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The Stormy


The Stormy 60s Chapter 38 War Protests Many blamed Johnson. Major protests in San Francisco, New York and on college campuses. Attitude of Average Americans ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Stormy

The Stormy 60s
  • Chapter 38

Decade of Upheaval
  • At the end of the complacent 1950s nobody foresaw
    how stormy and tumultuous the 1960s would be.
  • Sexual revolution
  • Civil Rights struggles
  • Anti-war protests
  • Assassinations of John Kennedy, Martin Luther
    King and Robert Kennedy
  • Feminist revolution
  • Youth culture
  • Upheaval across the western world. Protests in
    France, Germany and England.
  • Factors leading to cultural upheaval

Kennedys New Frontier Spirit
  • JFK is the youngest President elected glamorous
  • Cabinet is young Robert Kennedy.
  • Kennedy inaugural themes
  • Kennedy inspires idealism
  • New Frontier
  • Peace Corps
  • Kennedy is Harvard educated, glib and personable.

The New Frontier At Home
  • JFK had only a narrow Democratic majority in
    Congress hard to get proposals through Congress.
  • Kennedys disputes with Big Business.
  • Announces project to put a man on the Moon.
  • Costs 24 Billion, but was successful in 1969.
  • Why the Moon? What Kennedy says. Real reasons?

The Right Stuff
Rumblings In Europe
  • June 1961 Kennedy meets with Khrushchev in Vienna
  • Berlin Dispute.
  • Berlin Wall.
  • Becomes symbol of Soviet domination and
    repression of E. Europe

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Stubborn French
  • Kennedy European tariff policy.
  • Charles De Gaulle blocks British application to
    the Common Market in 1963. Why?
  • French policy toward NATO.
  • French Nukes

Flexible Response
  • With the end of colonization, the newly
    independent colonies became a headache as they
    flared into civil wars.
  • Laos
  • Leads Kennedy to move away from Ikes massive
    retaliation and to adopt the doctrine of
    flexible response
  • develop an array of military responses that can
    be precisely calibrated to the gravity of the
  • Problems with flexible response

Stepping into the Vietnam Quagmire
  • Corrupt right-wing, pro-US government in South
    Vietnam. Diem
  • Communists in the south, Viet-Cong, waging
    guerrilla civil war.
  • Late 1961 Kennedy sharply increases US military
  • CIA coup against Diem.
  • Kennedy increases military and economic aid.
  • Modernization Theory

Cuban Confrontations
  • Latin American attitude toward the US.
  • Alliance for Progress
  • Purpose
  • Impact?
  • Bay of Pigs Plan
  • 4/17/61 invasion at Bay of Pigs. Dismal failure.
  • Kennedy assumes full responsibility.

Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Khrushchev starts to install nuclear tipped
    missiles in Cuba
  • Spy photos reveal the missiles.
  • Kennedy rejects air strike instead orders a
    military blockade and demands immediate removal
    of missiles.

Cuban Missile Crisis
  • What does JFK says an attack from Cuba would
  • Russian ships and quarantine line.
  • Khrushchev finally blinks when he agreed to a
  • Details
  • Seems to be a clear US victory

Missile Crisis Fallout
  • Khrushchev forced out of power
  • Kremlin begins an aggressive program of military
    expansion New Arms Race
  • Democrats gain in the midterm elections.
  • Kennedy begins to push for arms control and
    greater communications between Russia and the US.
  • Hotline
  • Ban on above-ground nuclear tests agreed to in
  • Kennedy urges Americans to live with the Soviets
    as they are and find a method of peaceful
  • Origins of the policy of Détente.

The Struggle For Civil Rights
  • Kennedy moved very slowly on Civil Rights
  • Reasons
  • Blacks impatient
  • Events forced the Presidents hand.
  • Freedom Riders
  • Kennedy works with SCLC to promote civil rights
    and to register black voters

Civil Rights Violence
  • Integrating Southern universities.
  • Kennedy forced to send in 3000 troops.
  • Spring 1963 Birmingham.
  • Police reaction.
  • Bull Conner, the face of racism.
  • June 11, 1963 Kennedy responds.
  • Calls for new Civil Rights legislation.
  • Medger Evers

I Have a Dream
  • August 1963, March on Washington
  • and Kings I have a Dream Speech.
  • September 1963 bombing of black Birmingham church
    kills 4 black girls at Sunday School.

THE KILLING OF KENNEDY (students on their own
  • Breaking news on TV

The LBJ Brand On The Presidency
  • Lyndon Johnson was profane, earthy, vain,
  • Master politician former Senate Majority Leader
    in the Senate.
  • Political ideology.
  • He hit Washington like a thunder-bolt, seizing
    hold of the Presidency once the shock of
    Kennedys death had abated.

Johnsons Great Society
  • Johnson puts power behind Civil Rights Bill.
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964.
  • Prohibits discrimination in facilities open to
    the public
  • Strengthened power to end segregation in schools
  • Created federal Equal Employment Opportunity
  • Prevents both race and gender discrimination.
  • Southern Senators try to kill with a lengthy
  • Johnson launches a war on poverty designed to
    help those not yet getting the benefits of
    Americas vast wealth.
  • Dubbed the Great Society Program.
  • Medicare/Medicaid central pillar

Johnson Battles Goldwater In 1964
  • Johnson is easily nominated in 1964 runs on a
    very liberal platform.
  • Republicans nominate Senator Barry Goldwater
  • very, very conservative.
  • Strongly anti-red, strongly anti-New Deal.
  • Believes in small national government
  • Wanted American field commanders to have
    authority to use tactical nukes in the battle

Election of 1964
  • In your heart you know hes right vs. In your
    gut you know hes nuts
  • Reaction of average voters to Goldwater.
  • Johnson convinces nation that Goldwater scary
  • Daisy Ad
  • Johnson wins biggest landslide in US history.
  • Solid South?

1964 Election
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
  • Tonkin Gulf incident August 1964.
  • Johnson calls the attack unprovoked.
  • Johnson uses to get Tonkin Gulf resolution
  • Consequences?
  • Gives the president a virtual blank check to use
    force in Southeast Asia against the North
  • Gives Johnson discretion to widen the war, which
    he does after the election.

The Great Society Congress
  • Johnson has 2-1 democratic majority in both
    houses of Congress.
  • Legislative slate passed by Johnson after the
    1964 election was comparable to FDRs 100-days.
  • Sweeping package of social reform and new aid to
    the poor and down-trodden.
  • Continues the war on poverty
  • Created the Dept. of Transportation and Housing
    and Urban Development.
  • Names the first Black cabinet secretaryRobert
  • Creates national Endowment for the arts.

Legislative Landmarks
  • Four legislative achievements at heart of Great
  • Federal Aid to Education
  • Medicare for the Elderly/Medicaid for the Poor
  • Immigration Reform
  • Voting Rights Act
  • Medicare and Medicaid provide medical insurance
    at governmental expense for elderly and poor
  • Medicare and Medicaid join social security and
    unemployment insurance as part of social safety

Voting Rights Act
  • In 1964 voting rights becomes the main goal of
    civil rights movement.
  • Freedom Summer of 1964
  • 1965 Selma.
  • March from Selma to Montgomery

Voting Rights Act
  • Voting Rights Act of 1965.
  • Johnson sends in federal officials to oversee
    voter registration.
  • Over the next 25 years totally transforms the
    south because blacks are voting.

Black Power
  • Civil Right movement moves north and out of the
    control of MLK.
  • 1965Watts riots.
  • New voices advocate confrontation, violence and
  • Malcolm X
  • Stokely Carmichael
  • Black Panthers.
  • Civil Rights Movement increasingly focuses on
    economic demands

King Assassination
  • April 4, 1968
  • Last Days of Martin Luther King
  • Robert Kennedy Announces
  • Reaction

Six Day War
  • 6-Day war. June 1967.
  • Soviet-backed Egyptians attack Israel.
  • Israel captures the Sinai Peninsula, the Golan
    Heights, the Gaza Strip and the West bank of the
    Jordan River, including Jerusalem.
  • 1 Million Palestinian Arabs come under direct
    Israeli control.

Vietnam Escalation
  • 1965 Johnson escalates the war
  • Starts bombing and the use of troops on the
  • By end of 1965, 184,000 America troops involved.
  • Believes American escalation will show US resolve
    and north will back down.
  • Believes in domino theory.
  • US casualties start to mount

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Vietnam Vexations
  • World opinion was turning against the US.
  • Appeared that US was beating up a third-world
  • Made it harder for US to respond elsewhere.
  • Led to a lot of domestic discontent.
  • Anti-war demonstrations gradually mounted on
  • Draft resisters flee to Canada, burn draft cards,
    burn flags

War Protests
  • Many blamed Johnson.
  • Major protests in San Francisco, New York and on
    college campuses.
  • Attitude of Average Americans
  • Economic impact of War.

  • By late 1960s opposition to the war was
  • Fulbright hearings.
  • Public feels increasingly misled about the war
    and ability to win.
  • By 1968 had become the longest and most unpopular
    foreign war in US history.
  • Government had failed to adequately explain why
    we were fighting there and/or what was at stake.

Johnson Under Attack
  • Johnson, orders the CIA to spy on American
    anti-war activists.
  • FBI turns against peace groups
  • Johnson stubbornly continues to assert that
    victory is just around the corner.

Tet Offensive
  • Jan. 1968 Tet offensive.
  • Military defeat but political victory for Viet
  • Impact on public perception
  • Protests escalate
  • Military demands 200,000 more troops.

Vietnam Topples Johnson
  • Johnson challenged from within his party by
    Eugene McCarthy and Robert Kennedy.
  • New Hampshire Primary
  • Johnsons Announcement

1968 Election Chaos
  • Hubert Humphrey front-runner for the democratic
  • Stance on war?
  • Strong challenge from Robert Kennedy.
  • Stance on war?

Convention Chaos
  • Democratic convention in Chicago in chaos.
  • Democrats were bitter, divided and angry over the
    death of Kennedy, the war, etc.
  • Mayor Daley and the police.
  • Democrats came off looking like a disorganized,
    fratricidal mob.
  • Humphrey wins the nomination on the first ballot.

Richard Nixon
  • Republicans nominate Richard Nixon who is running
    as a conservative-moderate.
  • Platform
  • Which Dems vote for Nixon?

Return of the Dixiecrats
  • George Wallace
  • American Independent Party.
  • Wallace ardently anti-integration
  • Segregation Now, Segregation tomorrow,
    Segregation forever.

Victory For Nixon
  • Nixon and Humphrey have similar policies on VN.
    No real choice between the two.
  • As a result, many doves sat out the election
    because no standard-bearer for their views.
  • Nixon wins by half a percentage point without
    carrying a single major city and with no
  • Both houses of Congress remain Democratic.
    Democrats win 95 of the black vote.
  • Nixon wins only 43 of the vote because Wallace
    had siphoned off votes from both. No mandate.
  • Wallace wins 46 electoral votes from the deep
    south. Largest third-party electoral vote in
    American history.

1968 Election
Cultural Upheaval
  • Vietnam, Civil Rights Struggle and materialism
    undermine faith of youth in government and
  • Values in flux
  • Peace movement
  • Hippie movement
  • Sexual Revolution
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