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Resistance and Protests

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Title: Resistance and Protests


1
Resistance and Protests
  • Apartheid is Challenged

2
On your Left Side
  • If you were a black non-citizen in South Africa,
    how would you resist and protest against
    apartheid? Explain.
  • Or would you not resist and just accept and
    endure? Explain.

3
African National Congress
4
Early resistance 1912-1948
  • 1912 African National Congress founded (original
    name South African Native National Congress)
  • Legal protests led by African elites

Delegation from the South African Native National
Congress that went to England in 1914 to convey
the objections of the African people to the 1913
Land Act
5
The ANC
  • They advocated open resistance in the form of
    strikes, acts of public disobedience, and protest
    marches
  • They adopted a Freedom Charter, which had a
    vision of non-racial democratic state

6
Role of Nelson Mandela
7
Mandela Quotes
  • On Freedom Our march to freedom is
    irreversible. We must not allow fear to stand in
    our way.
  • On Racial Discrimination I consider myself
    neither morally nor legally obliged to obey laws
    made by a parliament in which I am not
    represented.
  • On Reconciliation Reconciliation and
    nation-building would remain pious words if they
    were note premised on a concerted effort to
    remove the real roots of past conflict and
    injustice.

8
Mandela Quotes
  • On Human Rights The Universal Declaration of
    Human Rights served as the vindication of the
    justice of our cause.
  • On Fighting Poverty Overcoming poverty is not
    a gesture of charity. It is an act of justice.

9
Nelson Mandelactivism
  • Joined African National Congress in 1944
  • Formed Youth League with Oliver Tambo
  • Secretary of ANCYL in 1947
  • National Party won election of 1948
  • New ANC president approved by ANCYL
  • President of ANCYL in 1951
  • Banned from ANC in 1952
  • Prohibited from attending meetings or holding an
    office
  • Confined to Johannesburg area
  • ANC operated underground

10
The Treason Trial
  • 156 nationalists arrested December 5th, 1956
  • Included Mandela and Albert Luthuli, President of
    ANC
  • Leaders of Congress Alliance
  • Combination of five major anti-apartheid
    organizations
  • Charged with high treason
  • Punishable by death
  • Acquitted in March of 1961

11
Human Rights Nelson Mandela
  • Protest was outlawed. Anyone caught organising a
    demonstration, reading banned newspapers or
    speaking against the Apartheid system was in
    danger of being detained without trial, tortured,
    imprisoned, even sometimes murdered.
  • However, Mandelas group, the African National
    Congress committed itself to using non-violent
    means to protest against this system
  • That is, until the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960.

12
The Pan Africanist Congress
  • Formed by more radical members of ANC
  • Rivalry between ANC and PAC
  • 69 demonstrators killed at Sharpeville on March
    21, 1960
  • Both groups formed military wings in 1961
  • Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the Nation)
  • Mandela appointed first commander of MK
  • PACs Poqo and MK prepare sabotage

13
Travel and Arrest
  • Mandela left country in secret in 1962
  • Attended Conference of Pan-African Freedom
    Movement of East and Central Africa
  • Conference of African nationalist leaders in
    Addis Ababa
  • Provided with Ethiopian passport by Haile
    Selassie
  • Traveled to Algeria for military training
  • Guerilla warfare
  • Next to London to visit Tambo
  • Arrested upon return

14
MK Resistance Becomes Violent
15
Opposition to Apartheid
  • African National Congress
  • Founded in 1921 to fight for equal rights the
    ANCs most vocal leader Nelson Mandela
  • 1950s ANC launched program of nonviolent protest
    annoyed government arrested and imprisoned ANC
    leaders
  • 1960 nonviolent protest against apartheid ended
    with the Sharpeville Massacre police firing into
    crowd killed 70 people
  • Nonviolence Failed
  • ANC disbanded worldwide attention and
    condemnation of government
  • Mandela and other leaders grew convinced that
    violent protests were necessary
  • Mandela formed Umkhonto we Sizwe (Spear of the
    Nation) underground militant branch of ANC
  • Dedicated to sabotage

16
Nelson Mandela and the ANC protested peacefully
at first. However, in 1960 when police opened
fire on a peaceful protest in Sharpeville,
killing 69 black Africans and wounding 186,
Nelson Mandela realised that non-violent protests
would not end the system of apartheid.
What do you think?
Is it sometimes necessary to use violence to
achieve something good?
Most of the peaceful protestors had been shot in
the back.
17
Nelson Mandela on the New Militant Approach
  • As violence in this country was inevitable, it
    would be wrong and unrealistic for African
    leaders to continue preaching peace and
    nonviolence at a time when the government met our
    peaceful demands with force.

18
Resistance Underground
  • The ANC decided to take up armed resistance to
    the government
  • They still had peaceful protests, but also took
    on terrorist tactics, such as intimidation,
    bombing, murder and sabotage
  • The Prime Minister declared a state of emergency
    and forces could detain people without a trial.
  • Over 18,000 demonstrators were arrested,
    including many leaders of the ANC and PAC
  • Together with ANC leader Nelson Mandela, they
    were charged with treason in 1964 and sentenced
    to life imprisonment.

19
Spear of the Nation
  • A militant wing of the ANC
  • Its leaders included Nelson Mandela, Walter
    Sisulu, Govan Mbeki.
  • All were arrested for sabotage against the
    government, put on trial, given lifetime
    imprisonment

20
MK attacks
  • 1960s MK relatively quiet
  • Problems no internal support structure
  • Dramatic increase in actions in late 70s and
    80s
  • Reasons new regional bases, new internal support
    structures
  • Main repertoires from sabotage to bombings
  • 190 acts of sabotage between October 1961 and
    July 1963.
  • 1976-1982 150 attacks
  • 1980s- 100s of bombings
  • 1983- MK bombs air force headquarters.
  • 19 people killed and more than 200 injured.

21
MK Targets
  • "(e) Selection of targets to be tackled in
    initial phase of guerrilla operations with a view
    to causing maximum damage to the enemy as well as
    preventing quick deployment of reinforcements. In
    its study the Committee should bear in mind the
    following main targets
  • Strategic road, railways and other
    communications.
  • power stations
  • police stations, camps and military forces
  • irredeemable Government stooges."
  • (1969)

22
The Rivonia Trial
  • Charged for leaving country
  • Sentenced to five years in prison
  • MK HQ at Lilieslief raided on
  • July 11th, 1963
  • Arrested leaders charged with 221 counts of
    sabotage
  • Mandela delivered four hour statement
  • I am Prepared to Die
  • Sentenced to life imprisonment plus five years

23
On your Left Side What does Mandela mean by
this speech?
  • During my lifetime I have dedicated myself to
  • this struggle of the African people. I have
    fought
  • against white domination, and I have fought
  • against black domination. I have cherished the
  • ideal of a democratic and free society in which
    all
  • persons live together in harmony and with equal
  • opportunities. It is an ideal which I hope to
    live for
  • and to achieve. But if needs be, it is an ideal
    for which
  • I am prepared to die.

24
The ANC and Nelson Mandela were listed as
terrorists by the US government until 2008. In
many countries around the world, people fighting
for justice and equality are considered to be
terrorists.
What do you think this famous saying means?
One mans terrorist is another mans freedom
fighter.
25
On your Left Side What does Mandela mean?
I was made by the law, a criminal, not because
of what I had done, but because of what I stood
for, because of what I thought, because of my
conscious. Can it be any wonder to anybody that
such conditions make a man an outlaw of society?
Nelson Mandela
26
Nelson Mandela in Prison
  • Would you be willing to spend 27 years in jail
    for a cause?
  • Why or why not?

Nelson Mandela spent 27 years in solitary
confinement in this cell.
27
Protests
28
The shanty towns became centers for black groups
who resisted the white government. Thousands
resisted apartheid by refusing to work, refusing
to buy white products, going into white only
areas, and marching in nonviolent demonstrations.
29
Sharpeville Protest
30
The Protest of March 21,1960 Sharpeville
  • Black Protestors
  •  
  • Protested against pass laws
  •  
  • Wanted possession of passbooks unrequired
  •  
  • Passbooks are booklets that contain your ID 
  •  
  • Were discriminated by race
  •  
  • Treated like second class citizens

31
1960 Sharpeville
Massacre 
  • March 21 -- At least 180 black Africans were
    injured and 69 killed when South African police
    opened fire on approximately 300 demonstrators,
    who were protesting against apartheid pass laws,
    at the township of Sharpeville in the Transvaal.
  • The event came to be known as the Sharpeville
    Massacre. In response to Sharpeville, the
    government outlawed the African National Congress
    (ANC). 

32
1960 Sharpeville Massacre
  • In 1960, during a peaceful protest in the city of
    Sharpeville, 69 people were killed
  • This massacre ignited additional demonstrations
    and protests against the unfair treatment of
    non-whites

33
(No Transcript)
34
Sharpeville Uprising
35
Government
  • Declared state of emergency
  •  
  • Detained 18,000 people
  •  
  • Changed from passive resistance to armed
  •  
  • More security for enforcing racist laws
  •  
  • Sharpeville was a turning point in South Africa 

36
After the Sharpeville Massacre, the government
banned (exile) all black African political
organization, including the ANC and the PAC.
37
Reaction to the Sharpeville Massacre
  • Countries gave South Africa sympathy
  •  
  • UN condemned the government
  •  
  • Called for Resolution 134
  •  
  • Resolution is a plan to make both government and
    the citizens happy
  •  
  • Stated start of racial harmony throughout South
    Africa 

38
Conclusion
  •  The Sharpeville Massacre was the start of a new
    beginning for South Africa, although it came with
    the loss of many innocent people.
  • The bravery displayed by the blacks is
    outstanding.
  • The protests, the riots, the strikes all led up
    to the racial harmony throughout South Africa.
  • With the help of the UN, other countries, and
    brave government officials, the Sharpeville
    Massacre was the start of a new chapter in South
    Africa.   

39
Soweto Uprising
40
Cause of the Riot in Soweto in 1976
  • When black students went to high school, they had
    to learn a language.
  • Most students wanted to learn English because it
    was a general language that people spoke.
  • However, the government forced the students to
    learn Afrikaans, the language of Apartheid.
  • The blacks were angry, so they boycotted the
    classes and went to protest in Soweto.

41
Bantu Education
  • There is no place for the Bantu in the
    European community above the level of certain
    forms of labour ... What is the use of teaching
    the Bantu child mathematics when it cannot use it
    in practice? That is quite absurd. Education must
    train people in accordance with their
    opportunities in life, according to the sphere in
    which they live.
  • - Henrik Verwoerd, Minister of Education, 1958

"We shall reject the whole system of Bantu
Education whose aim is to reduce us, mentally and
physically, into 'hewers of wood and drawers of
water'."Soweto Students Representative Council,
1976
42
Apartheid in South Africa
  • Soweto Riots- 1976
  • Township near Johannesberg with over 1 million
    blacks
  • Centered around the teaching of Afrikaans
  • Started with class boycotts, led to largest riots
    in South African history

43
The riot in Soweto
  • The march in Soweto spread to other towns in
    South Africa. 
  • The march in Soweto was meant to be peaceful and
    nonviolent.
  • However, it wasn't taken as a march to make a
    point nonviolently. 
  • Many people were killed, including thirteen year
    old children. 

44
The Soweto Uprising
  • Young people had been forced to learn Afrikaans
    in school, the language of the Dutch settlers.
  • They were not allowed to speak or learn in their
    own language.
  • June 16, 1976, school-children protesting the
    right to be taught in their own language were
    shot by police. 69 school-kids died. The day is
    now commemorated in South Africa as Youth Day.
  • People around the world were outraged. But it was
    to be almost 20 years until the Apartheid system
    collapsed.
  • At the time, Nelson Mandela was serving his time
    in prison for what the government called
    terrorist activities.

45
1976 Soweto
  • When high-school students in Soweto
  • started protesting for better education
  • on June 16, 1976,police responded
  • with teargas and live bullets. In the
  • aftermath, the plan for schooling in
  • Afrikaans was dropped and the UN
  • banned sales of weapons to South
  • Africa in 1977.

46
Soweto Student Uprising
  • "It was a picture that got the worlds attention
    A frozen moment in time that showed 13-year-old
    Hector Peterson dying after being struck down by
    a policeman's bullet.  At his side was his
    17-year-old sister.  (source)

47
Student Uprising 1976
  • Black students were forced to learn in Afrikaans.
  • Protests against Afrikaans started.
  • More than 500 black students killed by white
    policemen.
  • More than a thousand men, women and children
    wounded.

48
1976 Soweto Riots
  • On June 16 Between 15,000 and 20,000 high-school
    students in Soweto marched in protest, calling
    for better education for blacks.
  • Police responded by releasing attack dogs and
    firing teargas and live bullets into the crowd.
  • Students threw rocks and started setting fires
    to symbols of apartheid, such as government
    buildings and beer halls.
  • Army helicopters and Anti-Urban Terrorism units
    arrived.
  • The battle between students and police continued
    into the night.
  • Some estimated the death toll at 200.
  • Many more were injured.
  • The rioting spread to other towns and the
    government closed the schools

49
Effects of Soweto
  • June 1976 Soweto uprisings ignited new wave of
    activism call to make South Africa
    ungovernable
  • International solidarity
  • Divestment and Sanctions
  • Free Mandela Campaign

50
Artwork re. Anti-Apartheid movements Race
Relations Ironic Ad
51
Protesting Apartheid
  • Meeting Violence with Violence
  • Mandela, other ANC leaders decided to meet
    violence with violence
  • Government banned ANC, jailed Mandela
  • 1976, major student protest movement in township
    of Soweto
  • Soweto Uprising
  • Soweto Uprising set off by decree for black
    schools to teach Afrikaanslanguage of white
    South Africans
  • Police killed protesting student peaceful march
    turned into revolt
  • Trade Sanctions
  • Police crushed uprising, but over 600 killed,
    4,000 wounded
  • ANC fought to end apartheid violence erupted in
    many black townships
  • International community imposed trade sanctions
    on South Africa

52
On your Left Side
  • If you were a black student in South Africa,
    would you have taken part in either of the
    protests?
  • Why or why not?
  • If you were alive and a high school or college
    student in America and saw the reports of the two
    protests on the news, what would you think and
    why?

53
Black Consciousness Movement
  • Steven Biko

54
Organizing From WithinBlack Consciousness
Movement
  • Emerges from black-only universities
  • Establishment of South African Students Union
    (SASO)
  • Influenced by black power in the U.S., black
    theology
  • Black African empowerment through internal
    strength
  • Self-reliant struggle black Africans must lead
    their own emancipation movement
  • Means community re-organization, self-reliance,
    student activism

The most potent weapon in the hands of the
oppressor is the mind of the oppressed.  -
Steve Biko, a leader of the Black Consciousness
Movement
55
His activities as a leader
Bikos leadership abilities were perceptible from
his involvement with different black activist
groups
  • the Students Representative Council
  • National Union of South African
  • Students
  • University Christian Movement
  • South African Students Organisation
  • Black Community Programs
  • The Black Consciousness Movement

Biko was a leader in all of these groups.
56
Bikos ambitions and attitudes
  • Steve Biko is remembered today for the
  • hope and inspiration he gave to all
  • of South Africa
  • One of Bikos ambitions was to have a
  • new attitude towards and a new way of life
    that promoted black pride
  • He believed that the black mans main
  • problem was his attitude of inferiority
  • and he believed that if black men thought
  • more of themselves, white men would
  • have a harder punishing the blacks under the
    rule of Apartheid

57
  • Another belief was if black men united the
    battle of
  • oppression would be an easier battle
  • Biko said
  • Black Consciousness is an attitude of mind, a
    way of life

58
Black Consciousness
  • In the context of the struggle against apartheid,
    Biko argued that the first step towards
    liberation was to reshape the way in which black
    Africans understood their own situation

59
Black Consciousness
  • Black Consciousness is an attitude of mind and
    a way of life, the most positive call to emanate
    from the black world for a long time. Its
    essence is the realization by the black man of
    the need to rally together with his brothers
    around the cause of their oppression -- the
    blackness of their skin -- and to operate as a
    group to rid themselves of the shackles that bind
    them to perpetual servitude.

60
Black Consciousness
  • Blacks must reclaim their identity and redefine
    it on their own terms, rather than in those set
    by the white oppressors.
  • The philosophy of Black Consciousness therefore
    expresses group pride and the determination of
    the black to rise and attain the envisaged self.
    Freedom is the ability to define oneself with
    ones possibilities held back not by the power of
    other people over one but only by ones
    relationship to God and to natural surroundings.

61
Black Consciousness
  • How do we effect that change? Education
  • Biko draws attention to the corrupting effects of
    education when it is in the hands of, and done
    for the benefit of, the oppressor.
  • White educators try to impart civilization and
    culture and in doing so are -- explicitly or
    not -- denigrating native black culture
  • In the process, traditional African mores and
    beliefs are ripped apart and discarded
  • Biko argues that blacks need to resist the
    indoctrination and rediscover their own history

62
Biko's Silence
  • Jailed several times for his strong protests
  • Against government 
  • Kept in prison for years
  • Detention cells 
  • Chained by his hands and feet, and wrapped in
    urine soaked sheets
  • Jail officials
  • Police officers 
  • Beaten to death by police 

63
Bikos Murder
  • A banning order was set, so leaving King
    Williams
  • Town would be illegal
  • While traveling to Cape Town, he was stopped by
    white
  • police officers
  • The police took him in custody
  • In prison Biko was beaten with a hose, and then
    pushed
  • into a wall
  • The police officers began the beating during the
    interrogation
  • because he tried to sit down while being
    questioned
  • Bikos head was pushed into the wall so severely
    that they
  • shifted the inside of his brains
  • He was found six days after the killing, naked,
    lying dead
  • in his jail cell

64
Steve Biko
  • He was banned by the government in 1973, which
    meant he was not permitted to travel across the
    country.
  • He was arrested on 21 August 1977 and, while in
    police custody in Port Elizabeth, sustained a
    massive head injury.
  • Police reports indicated he was behaving
    erratically and uncooperative.
  • Left lying naked and shackled to a metal grille
    in cell.

65
Steve Biko
  • After arriving at the Pretoria Central Prison he
    was left naked on a floor and unattended,
    awaiting transfer to the hospital.
  • A few hours later, on 12 September, alone and
    still naked, lying on the floor of a cell in the
    Pretoria Central Prison, Biko died from brain
    damage.

66
Steve Biko
  • Three doctors on duty disregarded the injury.
  • On September 11, another police doctor
    recommended medical attention, but instead he was
    driven 600 miles to Pretoria (about 12 hours), a
    trip which he made lying naked in the back of a
    Land Rover.

67
Bikos Murder
  • At first when questioned about this murder the
    police
  • officers told the public there was no beating
    or torture
  • connected to his death
  • Aother statement by the police was Biko got a
    head
  • injury when we had to restrain him after he
    went berserk
  • to arrest the police officers the comission
    required a
  • confession of this brutal crime, but they had
    to wait long
  • only recently did the police confess the truth
    but full reponsibility was not taken
  • As a result of Bikos death in 1977, all Black
    Consciousness Organizations were banned

68
His honourable funeral
  • Thousands of Africans showed up at Bikos
    funeral along with
  • representatives from thirteen Western States to
    share
  • in the mourning of such a nobel leaders death
  • People say that he was a husband, a friend and a
    leader
  • His wife Wendy once said
  • we are honored to have been
  • among the friends of a man born
  • with unusual leadership qualities
  • and an unrelenting dedication to
  • the liberation of his people.

69
United Democratic Front, Strikes, Boycotts, and
More Violence
  • Protest in the 1980s

70
United Democratic Front
This organization helped get the word out to the
world about apartheid.
71
The struggle against apartheid
  • In the 1980s, the United Democratic Front was a a
    multi-racial coalition of community-based groups,
    trade unions, church groups, students, that
    launched a grassroots struggle against apartheid.
  • In 1985, the Congress of South African Trade
    Unions was formed (COSATU).

72
The United Democratic Front (UDF)
  • est. 1983, ANC-supported
  • Primary goal to coordinate activities of
    anti-apartheid orgs, and to resist states recent
    constitutional reforms
  • Organized as a federation of regionally based
    fronts
  • Umbrella federation for more than 600 local orgs
  • Prominent church leaders, civic leaders, former
    ANC reps, students
  • (mostly) Espoused nonviolence

73
Framing
Repertoires
74
Expanding repertoires
  • Trade Unionism
  • New consumption worker power in black African
    communities
  • New multi-racial unions labor orgs
  • Black union membership jumped from 40,000 in 1975
    to 247,000 in 1981 and to 1.5 million in 1985
  • Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU)
    umbrella org representing more than 500,000 trade
    union members
  • Strikes protests African labor unions
    legalized in 1979
  • 1984 464 strikes 1987 1,148 strikes
  • In 1985 more than 390 strikes involving 240,000
    workers
  • Schoolchild activism
  • Urban migration
  • Poor state of schools
  • In 1970s a black childs education cost
    one-tenth of a white childs
  • Schoolchildren increasingly involved in
    political demonstrations
  • Class boycotts

75
Movement reorganization
  • Civics
  • Created in part to protest and supplant local
    govt. in townships
  • Neighborhood organization direct action
  • Consumer boycotts
  • Political theatre
  • 1984-86 uprising ungovernability
  • Urban revolt clashes between youths security
    forces
  • Collapse of state authority in some areas
  • Creation of township shadow governments
  • Upsurge in political violence
  • 84-88 around 3,500 people killed
  • Around 45,000 detained without trial
  • Black on black violence
  • Inkatha Freedom Party, est. 1975

All the mothers and the fathers, the brothers
and the sisters, the grandmothers and the
grandfathers, the dogs and the cats they all
have joined in the struggle.
76
Street barricades in Cape Town, 1985.
77
State of Emergency 1986-1990
  • 1986, the South African government decided that
    the antiapartheid movement was threatening
    all-white rule and cracked down on resistance.
  • The government used mass arrests, torture, and
    rigged trials to crush opposition.
  • More than 20,000 people were arrested.
  • Resistance increased despite the harshness of the
    state of emergency.

78
International Responses to Apartheid
79
African Americans Take on Apartheid
  • Slow Beginnings
  • Early 1960s Western nations traded heavily with
    South Africa western governments did not want to
    suspend trade with South Africa
  • Some international organizations moved quickly
    against apartheid United Nations voted to ban
    arms sales to South Africa in 1963 WHO and
    others ousted South Africa from ranks South
    Africa excluded from Olympics
  • International Protests
  • European and U.S. citizens protested against
    apartheid public opinion finally led European
    and U.S. lawmakers to act against apartheid
  • In 1985 both the UK and the U.S. leveled
    sanctions, penalties intended to force a country
    to change its policies, against the South African
    government
  • Companies began a policy of divestment, or
    shedding of business ties

80
The government implemented a series of reforms
that allowed black labor unions to organize and
permitted some political activity by the
opposition.The 1984 constitution opened
parliament membership to Asians and Coloreds, but
it continued to exclude black Africans, who made
up 75 of the population. Many countries,
including the United States, imposed economic
sanctions of South Africa. More urban revolts
erupted and, as outside pressure on south Africa
intensified, the governments apartheid policies
began to unravel.
Mid 1970s Mid 1980s
81
International Sanctions
  • During the 70s, 80, 90s the Union enforced
    trade sanctions (arms)
  • International pressure came in the form of an
    economic cultural boycott.
  • Countries stopped doing business with South
    Africa
  • Sporting events were boycotted if they included a
    South African Team

82
The Rest of the World
  • In 1960 the U.N. agreed to put pressure on S.
    Africa to end Apartheid
  • - Why at this time? What happened in 1960?
  • - More official condemnations between 1962 and
    1974
  • U.N. passed voluntary arms embargo in 1963 and
    made it mandatory in 1977
  • 25 nations, including U.S. and Britain passed
    sanctions by the late 1980's

83
Sports Boycotts
  • S. Africa banned from the 1964 and 1968 Olympic
    games
  • - George Houser an important American figure in
    organizing support for boycotts
  • 32 Countries boycotted the 1986 Commonwealth
    Games
  • Most nations did not lift sporting bans till 1993

84
Apartheid in South Africa
  • International Response
  • Divestment- Cease business relationships with
    companies that do business in South Africa
  • Sanctions (1985)- United States imposed limited
    sanctions on the South Africans many other
    European nations followed

85
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86
On your Left Side with your partner
  • What does the cartoonist mean or is trying to
    prove with each political cartoon?
  • How do you know?
  • What would be a good sarcastic caption for each
    political cartoon?
  • Explain

87
(No Transcript)
88
(No Transcript)
89
Role of Desmond Tutu
90
Desmond Tutu
  • During the 1980s the charismatic Anglican bishop,
    Desmond Tutu, rallied western support with a call
    for boycott of South Africa, primarily through
    economic sanctions.
  • In 1984 he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in
    recognition of "the courage and heroism shown by
    black South Africans in their use of peaceful
    methods in the struggle against apartheid".

Desmond Tutu
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Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  •  The commissions purpose was to investigate
    crimes that happened during apartheid.
  •  
  • The commission let victims and perpetrators of
    violence be heard and forgiven. 
  •  

92
Truth and Reconciliation Commission Cont. 
  • The idea behind the commission was that if
    perpetrators spoke up they would be given
    amnesty. 
  • Amnesty makes a person innocent and forgivin for
    their crimes.
  •  
  • People from all different groups could speak
    out. 
  •  
  • Tutu was the leading force behind the commission.
  •  

93
1985 International Demonstration Against Apartheid
94
1985 Demonstration
  • In 1985 an International Day for the Elimination
    of Racial Discrimination was organized.
  • The demonstration was held at Langa Township in
    Uitenhage.
  • The day commemorates the anniversary of the March
    21, 1960 massacre.

95
1985 Demonstration
  • The message was simple
  • Freedom in Our Lifetime!

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On your Left side with your partner
  • Come up with a slogan and a symbol that are
    against apartheid.

99
The End of Apartheid
100
1980s
  • In 1978, new president (P W Botha) realised
    apartheid was not sustainable
  • Started process of reform, eg
  • In 1981 beaches no longer segregated
  • In 1983 blacks allowed to vote
  • In 1986 Pass Laws abandoned
  • Pressure from Bishop Desmond Tutu,
    internationally-known for opposition to apartheid
  • In 1988, UN demands release of Mandela

101
End of Apartheid
  • By late 1980s, SA was experiencing increasing
    violence, becoming ungovernable
  • In Aug 1989, Botha resigns as president
  • New president, F W de Klerk, realised a new
    approach was necessary
  • De Klerk met Mandela and
  • lifts the ban on the ANC
  • Mandela released from prison

102
The End of Apartheid
  • Pressure Succeeds
  • 1989 South African government began to dismantle
    apartheid system
  • President F.W. de Klerk lifted ban on
    anti-apartheid rallies restored legal status of
    ANC and ordered Mandela released after 27 years
    imprisonment
  • Mandela Free
  • Nelson Mandela spoke out urging that sanctions
    stay in place until the total elimination of
    apartheid and the extension of the vote to all
    people.
  • Mandela also recalled being inspired by
    traditions in American history
  • Dismantling of Apartheid
  • 1991 all apartheid laws repealed three years
    later country held first all-races election, the
    ANC won majority of seats Mandela elected
    president
  • Mandela and de Klerk shared 1993 Nobel Prize for
    work to end apartheid

103
Momentous Meetings
  • In May 1988, the United Nations called for
    Mandelas release without conditions.
  • In July 1989, President Botha met with Mandela.
  • Both men pledged a support for peaceful
    developments.
  • Both resigned due to health reasons and was
    succeeded as president by F.W. de Klerk.
  • Determined to break the cycle of violence, de
    Klerk ordered the release of eight political
    prisoners.

104
Role of DeKlerk
105
De Klerk
  • In 1989 Frederick W. de Klerk took over as
    President from P.W. Botha, who had suffered a
    stroke.
  • Much more liberal than Botha, de Klerk soon
    openly admitted the failure of apartheid
    policies.
  • Important reason for collapse of old regime was
    effects of many years of economic and trade
    embargo.
  • Sanctions enacted by many nations led to a
    desolate state for the South African economy.

FW de Klerk
106
  • De Klerk and Mandela met in December.
  • Mandela declared de Klerk to be the most honest
    and serious white leader he had ever met.
  • On February 2, 1990, de Klerk announced the end
    of the bans on the ANC, the PAC, and over 30
    other anti-apartheid organizations

107
Free At Last!
  • On February 11, 1990, after 27 years in
  • prison, Nelson Mandela was released.
  • Today the majority of South Africans, black
  • and white, recognize that apartheid has no
  • future. Nelson Mandela

108
Democracy in South Africa
  • 1990, President F.W. de Klerk legalized ANC,
    began negotiations to enact new constitution, end
    apartheid
  • Released Mandela from prison
  • Lifted long-standing ban on African National
    Congress
  • De Klerk also abolished homelands, held South
    Africas first democratic elections
  • ANC swept elections
  • Mandela became first black president of a
    democratic South Africa

109
End of Apartheid
  • Elections set for April 1994 16m blacks allowed
    to vote (about ½ couldnt read)
  • ANC gained 62 of the vote, 300 years of white
    rule were over

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Nobel Peace Prize
  • Mandela and De Klerk both won the Nobel Peace
    Prize in 1993 for their efforts to end Apartheid.
  • Accepting the award on December 10, 1993, Mandela
    declared
  • We live in the hope that as she battles to
    remake herself, South Africa will be like a
    microcosm of the new world that is striving to be
    born.

111
On your Left Side
  • If we were to create a Wanted Poster for Nelson
    Mandela, what would be on his list of crimes?
  • If we were to create a Hero Poster for Nelson
    Mandela, what would be on his list of
    achievements?

112
1994
  • Reservations abolished and territories reabsorbed
    into the nation of South Africa
  • Apartheid caused major economic hardships on
    South Africa
  • International sanctions
  • Decreased labor force
  • Cut investments from countries like U.S.A.
  • First multiracial election
  • Nelson Mandela elected president of South Africa
    (1994 1999)

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A New Government
Nelson Mandela casts the first vote for the new
government of South Africa.
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On April 27,1994, Nelson Mandela became South
Africas FIRST black president!
116
  • On April 27, 1994, Nelson Mandela was elected
  • the first black president if the first free
    election.
  • We are moving from an era of resistance,
    division,
  • oppression, turmoil, and conflict and starting a
  • New era of hope, reconciliation, and
    nation-building. I
  • sincerely hope that the mere casting of a vote .
    . . will give
  • hope to all South Africans.- Nelson Mandela

117
On your Left Side
  • What does the cartoonist mean with the following
    political cartoon?
  • What would be a good overall sarcastic caption to
    use to emphasize this message?

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Presidency
  • Inaugurated May 10th, 1994
  • First black president of South Africa
  • Aimed to improve social and economic conditions
    for black majority
  • Large scale redistribution of wealth
  • Truth and Reconciliation Commission
  • Human rights violations from old regime
  • Improved living standards of black population
  • Better housing and education
  • Violence control
  • Afrikaner Resistance Movement
  • Extremists opposing new government using
    terrorism
  • Legislation to protect workers
  • Workplace safety, overtime pay, minimum wage

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Retirement
  • Decided not to run for reelection in 1997
  • Supported Thabo Mbeki
  • Inaugurated June 16, 1999
  • Retired from public life in 2004
  • Committed to fight against HIV/AIDS epidemic
  • Son Makgatho Mandela died of AIDS on January 6th,
    2005

121
On your Left Side What is the main message of
this speech?
  • We have at last achieved our
  • political emancipation. We pledge
  • ourselves to liberate all our people
  • from the continuing bondage of
  • poverty, deprivation, suffering,
  • gender, and other discrimination
  • . . . Never, never, and never again
  • shall it be that this beautiful land
  • will again experience the
  • oppression of one by another. . .
  • Let freedom reign.
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