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Chapter 1 Introduction to Lifespan Development

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Ontogenesis (individual development) extends across the lifespan & lifelong ... Timing of the life event influences future development ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 1 Introduction to Lifespan Development


1
Chapter 1 Introduction to Lifespan Development
  • Why study development over the lifespan?
  • Ontogenesis (individual development) extends
    across the lifespan lifelong adaptive process
    occur
  • What is development?

2
What is development?
  • Age alone does not explain it.
  • It is discontinuous as well as continuous.
  • Timing of the life event influences future
    development
  • Behaviors may change in form but result from the
    same process. Ex. Attention in infancyadult
    problem solving
  • Examine cause and effect relationships

3
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4
Why study lifespan?
  • An organized view of development
  • Cite interconnections between lifes early and
    late stages/events
  • Name mechanisms influencing development
  • Specify variables, biological, psychological,
    environmental that shape development

5
Characteristics of lifespan development
6
Characteristics of lifespan development
  • A lifelong process
  • Multidirectional both gain loss
  • Selectionchoosing food
  • Plasticityimproving memory by training

7
Define
  • Inter-individual differencesbetween individuals
  • Intra-individual differencespotential for change
    within an individual

8
Developmental periods
  • Prenatal
  • conception to birth
  • Infancy 0-2
  • Early childhood
  • 2-6
  • Middle childhood 7-11
  • Adolescence
  • 12-18
  • Early adulthood 19-34
  • Middle adulthood 35-64
  • Later adulthood
  • 65

9
Define
  • Reciprocal interactions similar to a
    transactional model the childs active role in
    change and personal development. Ex. The adult
    stimulates the child, the child changes, and as a
    result of changes in the child, the adult changes

10
Two Perspectives of Development
  • Biological
  • Environmental

11
Michael Rutter (2002)
  • Interaction of biological, psychological and
    social influences is more definitive than just
    genes
  • Challenge discover how genetic influences and
    brain functions are altered by experience

12
Bioecological perspective definitions
  • Reciprocal interactions similar to
    transactional model recognizes the childs
    active role in personal development
  • Bioecological model The belief that the
    interactions between an individual and the
    environment are explained by a system analysis.
    (Bronfenbrenner, 1978, 1979, et.al.)

13
More definitions
  • Proximal processes Bronfenbrenners term for
    the reciprocal interactions between a person and
    the environment. Context development. Ex.
    Feeding/playing with a child teacher
    interactions with a child. . . (level 1)

14
Bronfenbrenners 3 other structures
  • Microsystem deepest level, home or school are
    examples (level 2)
  • Mesosystem refers to the relationships between
    microsystems, i.e., family expectations influence
    school achievement (3rd level)

15
Bronfenbrenners level 4
  • Macrosystem the blueprint for any society, the
    master plan for human development in a society

16
Chronosystem
  • These systems are not isolated from one another
    and they interact over time. Discuss the impact
    of a father losing his job and having to move

17
More definitions
  • Microsystem the home or school
  • Mesosystem the relationship among microsystems
  • Exosystem an environment in which a person is
    not active but affects development. Ex. Behavior
    of other parents impacts the relationship of a
    child with his/her own parents

18
Biopsychosocial interactions
  • Development proceeds through the interaction of
    biological, environmental, and psychological
    forces, i.e., genetic, physical, behavioral,
    environmental across cross-cultural and
    sociocultural issues

19
Significance of culture in development
  • Superficial facts that make up an individuals
    history
  • Intermediate social development culturally
    cultural behaviors that are at the core of a
    childs life, language is a good example.
  • Significant level grasp the values, beliefs, and
    norms that structure a persons world

20
Issues in Lifespan Development
  • Continuity development proceeds steadily and
    sequentially
  • Vs.
  • Discontinuity abrupt changes and stages

21
Stability
  • Early experiences affect children for life
  • Vs. change is likely

22
Nature vs. Nuture issue
23
Developmental research HOW??
  • 4 time variable studies
  • one time, one group
  • longitudinal
  • cross-sectional
  • sequential studies (a combo)

24
3 data collection techniques
  • Descriptive studiesuse interviews or
    questionnaires
  • Manipulative experimentschange only one variable
  • Naturalistic experimentsresearcher is an
    observer and does not interact it is possible to
    discover cause and effect in real life

25
4 parts of a research article
  • Introduction/review of the literature
  • Method
  • Results
  • Discussion/conclusion/
  • recommendations for future studies

26
Chapter quiz
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