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Lifespan Development

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Title: Lifespan Development


1
  • Lifespan Development

2
Developmental Psychology
  • What shapes the way we change over time?
  • Focus on psychological changes across the entire
    life span
  • Every area of psychology can be looked at from
    this perspective
  • biological development
  • social development
  • cognitive/perceptual development
  • personality development

3
Fundamental Issues Nature vs. Nurture
  • What is role of heredity vs. environment in
    determining psychological makeup?
  • Is IQ inherited or determined early environment?
  • Is there a criminal gene?
  • Is sexual orientation a choice or genetically
    determined?
  • These are some of our greatest societal debates
  • Mistake to pose as either/or questions

4
Fundamental Issues Is Development Continuous?
  • Development means change change can be abrupt or
    gradual
  • Two views of human development
  • stage theories there are distinct phases to
    intellectual and personality development
  • continuity development is continuous

5
Fundamental Issues in Developmental Psychology
  • Critical period Are there periods when an
    individual is particularly sensitive to certain
    environmental experiences?
  • Are the first hours after birth critical for
    parent-child bonding?
  • Is first year critical for developing trust?
  • Easier to learn a language before age 10?

6
Overview of Genetics
  • Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
  • Chromosomes are long twisted strands of DNA
  • DNA is the chemical basis of heredity and
    carries instructions
  • Genes are the basic unit of heredity single
    unit of DNA on the chromosome

7
Dominant and Recessive
  • Genotypeunderlying genetic makeup
  • Phenotypetraits that are expressed
  • Dominant geneswill always be expressed if
    present
  • Recessive geneswill not be expressed unless they
    are in a pair

8
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9
Sex Linked Traits
  • Traits linked to the X or Y (sex) chromosomes
  • Usually recessive and carried on the X
    chromosome
  • Appear more frequently in one sex than another
  • Color blindness, baldness, hemophilia, Fragile X

10
Physical and Psychological Development Related
  • Physical development begins at conception
  • Physical maturity sets limits on psychological
    ability
  • visual system not fully functional at birth
  • language system not functional until much later
  • Prenatal environment can have lifetime influence
    on health and intellectual ability

11
Prenatal Development
  • Conceptionwhen a sperm penetrates the ovum
  • Zygotea fertilized egg
  • Germinal periodfirst two weeks after conception
  • Embryonic periodweeks three through eight after
    conception
  • Fetal periodtwo months after conception until
    birth

12
8 week embryo
13
Prenatal Influences on Development
  • Nutrition
  • Anxiety
  • Mothers general health
  • Maternal age
  • Teratogensany agent that causes a birth defect
    (e.g., drugs, radiation, viruses)

14
Drugs
  • Over the counter
  • Alcohol
  • Cocaine
  • Heroine
  • Nicotine
  • Aspirin
  • Excess vitamins

15
Infant Abilities
  • Infants are born with immature visual system
  • can detect movement and large objects
  • Other senses function well on day 1
  • will orient to sounds
  • turn away from unpleasant odors
  • prefer sweet to sour tastes
  • Born with a number of reflex behaviors

16
Infant Reflexes
  • Rootingturning the head and opening the mouth in
    the direction of a touch on the cheek
  • Suckingsucking rhythmically in response to oral
    stimulation
  • Graspingcurling the fingers around an object

17
Social and Personality Development
  • Temperament--inborn predisposition to
    consistently behave and react in a certain way
  • Attachment-- emotional bond between infant and
    caregiver

18
Temperament
  • Easyadaptable, positive mood, regular habits
  • Slow to warm uplow activity, somewhat slow to
    adapt, generally withdraw from new situations
  • Difficultintense emotions, irritable, cry
    frequently
  • Averageunable to classify (1/3 of all children)

19
Quality of Attachment
  • Parents who are consistently warm, responsive,
    and sensitive to the infants needs usually have
    infants who are securely attached
  • Parents who are neglectful, inconsistent, or
    insensitive to infants needs usually have
    infants who are insecurely attached

20
Ainsworths Strange Situation
  • Used to study quality of attachment in infants
  • Observe childs reaction when mother is present
    with the child in a strange room
  • Observe the childs reaction when mother leaves
  • Observes the childs reaction when mother returns

21
Language Development
  • Noam Chomsky asserts that every child is born
    with a biological predisposition to learn
    language universal grammar
  • Motherese or infant directed speech--style of
    speech used by adults (mostly parents) in all
    cultures to talk to babies and children

22
Language Development
  • Infant preference for human speech over other
    sounds
  • before 6 months can hear differences used in all
    languages
  • after 6 months begin to hear only differences
    used in native language
  • Cooingvowel sounds produced 24 months
  • Babblingconsonant/vowel sounds between 4 to 6
    months
  • Even deaf infants coo and babble

23
Language Development
24
Young Childrens Vocabulary
  • Comprehension vocabulary--words that the infant
    or child understands
  • Production vocabulary--words that the infant or
    child understands and can speak

25
Gender Role Development
  • Gendercultural, social, and psychological
    meanings associated with masculinity or
    femininity
  • Gender rolesvarious traits designated either
    masculine or feminine in a given culture
  • Gender identityA persons psychological sense of
    being male or female
  • Between ages 2-3 years, children can identify
    themselves and other children as boys or girls.
    The concept of gender or sex, is, however, based
    more on outward characteristics such as
    clothing.

26
Gender Differences
  • Toddler girls tend to play more with dolls and
    ask for help more than boys
  • Toddler boys tend to play more with trucks and
    wagons, and to play more actively
  • After age 3 years we see consistent gender
    differences in preferred toys and activities
  • Children are more rigid in sex-role stereotypes
    than adults

27
Social Learning Theory
  • Gender roles are acquired through the basic
    processes of learning, including reinforcement,
    punishment, and modeling

28
Gender Schema Theory
Gender-role development is influenced by the
formation of schemas, or mental representations,
of masculinity and femininity Children actively d
evelop mental categories of masculinity ad
femininity and categorize these into gender
categories or schemas Trucks are for boys and dol
ls are for girls is an example of a gender schema
29
Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development
  • Jean Piaget (18961980) Swiss psychologist who
    became leading theorist in 1930s
  • Piaget believed that children are active
    thinkers, constantly trying to construct more
    advanced understandings of the world
  • Cognitive development is a stage process

30
Qualitative Difference in Thinking
  • Assimilationprocess of taking in new knowledge
    or a new experience
  • Accommodationprocess by which we change our way
    of thinking because of new knowledge
  • These processes build on the knowledge of
    previous stages

31
Piagets Approach
  • Primary method was to ask children to solve
    problems and to question them about the reasoning
    behind their solutions
  • Discovered that children think in radically
    different ways than adults
  • Proposed that development occurs as a series of
    stages differing in how the world is understood

32
Sensorimotor Stage (birth 2)
  • Information is gained through the senses and
    motor actions
  • Child perceives and manipulates but does not
    reason
  • Symbols become internalized through language
    development
  • Object permanence is acquired

33
Object Permanence
  • The understanding that objects exist independent
    of ones actions or perceptions of them
  • Before 6 months infants act as if objects removed
    from sight cease to exist
  • Can be surprised by disappearance/reappearance of
    a face (peek-a-boo)

34
Preoperational Stage (27 years)
  • Emergence of symbolic thought
  • Centration
  • Egocentrism
  • Lack of the concept of conservation
  • Animism
  • Artificialism

35
Concrete Operational Stage (712 years)
  • Increasingly logical thought
  • Classification and categorization
  • Less egocentric
  • Ability to understand that physical quantities
    are equal even if appearance changes
    (conservation)
  • Inability to reason abstractly or hypothetically

36
Formal Operational Stage (age 12 adulthood)
  • Hypothetico-deductive reasoning
  • Emerges gradually
  • Continues to develop into adulthood

37
Critique of Piagets Theory
  • Underestimates childrens abilities
  • Overestimates age differences in thinking
  • Vagueness about the process of change
  • Underestimates the role of the social
    environment
  • Lack of evidence for qualitatively different
    stages

38
Information-Processing Perspective
  • Focuses on the mind as a system, analogous to a
    computer, for analyzing information from the
    environment
  • Developmental improvements reflect
  • increased capacity of working memory
  • faster speed of processing
  • new algorithms (methods)
  • more stored knowledge

39
Vygotskys Sociocultural Perspective
  • Emphasized the childs interaction with the
    social world (other people) as a cause of
    development
  • Vygotsky believed language to be the foundation
    for social interaction and thought
  • Piaget believed language was a byproduct of
    thought

40
Vygotskys Sociocultural Perspective
  • Vygotskychildren learn from interactions with
    other people
  • Piagetfocused on childrens interaction with the
    physical world

41
Adolescence
  • Transition stage between late childhood and early
    adulthood
  • Sexual maturity is attained at this time
  • Puberty--attainment of sexual maturity and
    ability to reproduce
  • Health, nutrition, genetics play a role in onset
    and progression of puberty

42
Social Relationships
  • Parent-child relationship is usually positive
  • May have some periods of friction
  • Peers become increasingly important
  • Peer influence may not be as bad as most people
    think. Adolescents tend to have friends of
    similar age, race, social class, and with same
    religious beliefs.

43
Eriksons Theory
  • Biological because of belief that there are
    innate drives to develop social relationships and
    that these promote survival (Darwinism)
  • Divided life span into eight psychosocial stages,
    each associated with a different drive and a
    problem or crisis to resolve
  • Outcome of each stage varies along a continuum
    from positive to negative

44
Identity Development
  • Identity vs. role confusion is the psychosocial
    stage during adolescence
  • Developing a sense of who one is and where one is
    going in life
  • Successful resolution leads to positive identity
  • Unsuccessful resolution leads to identity
    confusion or a negative identity

45
Stage 1 (birth1)Trust vs. Mistrust
  • Infants must rely on others for care
  • Consistent and dependable caregiving and meeting
    infant needs leads to a sense of trust
  • Infants who are not well cared for will develop
    mistrust

46
Stage 2 (13 years) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
  • Children are discovering their own independence
  • Those given the opportunity to experience
    independence will gain a sense of autonomy
  • Children that are overly restrained or punished
    harshly will develop shame and doubt

47
Stage 3 (35 years)Initiative vs. Guilt
  • Children are exposed to the wider social world
    and given greater responsibility
  • Sense of accomplishment leads to initiative,
    whereas feelings of guilt can emerge if the child
    is made to feel too anxious or irresponsible

48
Stage 4 (512 years) Industry vs. Inferiority
  • Stage of life surrounding mastery of knowledge
    and intellectual skills
  • Sense of competence and achievement leads to
    industry
  • Feeling incompetent and unproductive leads to
    inferiority

49
Stage 5 (adolescence)Identity vs. Confusion
  • Developing a sense of who one is and where one is
    going in life
  • Successful resolution leads to positive identity
  • Unsuccessful resolution leads to identity
    confusion or a negative identity

50
Stage 6 (young adulthood)Intimacy vs. Isolation
  • Time for sharing oneself with another person
  • Capacity to hold commitments with others leads to
    intimacy
  • Failure to establish commitments leads to
    feelings of isolation

51
Stage 7 (middle adulthood)Generativity vs.
Stagnation
  • Caring for others in family, friends, and work
    leads to sense of contribution to later
    generations
  • Stagnation comes from a sense of boredom and
    meaninglessness

52
Stage 8 (late adulthood to death)Integrity vs.
Despair
  • Successful resolutions of all previous crises
    leads to integrity and the ability to see broad
    truths and advise those in earlier stages
  • Despair arises from feelings of helplessness and
    the bitter sense that life has been incomplete

53
Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development
  • Assessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical
    moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind
    peoples answers
  • Proposed six stages, each taking into account a
    broader portion of the social world

54
Levels of Moral Reasoning
  • Preconventionalmoral reasoning is based on
    external rewards and punishments
  • Conventionallaws and rules are upheld simply
    because they are laws and rules
  • Postconventionalreasoning based on personal
    moral standards

55
Stage 1 Obedience and Punishment Orientation
  • A focus on direct consequences
  • Negative actions will result in punishments
  • Positive actions will result in rewards

56
Stage 2 Mutual Benefit
  • Reflects the understanding that different people
    have different self-interests, which sometimes
    come in conflict
  • Getting what one wants often requires giving
    something up in return

57
Stage 3 Interpersonal Expectations
  • An attempt to live up to the expectations of
    important others
  • Positive actions will improve relations with
    significant others
  • Negative actions will harm those relationships

58
Stage 4 Law-and-Order Morality
  • To maintain social order, people must resist
    personal pressures and follow the laws of the
    larger society

59
Stage 5 Legal Principles
  • A balance is struck between respect for laws and
    ethical principles that transcend specific laws
  • Laws that fail to promote general welfare or that
    violate ethical principles can be changed,
    reinterpreted, or abandoned

60
Stage 6 Universal Moral Principles
  • Self-chosen ethical principles
  • Profound respect for sanctity of human life
  • Moral principles take precedence over laws that
    might conflict with them, i.e., conscientious
    objectors

61
Adult Development
  • Genetics and lifestyle combine to determine
    course of physical changes
  • Social development involves marriage and
    transition to parenthood
  • Paths of adult social development are varied and
    include diversity of lifestyles

62
Late Adulthood
  • Old age as a time of poor health, inactivity, and
    decline is a myth
  • Activity theory of aginglife satisfaction is
    highest when people maintain level of activity
    they had in earlier years

63
Death and Dying
  • In general, anxiety about dying tends to decrease
    in late adulthood
  • Kubler-Ross stages of dying
  • Denial
  • Anger
  • Bargain
  • Depression
  • Acceptance
  • Not universally demonstrated

64
Baumrinds Parenting Styles
  • Authoritarianvalue obedience and use a high
    degree of power assertion
  • Authoritativeless concerned with obedience,
    greater use of induction
  • Permissivemost tolerant, least likely to use
    discipline
  • Neglectfulcompletely uninvolved
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