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Chapter 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianity

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Chapter 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianity The Rise of Rome Roman history is the story of the Romans conquest of Italy and the entire Mediterranean world. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianity


1
Chapter 5Rome and the Rise of Christianity
2
The Rise of Rome
  • Roman history is the story of the Romans
    conquest of Italy and the entire Mediterranean
    world. The Romans were conquerors, but they also
    governed, using republican forms that have been
    passed down to us.
  • Italy had more land for farming than did Greece,
    enabling it to support a large population.
  • Rome had a good central location in Italy from
    which it could expand.

3
The Roman Republic
  • Republic- the leader is not a monarch and some
    citizens have the right to vote.
  • Romans strongly believed in their sense of duty,
    courage, and discipline.
  • Livy- Roman historian who provided many stories
    to teach the Romans the virtues that had made
    Rome great.( problem was that they were not
    always historically correct.)
  • Romans were good diplomats, excelled in military
    matters, and were practical in law and politics.
    ( more to come in the unit)

4
Roman Political Structure
  • Early Rome was divided into two groups of orders
  • Patricians- wealthy landowners who were Romes
    ruling class.
  • Plebeians- less wealthy, small farmers,
    craftspeople, and merchants
  • Men in both groups were citizens and could
    vote, but only the patricians could be elected to
    office.

5
The Roman Senate
  • Was a select group of about 300 hundred
    patricians who served for life.
  • Their role was to advise government officials and
    then they were also allowed to enforce the laws.
  • Does this sound similar to an aspect of our
    government?

6
Roman Law
  • One of Romes gifts to itself and other
    civilizations was its system of laws. Romes
    first code of laws was the Twelve Tables. These
    were the first written set of laws that were
    publicly displayed in Rome.
  • The influence of the Twelve Tables can still
    be seen in legal systems today.

7
Twelve Tables of Rome
  • Table I Proceedings Preliminary to trial
  • Table II Trial
  • Table III Execution of Judgment( 30 days shall
    be allowed by law for payment of confessed debt
    and for settlement of matters adjudged in court.)
  • Table IV Paternal Power
  • Table V Inheritance and Guardianship
  • Table VI Ownership and Possession
  • Table VII Real Property
  • Table VIII Torts or Delicts
  • Table IX Public Law ( being put to death without
    a trial and unconvicted..is forbidden)
  • Table X Sacred Law
  • Table XI Supplementary Laws
  • Table XII Supplementary Laws ( whatever the
    people ordain last shall be legally valid)
  • page 149 in text
  • How do these Twelve Tables still apply today?

8
Roman Expansion(The Three Punic Wars)
  • The First Punic War- this war began due to
    Carthages attempt to seize Sicily.
  • This action worried Rome and both sides were
    determined to control Sicily.
  • The Romans built up their army/navy and defeated
    the Carthagian military fleet.
  • Carthage gave up all rights to Sicily and paid a
    fine to the Romans. Sicily became the first Roman
    province.
  • Carthage vowed revenge and would pursue control
    of Sicily again in the future.

9
The Second Punic War
  • The Carthaginian general, Hannibal, invaded Rome
    and killed off almost 40,000 men. The Romans
    refused to surrender and raised yet another army.
  • The Romans began to reconquer some of the Italian
    cities that had been taken by Hannibal. They also
    sent troops to Spain.
  • Rome than invaded Carthage and crushed Hannibals
    forces, and the war was over.( Spain became a
    Roman province and Rome had become the dominant
    power in the Western Mediterranean.

10
The Third Punic War
  • 50 years later, the Romans/Carthage would fight
    their third and final battle.
  • Rome went in and completely destroyed the
    Carthage. They burned and demolished the city,
    and sold their inhabitants into slavery.( Most of
    the slaves in Rome were actual Romans and were
    regarded as part of the household.)
  • The territory of Carthage became a Roman province
    called Africa.
  • Rome was now master of the Mediterranean.

11
Section 5.2
  • From Republic to Empire

12
The First Triumvirate
  • Triumvirate- a government by three people with
    equal power.
  • Crassus- richest man in Rome
  • Pompey- was a military hero
  • Julius Caesar- was also a wealthy military hero.
  • The power of these three enabled them to
    dominate the political scene.

13
Caesars Takeover
  • Caesars march on Rome started a civil war
    between his forces and those of Pompey/Crassus.
    He would eventually defeat the other two forces.
    This left Caesar in complete control of the Roman
    government.
  • Caesar was officially made dictator (absolute
    ruler)
  • He would eventually be assassinated by a group of
    Senators.

14
The Second Triumvirate
  • Octavian- Caesars grandnephew
  • Anthony- Caesars ally and assistant
  • Lepidus- was commander of Caesars army.
  • Octavian and Anthony would emerge as the two
    stronger leaders and split the Roman empire in
    half.

15
The Age of Augustus
  • The senate awarded Octavian the title of
    Augustus. The Senate gave Augustus the title of
    imperator ( commander in chief or emperor.)
    Augustus would be Romes first emperor.
  • He maintained a strong army of about 151,000 men
    and also began a new system for governing the
    different provinces.

16
Pax Romana
  • Means Roman Peace- was a period of peace and
    prosperity.
  • It lasted for almost 200 years and Rome went
    through a time with a strong military/government.
    The quality of life during Pax Romana was
    flourishing.
  • What were some other aspects?

17
Roman Architecture
  • The Romans adopted many features of the Greek
    style of art.
  • The Romans excelled in architecture and used the
    following styles arch, vault, and dome.
  • They were also the first group to use concrete on
    a massive scale.
  • The Romans were superb builders and they used
    their skills to build roads, bridges, and
    aqueducts. ( In Rome, almost a dozen aqueducts
    kept a population of one million supplied with
    water.)

18
Roman Literature
  • The high point of Latin Literature was reached in
    the Age of Augustus. Therefore, the Augustan Age
    has also been called the golden age of Latin
    literature.
  • The most distinguished poet of the Augustan Age
    was Virgil. He wrote a masterpiece entitled
    Aeneid, in honor of Rome and was compared to
    Homers work in Greece.
  • Why do you think both Virgil and Homer were
    compared to each other?

19
Slavery and Slave Revolts
  • Slavery was common throughout the ancient world,
    but no people had more slaves or relied so much
    on slave labor as the Romans.
  • Again, most of these slaves were from Italy and
    were regarded as part of the family. They served
    many duties. ( any examples?)
  • Some slaves started to revolt against their
    owners and even led to some murders.
  • The most famous slave revolt in Italy was led by
    a gladiator named Spartacus. Spartacus managed to
    defeat several Roman armies before being trapped
    and killed.

20
Gladiators in Ancient Rome
  • Public spectacles have always been a part of
    civilization. These games took place in the
    arena. ( most famous one was the Coliseum)
  • These games embodied the Roman virtues of
    bravery, honor, and glory in a world that was
    cruel and unpredictable.
  • turn to page 166-167 in book

21
The Development of Christianity
  • Constantine became the first Christian emperor
    and then under Theodosius the Great, the Romans
    adopted Christianity as the official religion of
    the Roman Empire.
  • Constantine issued the Edict of Milan , which
    proclaimed official tolerance of Christianity.
  • Zealots- called for the violent overthrow of the
    Roman Rule. Why would this be a problem?
  • Jesus- a Jewish teacher who traveled and
    preached. These teachings, known as Christianity,
    began as a movement within Judaism.
  • Jesus preaching stirred controversy and finally
    led to Pontius Pilate ordering Jesus crucifixion.

22
4.5 Decline and Fall
  • Diocletian- powerful ruler that felt the Roman
    Empire was too large for a single ruler.
  • Visigoths- a Germanic tribe that was the first to
    invade Rome.

23
Theories of Decline
  • Christianitys emphasis on a spiritual kingdom
    weakened Roman military virtues.
  • Traditional Roman values declined as non-Italians
    gained prominence in the empire.
  • Lead poisoning through leaden water pipes and
    cups caused a mental decline in the population.
  • Plague wiped out one-tenth of the population.
  • Rome failed to advocate technologically due to
    slavery.
  • Rome could not create a workable political
    system.
  • There is some truth in all of these theories
    but probably the thing that finally caused the
    fall of the Roman Empire was invasions from
    Germanic Tribes. Rome was so large and very
    difficult to protect in entirety.
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