthood
  • Menopause
  • The time of natural cessation of menstruation
  • Referred to as the biological changes a woman
    experiences as her ability to reproduce declines
  • Usually occurs between age 45 and 55
  • Does not usually lead to depression
  • Later Adulthood
  • Vision, Hearing, and Sense of Smell

45
Physical Changes and Transitions Diseases
Related to Aging
  • Alzheimers
  • A progressive and irreversible brain disorder
    characterized by gradual deterioration of memory,
    reasoning, language, and physical functioning
  • Senile Dementia
  • The mental disintegration that accompanies
    alcoholism, tumor, stroke, aging, or Alzheimer's
    disease

46
Cognitive Changes and Transitions Intelligence
  • Fluid Intelligence
  • Ones ability to reason speedily and abstractly
  • Can be used to solve novel logic problems
  • Declines as people get older
  • Crystallized Intelligence
  • Ones accumulated knowledge and verbal skills
  • Tends to increase with age

47
Overall Life Satisfaction
  • Most studies show the elderly as happy and
    satisfied with life.
  • People tend to mellow with age.
  • Most regrets focus on what the person didnt do
    rather than mistakes they have made in life.

48
Death and Dying
  • Reactions to Death
  • Reactions to death are different from culture to
    culture.
  • Attitudes toward death and dying are changing in
    the United States.
  • --more openness
  • --facing death with dignity hospice helps
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